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No. I.— 1868. 

Contributions to Persian Lexicography. — By H. Blochmann, Esq. M. A., 
Assistant Professor, Calcutta Madrasah, 

[Received lltb April, 1868.] 

One of the greatest lexicographical undertakings which so eminently 
distinguish our present time, is Lane's Arabic Dictionary. The Arabic 
student who hitherto had at nearly every step to supply or correct 
his meagre vocabularies, finds in it all he can desire. The learned 
natives of India who had looked upon Firuzabadf as insurpassable, are 
astonished to hear of a Madd i Qamiis. England may indeed be 
proud of a work which marks an epoch in the history of Arabic 
learning in Europe. 

We trust that the standard which Lane's Dictionary has created, 
will soon be followed by a compiler of a Persian Dictionary. There 
exists no reliable Persian Dictionary. Nothing worth the name has 
been done for Persian lexicography since the days of Castelli and 
Meninski. This is a matter of surprise, as there are most excellent 
sources from which a good Persian dictionary could be compiled. 
The deficiency of all existing dictionaries lies in this, that the compilers, 
one and all, have used secondary or tertiary sources, instead of having 
recourse, as Lane did, to original and carefully selected native works. 

The sources for compiling a reliable Persian dictionary are the 
lexicographical works written by Indians. In India, as in Tiirau, 

2 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

Persian lias been a subject of study and the medium of education. 
The value of the Indian dictionaries is fully acknowledged by the 
Persians themselves. Sururf s Majma'ulfurs is indeed the only dic- 
tionary written by a Persian, which a compiler will have to consult ; 
and even this book is half Indian. The number of Irani lexicographic 
is small. The better dictionaries written before A. D. 1400 are 
mostly of Turanian origin. The very first Persian dictionary was 
written at Soghd. With 1400 the period of the Indian dictionaries 
commences. Each is an improvement upon the preceding ; in each 
we find the number of words and quotations steadily increasing, till 
we see them culminating in the Farliang i J ahangiri, which brought 
the old Turani and Irani dictionaries into oblivion. The practical voca- 
hulary, entitled Burhan i Qati', which has been acknowledged to be the 

^^vojli oUJ ejjy £*°L^ 
closes the first period, the period of gathering, A. D. 1400 to 1652. 

With Rashidi commences the second epoch of the Indian dictionaries, 
the period of criticism. The two dictionaries of this period, though 
not yet used by European compilers, must be the basis of a critical 
dictionary of the Persian language. Rashidi's Farliang- let compilers 
like obedient murids follow this murshid !— is a critical work on all 
Indian dictionaries up to the Farliang i Jahangiri, whilst the Sirdj 
ullugUt by Khan Arzvi is the indispensable Vade Mecum for those 
who use the Burhan. The Siraj is at the same time the last dictionary 
of note for the classical Persian. Towards the end of the past century 
at last, when sufficient time had elapsed since the death of Kalim, the 
last poet of the silver age of Persian literature, there appeared the 
Muctalahat ushshu'ara and the stupendous Bahar i 'Ajam, two works 
written by Hindoos on the Isti'mal i Mutaakhkharin or usage of 
the writers after Jami, the last, though not the least, of the classics. 
The dictionaries of the present age, with the exception of the Ghias 
ullughat, deserve no notice. The Shamsullughdt compiled under the 
direction of a gentleman whose family is known in Calcutta for 
their liberality, and the Haft Quhum of Lucknow are too full of typo- 
graphical errors, to render their use desirable. 

We may notice that nearly every province of India can point to a 
lexicographist. Bengal is represented by the quaint Farliang i 
Ibrahhni ; Bahar by the Kashf; the Dekkhan by the Burhan; the 

i8.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 3 

North-West by the A'dat, " primum in Indis," the Muayyid and the 
Siraj ; Sirhind by the Madar ; the Punjab by the Farhang i Jalmngiri 
and the Muetalalmt ushshu'ara ; Sindby Rashidi. Again, four diction- 
aries are dedicated to princes, and one bears Akbar's stamp. 

When we compare the lexicography of the Arabs with that of the 
Persians, we find some remarkable differences. The Arabs have left 
us not only more, but they have also shewn a greater interest than 
the Persians for their ancient literature. Their dictionaries delight in 
quotations from the ancients. Persian dictionaries on the other hand 
abound in ancient words, for which there arc no proofs, and for which 
it is now-a-days impossible to find proofs. This absence of proofs has 
caused varieties of spellings and meanings which are most perplexing. 
Many words are hopelessly doubtful. To distinguish such words in 
some way or other, is the first duty of a future compiler. 

Another difference is this that in Persian dictionaries the language 
of the prose is not represented. All quotations aie verses. Con- 
structions of verbs with different prepositions are rarely, if ever, to be 
met with ; phrases are never entered, unless they be poetical meta- 
phors. Native lcxicographists having thus neglected the Persian 
prose, modern compilers have still a field left for independent 


The sources which are absolutely required for the compilation of a 
reliahh dictionary of the Persian language, are the following ten- 
written A. D. 1419. 
written after A. D. 1128 and before 

written A. D. 1519. 
written A. D. 1593. 
written A. D. 1608. 
second edition, written A. D. 1G29. 
written A. D. 1653. 
written A. D. 1735. 
written between A. D. 1739 & 1768. 
written A. D. 1826. 
I subjoin here a list of abbreviations referring to other lexicogra- 
phical works, 6b., mentioned below. 



2UAJ| 3| yi, 








JLeliSli ji^o, 



isj&k* ^V, 



LSJJLf* UV* ^ t^J 



is*A ^) 



" oliJJl %\f», 







Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 

[No. 1, 

B. fcUS d^, written A. D. 1652. 

F. L5JjH^ ^V> written A. D. 1742. 

SHL. ol^l^r^, printed A. D. 1806. 

HK. (!>*£ ^^, printed A. D. 1822. 

V. Vullers' Lexicon Persico-Latinum, Bonn 1855. 

A. A. i£j£\ <^f, by the author in the Bibliotheca Indica. 
The Burhan ought not to be used by future compilers except as a 
guide for the arrangement of the words. 

The sources used by the authors of the ten works which I consider 
absolutely necessary for the compilation of a reliable dictionary of the 
Persian language, are mostly forgotten. Many of them perhaps 
no longer exist ; others are only to be found in the libraries of Europe. 
The abbreviations in the following alphabetical list of the sources of 
the ten shew by whom they were used. 

1. ^liJu* uoAsb?\j*\ J&&J) 

lS ^Ja)\ <^»3M jj<*a* er? 

3. crH^LHl *-^V, 

4. 3UftJ| i\S\ JX*y, 

5. isjji)"*># *^\ «h* *^ll*»i ^^y, 



FJ., Sur. 
Ad., FJ., Sur. 

F J. This appears to be another 
dictionary than No. 28. 

St., Mu., Ma., FJ., Sur. Vide 


FJ. Vide 10. 

Sir., Bh., Gh. 

Gh. Vide below. 

FJ., Sur. 

Sur., and Ma. who mentions it 
as^J^ UUvyJtfjl. The Ma. calls 
it ^j^** ^U~J| Aa^ ; hence 
it may be the same as No. 6. 

11. ^s^jUi^^i/oe^U-J £/cU.i_&A ; i } FJ.jSur.whofoundinsomeMSS. 

iSj^l instead of ^jls: 2 '". 

12. ^0^ jLy } Sur., R., B., Sir., Gh. Vide 



instead of <jrj< 
R., B., Sir., 

Gh. Vide below. 











1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 

14. ^j J^%~^ ^V, 

15. v\J*l r ^ <S'^f, 
16 <y"h~^ <J>±&y, 

17. JUliSl! j^i~o t-Z^y, 

18. 3Ui>| jy^od <J^J, 

19. j±-^\ &^j *-&*r*, 

20. t^H^J ^V: Sil *-> Bll -> Gn - Vide below - 

21. j^t^-^i k^ <^ L t^ kP^^j ^v 

^^I^jj tixLaJ ( ^&£4< a 2*A{J , Sh., Mu., Ma. who men- 

tions it as (j^c^aI/o k-^ji, 
FJ.,Sur. My MSS. of the 

22. ^UL u^V, K. 

23. oUJJi ^i^w, Gh. Vide below. 

24. t^U^ %-» ^V, B, Gh. 

25. |*Jj4J i^?_/*li> &*jk*J \2* <.£**«• v_&4y 

^L^ i/cL^— ! j^^j, FJ. 


^jl»a^. \J wftjJlj i»,{*U] Jl/oU, ^Lio 

Al£y ^^■ij [; e»l*J ^JUxi &S t 



t^l^l ^*WJ|Jj ^U pA, 



c-ftJj-'L) (C^-o J'^-a.l A-cU^i Juy 

<yj>> r^ r**w»* 

Mu ,Ma, FJ, Sur. Vide 


^U steij^ ^Ay, 



(SjUtf&t^l ^XC>J^ ^Ay, 

FJ. This is the Kaslif- 
ullughat ; vide below. 


^jUaJ^ll ^.x^a. ei-xxwaj Ajj^| ^U^, 



^Jj^O ^^y, 



j^^cU *-&AjJ, 



j^JU J^j, 

FJ. Perhaps also Ma, 
who quotes a dictionary 
called in my MSS. 

36. vJlar* Jutj, FJ. 

; Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

37. d ^ J* ^V» Ma '' FJ * 

38 e»l*U| ^V, Vide below. 

39. A ^l *&* ^^3 e>UJJ| crj^? &h. 

41. V^cr LiijU V' FJ * 

42. ^IU| "&« J^V, Mu., Ma., FJ. 

43 (£>UJkfiJ| AjjiJ ^Ay, Ma., FJ. 

44* e,UJJ| 05UJ u^iAy, Gh. Vide below. 

45. &r ^^^ v-&»*! eM &JJ| '-^ ^V 

Ai^j ^Jo c^Ui (^j^o, Stir. 

46< " ' jyufcJ| ^UJ Jtiay , Ad., Sh., Mu., Ma., FJ., 

47. ^^^ ^L*^ °^ <J±*>y, FJ. 

4g eocUAti e>l*J *S±&j9, FJ. 

49* ^y ^1 <w^, Vide below. K., B., Sir., 

50< ^Lk ^UU| £*=* Vide below. 

51. i£|;l^ i^J J^i^j! e>UU| y+^°, Gh. 

52. o^ 1 i^ **** 1 ^V. FJ - 

54 jj^Iajjx^j **»; &<d\&Mf, FJ., Sur - 

55 . s^Ji*y, FJ. 

JJm fj > Sur - who calls * 

\\^c ks*^, to distin- 
guish it from No. 28. 

57> lyLftJj 6^ ^V, Bh., Gh. Vide below. 

58. &*&J\ g*»l ^ G c5 Ju ^ J^ '-^V' 

^J££W| ^V^ FJ.ThisistheMadar; 

vide below. 
l ^i^jJJ»jj./AXo t-^iAy, FJ. 

. - -iu Ad., Sh., Ma., *J. 

t5 ~ye ^jO^j, Sir. 
aUAl|Ai> *^ , *» Ma '' FJ> ' SU1 '* Vkle 

FJ., Sur. 





18G8.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 7 

64. i^f^fiJ) ^y d^&y, Sh., Mn., Ma., FJ. 

65. oLu.^1 v 1 ^ ^'^y, Ma., FJ., Gli. 

The last work is written by Muhammed Badruddin, better known 
as Abu Nacr i Farahi, of Farah, a town in Sijistan. The book 
which has often been printed in India, is an ancient vocabulary in 
rhyme, and is used in nearly every school in India. There exist 
several commentaries to it, by ,y*4tf ov£:> ^x^s ^j ±+^ m who lived at 
the time of Akbar, gU ^j ci~jj, and ^y ft&*. 

The above list of Persian Dictionaries does not give the names of 
the L$y^ &&>y and the ly-*J| e>l*JJ^» ^-^y, two dictionaries 
often quoted by the Madar ; but I suspect they are mentioned above 
under a different name. 


After having specified the sources of the ten most valuable diction- 
aries, I add a few notes on several of them. The notes are necessarily 
short, as the subject matter of a dictionary is almost entirely indepen- 
dent of the character and mind of the compiler. I trust, however, that 
the remarks will be of some value, as they are the result of six years' 
lexicographical studies. With the exception of Sururi's Majma'ulfurs 
the notes refer to Indian works. 

1. 4UaJ| gj^f. 

This Dictionary is compiled by ^s^j^j &\a ^13 of Delhi. The 
author adds to his name the words J\jj^<±> ^yJ\. The dictionary 
was written in A. H. 822, or A. D. 1419, more than twenty years 
after the sack of Delhi by Taimiir. The book is rather a vocabulary 
than a dictionary ; the first part contains Persian words, and the 
second Persian phrases. The words are arranged according to the 
first, second, and last letters. No examples are given. For ancient 
Persian words, especially for such for which there are no proofs, the 
A'dat is of some importance. Otherwise the value of the book is 
rather historical. MSS. are rare. 

The name of the author is yjj^ (* \j* fi^irM 5 hence llis dictionary 
is sometimes called iS ^y.\ u&a/. He was a disciple of the famous 
saint Sharafuddin Ahmad of Munair, a town in Bahar, to whose honor 
the compiler called his work Sharafndmah. He says in the preface 
(metre Mutaqarib) — 

8 Contributions to Persian Lewicograpliy. [No. 1, 

" The Sharafnamah of Ahmad i Munyari is a dress of honor, filled 
" with the pearls of the Dari -Persian." Hence the dictionary is best 
known under the name of Sharafnamah i Ibrdhimi. It must not be 
confounded with the Farhang i Mirza Ibrahim, a later dictionary 
used by the authors of the FJ. and Sur. 

The birthplace of Ibrahim is unknown. It is however clear that 
he was an Indian ; for like the A'dat he gives many Hindee equivalents, 
and mentions Indian pronunciations of Persian words. He lived some 
time in Persia, and has thus been able to add words and meanings 
which he heard from natives. He names several times a Shaikh Wahidi 
of Shiraz, and an Amir Shihabuddin Hakim, of Kirman, whose remarks 
he enters. Thus 

The dictionary must have been written during the time of Barbak, 
who reigned in Bengal from A. D. 1428 to 1445, as it ends with the 
following verses (metre Rainal) — 

The work consists of a short treatise on Persian and Turkish 
terminations, a large number of Persian words and phrases, interspersed 
with a few Arabic nouns and infinitives, and a collection of Chagatai 
words. The latter are given separately at the end of each fagl of 
Persian words, which arrangement has been followed in the next 
dictionary and the Madar. 

In using the dictionary we have to look to the first, last, and second 
letters of the words. Examples of verses are frequent. The MS. of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 1332,— by no means a good one-has an 
appendix containing the Turkish numerals, and a list of Persian metres. 

As a peculiarity of this dictionary, we have to mention that the com- 
piler, though an Indian, follows in the arrangement of the words the 
rule 'of Jla and Jli. From the time of the introduction of the Arabic 
characters up to the time of the poet Jami, the last of the classics, the 
Irani Persian writers used the letter J|i clzal for Jla dal, after a long 
a i u (*o o^), as & for a> bud ; and 2. after every consonant, <jr, 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 9 

j, I excepted, provided that consonant has a vowel, i. e., after the 
^^Lo Jk.^ £> Jy^j as <^V*^j J>J^> ^^ '■> Du ^ never after diphthongs, as 
in 8^ax> ; nor after consonants with the jazm ( ^L* ^h 3 ^ «-Uy a ' )? 
as in ***>, ^/, &o. This interchange between Jli and Jl j> was never 
extended to Arabic words. Beside the Sharafnamah, Snriiri's Majma'- 
nlfurs is the only dictionary in which the rule has been adhered to in 
the arrangement of the words. 

The dictionary itself deserves the attention of future compilers, as 
it has not been sufficiently used. The author is very exact ; in his 
explanations he pays particular attention to legendary names, especially 
those of the Shahnamah, and to plants and their medical properties. 
MSS. are rare. 

3. tail] Z/y* 

This dictionary was compiled A. H. 925, or A. D. 1519, by Shaikh 
Muhammad ibn i Shaikh Lad ( 3il ) of Delhi. His object was to 
complete the Sharafnamah through the addition of words and phrases 
from the Qnnyat uttalibin. Hence his dictionary is more voluminous. 
Every fad is tripartite ; first come the Arabic, then the Persian, and 
lastly the Turkish words. The appendix to the dictionary contains 
the Arabic, Persian and Turkish numerals, and a small Persian 
grammar. Examples of verses occur but rarely. 

3 The arrangement is the same as in the Sharafnamah. Nothing is 
known of the author himself. From a remark in the preface we know 
that he had two children. The reigning king receives no praise ; nor 
was Ibrahim Lodhi a fit subject for an encomium. 

MSS. of this dictionary are numerous. 

This dictionary was compiled by 'Abdurrahim ibn i Ahmad Sur Qf 
Bahar. It contains the words of the Sharafnamah and the Muayyid, 
and many Arabic words from the gurah. The MSS. are numerous. 
There exists also a rare lithographed edition of 1264 pp. 4to., which 
appeared at Calcutta several decads ago. The following extract is 
taken from the preface — 

" Should any one doubt the correctness of a Persian word in my 
" Dictionary, let him look into the Sharafnamah, the dictionary of my 

10 Contributions to Persian Lexicography . [No. 1, 

" revered teacher Shaikh Muhammad Lad — May God have mercy on 
" him ! — the Dastur, the Dictionary by Qazi Nacir uddin Gunbudzi, 
" the Qunyat uttalibin, the Dictionary by Fakhr-i-Qawwas, the Dic- 
il tionary by 'All Beg Be, the Dictionary by Amir Shihabuddin of 
" Kirman, the QAfiyah-i-Kish, the Lisan ushshu'ara, the Ictilah 
" ushshu'ara, the Jami' uccanayi', and the Dictionary by Shaikh 
" Muhammad Khaghri ( isj*^ )•" 

The date of the compilation is not known ; the work must have, 
however, been completed about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
as the author knew Shaikh Muhammad Lad, the compiler of the 
Muayyid (A. D. 1519). He also alludes to the Shaikh under &&*> ^|. 

This dictionary gives no examples. The Kashf is of importance for 
those who cannot procure copies of the Sharafnamah and the Muayyid. 

5. JlMWj)** 

This valuable work which has been very little used, was compiled 
by Maulana Shaikh Ilahdad i Faiszi, son of Asad ul'ularna 'Ali Sher of 
Sirhind. The year of the compilation, A. H. 1001, or A. D. 1593, is 
given in the words fl* u*&, the tarikh of the book. As the words 
are only arranged according to the first and last letters, it is some- 
what troublesome to use the book. The Arabic words stand in each 
facl before the Persian. The Turkish words are given after the Persian 
words. The Arabic words and the examples are more numerous than 
in the preceding works. There are a great number of verses marked 
&&J_^J by the compiler. 

The author makes occasionally critical attempts, and mentions 
Indian pronunciations of several Persian words. 

The following extracts from this dictionary will shew that the com- 
piler was a poet. His Masnawi entitled Ndz 6 Niyaz must not be 
confounded with a Masnawi of the same title by Baqai (No. 1240 
Asiatic Society Bengal). 

The metre of the compiler's Masnawi is the same as of the Shirin 

1868.] Contrihutiom to Persian Lexicography. 11 

Khusrau, JLj^L^o ^P^cUxj l> 1xcU/o ) as will appear from the following 

MSS. of this dictionary are as common as those of the Mn. There 
exist, however, bad copies, where in the f&)\ £*> ***)$] cl-a* under 
JUAJ| j.j|, the compiler is confounded with Faiszi, the great Indian 
poet. In good MSS. we find — 

Bad MSS. read— 

• t^AA.Ufl.Aj AS" AjJU: dJJ| &+akj OL-iwOX) dj^J&lffj&J <J^-» «Vjt *^ C$**J 

and give also verses of the poet Faiszi marked ^jJ. The reference 
to 'Allami is quite impossible, as he outlived his brother Faiszi. The 
confusion, I dare say, is to be ascribed to ignorant copyists who 
were mislead by the takhallnc Faiszi. The compiler clearly gives the 
name of his father, 'Ali Sher, of Sirhind, whilst the father of the poet 
is Shaikh Mubarik of Nagor. It is also evident from the preface that 
the compiler was a piovs Muhaniniadan, which the poet Faiszi was 
certainly not. 

It is noticeable that the book does not contain a single reference to 

The four MSS. at hand have a KMtimali containing grammatical 
rules. One has the following remark — 
jjU ^AklLJ| ^UaJU. ±fjd vjjUfcA * I* f**^ &J& ^'kjlj^ ^j 

j&fi ijJyc ^\y, j*& yt& ^h \&r**- (*^ &! c?**' ±+^° *j }\ isj^ c» l t^ 

at which place the writing is so B«>Ju»j»-/f, that it cannot be read. 

* Vide also Vullers' Persian Dictionary, II. p. 518b. In the article &[*Le 
correct o>«JU| ^JiliS *-^l.=». to oi~U| iJukS' c^Le, the author of the pre- 
ceding dictionary ; and for the verse of Mulla Salik of Yazd, which in Vullers 
has no metre, read (metre Ramal) 

12 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

6- iSJv" LK^ ] ¥*?" 
The first edition of Sururi's Majma'ulfurs appeared in A. H. 1008, 
nine years before the next dictionary. As thirty years later, A. H. 
1038, a second edition appeared, we shall first notice the Farhang i 

7. isj£&t»> £&*>j» 

The title of the dictionary is a misnomer, and ought to be Farhang 
i Akbari. The compiler is Nawwab 'Aszad uddaulah Mir Jamaluddm 
Husain i Anjii. He is mentioned in the Ain i Akbari, p. 226, 
as one of Akbar's courtiers, holding the office of a ^iW&S, or 
commander of nine hundred, a position not necessarily military, 
for which he received a monthly salary of Rs. 7100. He appears 
to have been a favourite of the emperor, as in 1604 he was sent to 
Bijapiir to bring the daughter of 'Adil Shah to Agra, where she was 
married to Prince Danial. 

From the preface of the dictionary it appears that the labours of the 
compiler extended over thirty years. A. H. 1000, or thirteen years 
after the commencement of the compilation, when Akbar was at 
Srinagar, Mir Jamaluddm. received the order to complete his dic- 
tionary. Not only did Akbar grant sums for the purchase of manu- 
scripts, but he even called learned men from Peria to assist Mir Jamalud- 
din in the compilation. The historian Badaoni indeed tells us that many 
a word was investigated in Akbar's majlis i khac, the emperor himself 
evincing that taste for the study of words which Muhammadans so 
eminently possess. Forty-four dictionaries of those specified above, nine 
others of which neither the title nor the author's name were known, 
commentaries, works on science, Zand and Pazand books, the whole 
Persian literature, yielded the words for this work. The most ancient 
dictionaries, of which nothing but the title seems now-a-days to exist, 
were in Mir Jamaluddin's hands. Among them were — the dictionary of 
Abu Haf9 of Soghd, who according to some made the first Persian 
verse ;* that of Asadi, Firdausi's teacher ; the vocabulary of Hakim 
Qatran, the quaint poet; &g. Akbar unfortunately died A. H. 1014, 
or A. D. 1605, before the dictionary was completed ; and when at 

* Yide the author's edition of the Persian Metres by Saifi, p. ^. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 13 

last, three years later in A. H. 1017, it made its appearance, the 
compiler thought fit to call it in honor of Akbar's successor Farhdng 
i Jahdngiri. The micra (Hazaj i musaddas) 

is the tarikh of the completion of the work. 

The preface of the dictionary is followed by an Introduction contain- 
ing twelve chapters — 

1. On the boundaries of the land yrjU. 

2. On the Persian language. 

3. On the letters of the Alphabet, and the rule of J\d and Jli. 

4. On the arrangement of the words in the Farhang i Jahangiri. 

5. On the *& quid adopted by the compiler.* 
0. On the interchange of letters. 

7. On pronominal affixes. 

8. On certain words, asj^, *J, \y, J., y>. 

9. On terminations, as £#, ***, ^ A , f ^, &c. 

10. On the use of the letters », j, \D t *J, J>, I, &c, as far as 
they are used for inflections. 

11. On the spelling of certain words, chiefly compounds. 

12. On the dUU| *** . 

The dictionary itself contains only single Persian words and such 
Persian compounds as have no iszafat. The Khali mail is divided into 
five chapters or doors — 

1. Figurative expressions. 

2. Compounds with or without the Iszafat, of which either one 
or both words are Arabic. 

3. Words which contain any of the &JI&^a <Jjj*>> viz., b ; . Lu ? ^U, 
aU, Lfc, Uo, ^, ol*. 

4. Zand and Pazand words. 

5. Certain rare words, chiefly proper names of towns, persons, &c. 
Among the words, a few terms are found of the dialect of Shiraz, 

to which town the compiler appears to have belonged. The Zand 

* Eastern lexicographists describe the spelling of words, to avoid mistakes. 
Thus the u, is called S^^c^b, the u, with one dot ; and as it can now no 
longer be mistaken, the letter is called *>.xSx3 muqayyad fettered. Hence ±$i 
means the system of descriptive spelling. 

14 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

and Pazand words form a peculiar feature. They are interesting 
both for the Zand scholar and the historian of Akbar's reign. The 
principles of toleration which no king before Akbar had dared openly 
to confess, had even laid hold of the philologic mind of the king's 
subjects, and for the first time did the words of the worshippers 
of "the fire which Muhammad extinguished," find a place in a 
dictionary, the compiler of which was moreover a Sayyid of the 
purest blood. Merely to flatter Akbar who, though a Sufi in his heart, 
was a Parsee by his rites, could not have been the compiler's sole 
object. Curiosity had caused some of Akbar's courtiers to learn 
Sanscrit, and the same curiosity taught a philologist to look upon the 
words of another sect of infidels as tilings worth knowing and 
registering. This is proved by the spontaneous remark made by 
the compiler under jif — 

o^s? cu-jo j*a*so i_l'i$ Li**ji &Jj )\ wj'jij *y. u*y ci>^ ^♦^: ( *Uj 
*jj a *y «(^a ;l j #e~wi ^g/^j lyf^^w ;,| g*y& d&i *J}U J AJjjl 

" I knew an old Persian, a Zoroastrian, who possessed some parts of 
"the Zanda vesta. As I have a passion for collecting Persian words, 
" and as no book enjoys a greater authority for Persian than the 
" Zanda vesta, I often met him for the purpose of investigating some 
" words ; and indeed most of the Zand words which the Khatimah of 
" my dictionary contains, have been extracted by this Zoroastrian from 
" the Zendavesta. Whenever he came across the word jiif in reading 
" to me from his holy book, he pronounced it ddur f not ddzar, &c. 

In another place of his dictionary the compiler mentions a Zoro- 
astrian of the name of Ardsher. Perhaps it is the same. Akbar had 
expressly sent for him from Kinnan, as will be seen from the 
following extract — 
ojUj gj&t ^j^ )& &$ £j m j¥*jl c **'' lH' fj** * * * * f ^H 

31 Szll~j3 J^i]y.j\ 1**4* wj' ^ l *' d***^ °^ ^^ c5 il ^tc>y 

|| Ov^i Xo^*J (JH^ 5 ^ *>«5ji 8«H^k vyl*^ 

]S(;s.] Contribution to Persian Lexicography. 15 

The editor of the Burhan gives likewise the Zand words ; but, as far 
as I know, lie is the only Muhaniinadan lexicographer who has thought 
it worth while to copy them. 

The order of the words in the dictionary is at first sight bewildering. 
They are arranged according to the second letter. Thus the first <Jj 
contains all words whose second letter is alif\ the second bub those 
whose second letter is w °^ an( * so on « Within each bab, the words arc 
again alphabetically arranged. For example, jl^ly*, O^/, <J>my will 
stand in the same bab, the j; v^ ; but jloil^ will stand before, and 
<D±J> after, the word ^a^, because <_>» sin and o(^ gdf stand in the 
alphabet respectively before and after the o fe. 

MSS. of the Farhang are numerous. A good MS. may be obtained 
for 40 to 50 Rupees. Our Society possesses two very good ones ; 
No. 611, marked with the muhr of Tippu Sultan, is very correct. 

The worth of the dictionary is so generally recognized, that not only 
the general term " The Farhang" is used instead of Farhang i Jalidn- 
girf, but that the sources from which it was compiled have nearly all 
sunk into oblivion. For the pre-classical and classical times of the Per- 
sian literature, it is the completest dictionary and the richest mine of 
quotations. The Burhan is the Farhang without examples. Even the 
Turkish- Persian dictionary which Vullers has used, is chiefly based 
upon the Farhang, whilst the dictionaries of Rashidi and Khan Xrzii 
are intended to correct its mistakes. 

Mistakes in a dictionary are, on the whole, of less consequence, than 
mistakes in works on science ; for supposing one of the words be 
wrong, no one would find it used by authors. Mistakes in meanings are 
more serious ; and in this regard, it is well that the Farhang has been 
examined, partly by Suriiri, but thoroughly by Rashidi and Khan 
Arzii. On the other hand, it was unfortunate that the Burhan, which 
through the printed editions of Capt. Roebuck and Vullers' Lexicon 
Persico-Latinum, has become best known in Europe, appeared before 
the critical labours of Rashidi and Khan Arzii, so that every mistake 
of the Farhang has been over and over again printed, or improved 
upon. The chief fault of the Farhang is this, that he too hastily 
abstracts particular meanings from the verses which he quotes. Hence 
the danger to which compilers are exposed that use the Farhang with- 
out giving his examples, as Burhan and Vullers have done. 

16 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

8. LSJW kJ»/- ] t«^ 
(2nd edition.) 
The name of the author is Muhammad Qasim ibn i Haji Muhammad 
of Kashan in I'ran. Sururi is his takkalluc. The author is also 
known as a poet and a commentator ; his Arabic commentary on 
Sa'di's Gulistan deserves attention. The first edition of the dictionary 
which appeared in A. H. 1008, or A. D. 1600, is based upon sixteen 
dictionaries, including the A'dat, the Sharafnamah, and the Muayyid, 
but is considerably smaller than the second edition which appeared 
thirty years later in 1038. Those who make use of Sururi must 
carefully ascertain, whether they have before themselves the first or the 
second edition, as MSS. of both exist. This seems to have been 
overlooked by the Burhan. Though a very careful compiler and 
professing to have used Sururi, Burhan does not give all words and 
meanings that are in the second edition of the Majma'ulfurs. 

The MSS. of the second edition contain two prefaces. The second 
preface which commences with the verse (Hazaj i musaddas) 

^j \j ££ Jai & ls»j~ w^ e* - *& 

"May the Majma'ulfurs of Sururi be indispensable to critical 
compilers," is very short, and stands in the MSS. which I have seen, 
hefore the original preface. Surdri's second edition was caused by 
the appearance of the Farhang i Jahangiri, a copy of which, as late as 
in 1038, was brought to Sururi from Hindustan. From it, as also 
from two other dictionaries, Sururi has largely extracted. From the 
respectful manner in which he speaks of the Farhang, we might 
conclude that he lay under certain obligations to its author. He 
must have known him ; else he would not call him 
j^kU «U3J ^J^ ; *~t* v U c^l j c-O* v^l uh> V'y 

• jsPl ■&**> te^dJl J 1 ^ * U V 1 ^ ^-> ^^ ^-' *» ' 

—titles fit for a king. 

He passes in silence over the blunders of the Farhang ; and if on 
two or three places he dares openly to differ in the meaning of a word, 
he modestly says — 

or words to this effect, although he would not so easily let off other 

1868.] Contrihulions to Persian Lexicography* 17 

Future compilers of Persian dictionaries will do well carefully to 
Compare each word given in the Farliang with the same in Suriiri, 
and remember that whenever Sururi has left out a meaning or a 
whole word given by the Farhang, there is, to use Rashidi's language, 

Sururi seems to have been acquainted with Turkish, as he mentions 
among his sources two dictionaries written in that language. The 
quotations are very numerous. As Sururi is an Iranian, his spellings 
and pronunciations differ occasionally from the Tiirani Persian of 
the preceding Indian lexicographists. His adherence to the Jb 
and Jli rule has been mentioned. Instead of a final o(£ leaf, he 
often has a o(f <j<if ; thus he writes <J^\ ashg a tear, *-&»j~> svrishg a 
drop, instead of ^^>\ ashk, &c. Instead of *-**»] asp he writes ^^»\ ash. 
His arrangement of the words is inconvenient, as it is the same as in 
the Madar. 

Sururi appears to have died in Hindustan during the reign of Shah- 
jahun, as will be seen from the following extract from the khatimah 
of the valuable work Mir-dt ul 'A'lam ; vide Morley's Catalogue of 
Historical MSS., p. 52: — 

i£))j» u^iA^**J *£ ^jiil^s** c^iu ^\jj i\jj^ %±{z>y & U\ *^># A^i/o 

m Suriiri of Icfahan came to Hindustan dining the reign of Shah- 
" jahan. Soon after he left for Mecca, but died on the road. The 
" Majma'ulfurs, so famous under the name of Farhang-i- Sururi, is 
" written by him. The following verse is taken from his poems 
(metre Hazaj) :* — 

* Isfahan is a mistake for Kaslian. The verse is a fine example of the 
poetical figure called » r *««UxJ| ^l$J| ihdm uttanasub ; vide Garcin de Tassy's 
La Rlietorique des Nations Musulmanes, p. 101. Poets compare their tears to 
orphans, because both are uncared for and alone. Orphans grow up to be 
thieves and murderers (i^j^) \ hence Yatim means also the same as 
rahzan. But tears also are ^J^. or 8^Jf(jjjk and flow from the eyes 
(^ji.Jojo yM \\ *\ whilst robbers are daring and unmindful of their lives, 


18 . Contributions to Persian Leccieograpfy. [No. 1, 

" Fear my tear ; for it is a wicked orphan, a tyrant, a reckless one." 

MSS of Sururi's dictionary are scarce ; the excellent MS. preserved 
in the Fort William College Library was bought at the high price of 

^he title o^W 8- meanS ^ ^ ^^ *** The fiVSt 
edition was dedicated to Sultan Abnl Muzaffar 'Abbas Bahadur Khan, 

king of Persia. 

9. ^iU oUH) £*=?• 

This dictionary was compiled at Delhi in A. H. 1053, or A. D. 
1643 by Ni'matullah al Husaini of Shiraz. His takhalluc is J*j 
W n 9 U In his preface he praises Nawwab Makramat Khan, a vizier 
of Shahjahan, to whom the word ^ refers. The author has not 
specified his sources ; but on examination it will be found that- the 
dictionary is almost the same as the second edition of Sururi, some- 
what shortened, with a few meanings from the Farhang i Jahangiri. 
The introduction contais a small Persian grammar likewise copied from 
the Farhang. The book is a fine example of wholesale plagiarism, and 
is therefore" deservedly but little known. MSS. are very rare ; the 
MS. of our Society, No. 304, is very fair. 

The arrangement of the words is the same as in Suniri. Vullers' 
F. occasionally quotes this dictionary, as under ^U*.. 
10. gXiiiAtojJ 
This Dictionary is well known. The first edition was printed in 
1818 at Calcutta by Captain Roebuck, and the third and last, with a 
few corrections, in 1834 by Hakim 'Abdul Majid. The name of the 
compiler is Muhammad Husain of Tabriz; Burhan is his takhalluc. 
He completed the dictionary in A. D. 1652, or A. H. 1063, as 
indicated by the tarikh ^liol^ ^G v l^, and dedicated it to a 
contemporary of Shahjahan, Sultan 'Abdullah Qutbshah of the Dek- 
khan, where for a time he must have lived. Hence he prefers Dekhan 
synonyms ; thus under^US he says :— ^ 

II ^b^ib SS o3jj1 ^yoy. <j?<^ & ^ jt b ^i 

where the FJ. lag-^'^jAj u&ltf « *** $ ^ $ 

Burhan's object was to compile a practical vocabulary without giving 
examples. In adopting the order of words as followed in our 
dictionaries, he arranged them more conveniently than any preceding 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexieoc/rapliij. 19 

lexicographer had done. Nearly all subsequent dictionaries follow 
Burhan's arrangement. His sources were the FJ., the first edition of 
Sur., the Surniah i Sulaimani and the £ihah uladwiyah. MSS. 
of the last two are not obtainable here ; but they cannot be 
very valuable, as the Burhan contains nothing which is not in the 
Fai'hang or Sururi. Barman is a careful compiler ; only a few words 
that are given in the Parhang, appear to have been omitted. As an 
example I may mention *J^y pakhtah cotton, which the Farhang gives 
^b <uij ~yJL*> Jj\ b. If Burhan had omitted the useless meanings 
of the Farhang, his compilation would be more useful than it is. 

The printed editions of Capt. Roebuck and Hakim 'Abdul Majid arc 
accompanied by appendices of words not given in ' the Burhan. 
These appendices which are known under the name of cMj olAsr^ 
Mulhaqdt i Burhdn, are not written by Durban, nor are they found in 
numerous MSS. of the dictionary ; but were made under the direction 
of Capt. Roebuck from the works of several lexicographers of the 
18th and even of the beginning of the 19th century. They are 
untrustworthy and full of the most glaring blunders. Vullers has 
embodied them ; but we trust that no lexicographer after him will use 
them. Whatever good they contain, will be found in the original 
dictionaries written after Burhan. 

Burhan's dictionary has produced in India a good deal of critical 
discussion. During this decade, a book was printed in Delhi, written 
by Asad ullah Khan, known also under the name of Mirzd Naushah 
and, as a poet, under the takhalluc of c_JU. The author is the best 
Persian writer which India now-a-days possesses. We have from his 
pen a collection of letters, called uX^f^J, a Diwiin, a historical book 
on Indian kings, entitled jsj^jv*, and also a book written in pre- 
classical Persian on the Indian mutiny of 1857, entitled ^jaJJLo. 
The name of the book in which he attacks Burhan, has the title 
tjUy £_J-li. It has seriously damaged his reputation as a critical 
scholar. Throughout the book he is abusive, and even obscene. 
Burhan whom he styles i j*f* or ^^1 ty> ^1, is throughout repre- 
sented as an independent lexicographer, although Burhan in his preface 
distinctly says ^>\j *i o-»| cuiJ v b>| gQj oUJ £cU>^j&». Hence 
most of Ghalib's attacks are easily refuted by turning up the Farhang 
or Sururi. But his book is also full of wilful misstatements, whilst 

20 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

some of Ms etymologies are even from a native point of view unscholar- 
like. He lias been well taken to task by Agha Ahmad 'All, of Dacca. 
one of the Persian teachers of the Calcutta Madrasah. His reply is en- 
titled v\Aj> ±iyo Muayijid i BurJidn, and was printed two years ago at 
Calcutta. The writer shews a spirit of critical enquiry and scientific 
truthfulness, which is but rarely met with in native writers. Some of his 
articles, as *>*$><*», J#. *jW, &°., are well worth reading. An index 
has lately been added by the author. Future lexicographers will do 
well to obtain a copy of this book. 

From a perusal of this reply, it appears that of the four hundred 
words which Ghalib attacked, about thirty are Burhan's own 
blunders, and sixty others must be called doubtful words, because 
they are given in the Farhang and Sururi without proof. Se- 
veral other mistakes have been discovered by the author of the 
Siraj (vide below) ; but on the whole, the number of mistakes 
made by Burhan himself is so small, as not to endanger his re- 
putation of a careful compiler. A few were also corrected by Capt. 
Roebuck in the foot notes of his printed edition. Ghalib's rejoinder 
which appeared in 1867 under the title y&&, is a mistake. He 
tries in vain to shift the ground by discussing extraneous matter, and 
thinks to defeat his opponent by giving on the last page of his books 
the seals and facsimiles of several influential men, even Nawabs, living 
at present at Delhi, who, he says, agree with his statements. The 
Agha s second rejoinder, entitled Shamsher i teztar, is in the press. 

MSS. of the Burhan are numerous. There exists also a Turkish 
translation of it. 

11. is*t£j «-&^/ 

This is the first critical dictionary. It stands unsurpassed. The 
name of the author is Mulla 'Abdurrashid of Tattah ( &£ ) in Sind. 
Other lexicographers, especially the writer of the Bahar i 'Ajam, call 
him *^l ***; *¥+ He completed his dictionary in A. D. 1653, or 
A H. 1064, as shewn by the tarikh (metre Ramal) 

The author is well known as the compiler of the Muntakhab, the 
most popular Arabic dictionary in India, which in 1635 he had 
dedicated to Shahjahan. When the Persian Dictionary appeared, the 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 21 

king was the prisoner of "his perfidious son Aurangztb, for whom 
Rashidi has no words of praise ; for at that time Aurangzib had not 
acquired that odour of sanctity which pious Muhammadans acknow- 
ledge by a &LJ| A+^j, a y^ cf^ never bestowed upon any of the 
preceding Moguls. 

There exists also a rare Risalah written by 'Abdurrashid, entitled 

e>l£*^ i)L»j. He was certainly one of the best scholars Hindustan has 
produced. His Persian dictionary, though less known, cannot be too 
highly valued ; it is so full of original research, that no Persian scholar 
ought to be without a Rashidi. As a compiler 'Abdurrashid is most 
careful ; he rarely copies doubtful words from other dictionaries without 
removing the doubt ; and when he is unable to do so, he plainly states 
that he does not know the word, or adds a o^t cUG ^U. ^j| j or a 
JU| *JJ|j. Nor does he hastily condemn. If he has reason to condemn, 
his proofs are convincing. He does not abuse the preceding lexicogra- 
phers ; and when he does call the authors of the Farhang and Suniri 
JliU gh&fil, we expect from the nature of the case a stronger epithet. 
The arrangement of the words is the same as in the Burhan, 
although it does not appear, as it he had known that book. He chose 
that arrangement, because from experience he was satisfied that it 
was the best. The figurative phrases are given at the end of each 
fa<;l. Rashidi has not specified his sources. Nor was this necessary, 
as his sole object was to correct the Farhang and Sururi, which he 
acknowledges to be the best dictionaries existing. Occasionally he 
quotes a book written by, or entitled, ^UU*. Its author is not 
known to me, but his remarks are so shrewd, that lexicographers 
would do well to secure a Samani. The book must have been written 
after Sururi's second edition. From some of his remarks it appears 
that Rashidi was acquainted with Roman Catholic ceremonies. This 
may be traced to the fact that his birthplace was for some time in 
the hands of. the Portuguese. 

The following passage taken from Rashidi's preface defines the 
object of the dictionary and gives at the same time an idea of its 
usefulness — 
jj** yJ})\) (>>* J*l s?j&*j\ o/*^j J^'j >?*• ^ 

22 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

%jj>* cj^l^ ^U *j| zzj wt^l c^UJ J^ JC > l^V^ O* c;^> 

^ *(*! ©**•>* <j>t> c ^ l * j ^ *#ff^ *^*^ ** ^^ ^ ,U * 
& UJ £*> «S3f ^Tj vs^jJ <j.y AS* **»£.>*" axuj , M(s d y jja 

<*a*ij,> afyf y^F* j * ^ (•>*** ia»l*^ e>lw j,i Ar c1m»| kU j >r* J^ 
a,- &-JLaSyjf c*Jj d (£)»*» *^^ja *Mk *if*dj+* »Ui^l ajf* «-*** 

iJ****** A&f jUj A*ijSj# J& AT CU~j| *Jj* ^i**J *> A*^J>J j <^l 
j\j? $)/ *J*+> ^A^Jl^ i/Ujijd ASfyUs* J **** L5?/* **/ ^" 
^j^i \\ y t t5 i«*io«ao A&f JLj au|j cl^ J ttitj^*- ** ^-^ c^*^ 

^s^j ej^j L5-; 1 ' C5 1 ^ aJ =j>^ t^ u^^J ^ ;| >*"> L ^-> w^ J -" 

u 'Abdurrasliid of Tattah, the son of 'Abdulgliafar, of tbe descendants 
of Husain, originally of ' Madinab, wbo is known for bis shortcomings 

18 08.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 23 

and sins, and who has sipped a hand full from the intellectual fountain 
of the poets of Persia, states as follows — 

I have examined the Farhang i Jahangiri and Sururi, and consider 
them the best dictionaries existing. But they also contain much 
that is wrong in matter and principle. 

1. Both authors have . enlarged their dictionaries by quoting as 
proofs, useless verses, and repeating them on several places. 

2. They are not sufficiently painstaking in ascertaining the correct 
form of words, their vowels and meanings. 

3. They enter occasionally Arabic words, and omit to state that 
the words are not Persian. 

4. Both often enter the same words on different places, but wrongly 
spelt, or even mistake them for separate words. Thus words occur 
spelt witli a c_> he and a uj pe ; with a ci> U and a & nun ; with a cfJ 
kdf&a& a d> g&f ; with a Jl> shin and a ^ tin ; with aj ze and a h jzM 
and a j re. Such mistakes are especially frequent in Sururi, though 
less in the Farhang. 

Besides there are actual blunders, as shall be shewn below. And 

curiously enough, both compilers confound words commencing with a 

ill kdf and a J him, with a j wdw and a j re\ and other letters 

which it is almost impossible to mistake. As an example I may 

mention the word j\J gurdz, which has in Suniri the following 

meanings— 1, a certain disease. This is a mistake for the Ar. j\jf 

huzdz. 2, a hind of vessel, also called v-&3 tang. This is a mistake 

for the Ar. j\J kurdz. The Farhang again entersjiy kawdz, with a 

wdw instead of a re. 3, a stick to urge on cattle. This is a mistake 

for j\J guwaz. Or, the Farhang gives a word \d*jt) zerfdn [or 

according to some MSS. ztrfdri], the moon. This is a mistake for the 

Arab. cA-yj zibirqdn. Again, both the Farhang and Sururi give 

<J>J hdf and «jy hdf; but the former is wrong ; or ^ and gjJ 

squinting, the latter being wrong. Similar mistakes are— **^i 

navjabah and *^y taujabah, a torrent ; c^^ V d 9 ll6s]h anJ (J^ 

ndglwsh, a dive ; ^^ nahhjad and ^sr^ bahhjad, dross ; y^> hasar 

and j~*> masar, ice ; £^ A haidahh and £*# baidaM, a swift horse ; 

aili$j pahndnah and 4ily° ™aJmdnah, a monkey; &c, as shall be 

seen below. Such mistakes are more numerous in Surdri than in 

the Farhang. 

24 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

I have generally collected the various forms of spelling under that 
word which, according to the proofs quoted, appeared to be the correct 
form. "Whenever a word appears to be doubtful, it is certainly of 
no use to pass over it. Let people only look up carefully." 

Rashidi's dictionary is accompanied by an excellent Introduction 
which forms the basis of the Persian Grrammar by 'Abdul-TVasi' of 
Hansah, a book which is read in most Indian schools. The first part 
of the preface which contains the usual praises to God and Muhammad, 
is written in ancient Persian, and is one of the finest prefaces known 
to me. There appears to be no *+&± to the dictionary, although 
Rashidi says in the preface — 

&*jIA _j ^b t^U* j <5Uooilc t£lj j> c*H cUiiwc ^VlS j^j) j 
At least the four MSS. which I have seen, do not give it, but end 
abruptly with the last word ($&*•■> yeldq. The Khdtimah is several 
times alluded to in the Dictionary ; thus under b| aba soup (or ibd 
according to Sh., Mu., Ma., FJ.) he says*— 

MSS. of this dictionary are rare ; the MS. of our Society (No. 76.) 
is in a bad condition, although with the exception of the preface, it is 
pretty carefully copied. 

* There are some curious blunders connected with this word on the first 
and fourth pages of Vullers' Dictionary. Vullers has on p. 1.— 

bf jus, jusculum. This form with the madd is in no other Dictionary beside 
F., and may therefore be struck out. 2) potio, potus. Not to be found in any 
Persian Dictionary, 3) part, admvrandi mirum. This is a blunder for b| aya. 
And on p. 4. — 

J M ^bf (patres fauces constringentes) met. gaudium et voluptas ; 2) 

aerumna ( *? ) mundi ; 3) gaudium de inimico mortuo, B. 

First, this word is not inB., but in the Appendix of B„ and therefore doubtful. 

Secondly, the Persian Dictionaries spell the word ^bf without a madd, ^b| 
abai, and derive it from aha soup. Ad. and Ma. give also j^jJi^bl and 
%&i JjSZ rcli | • hence jusculum fauces contringens, and met. the surfeiting 

joys of this world. 

Thirdly, the meaning aerumna ( J> ) mundi is the blunder of some inatten- 
tive copyist for Ub **i ni'am i dunyd, the joys of this world. 

Fourthly, the preceding word in Vullers, ^jl* ^bf aba i 'alawi, is a blun- 
der for abai 'ulwi. 

1808.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 25 

12. oUUI ^ Jm 

13. LS^IdA cj;^ 

Both dictionaries are written by Sirajuddm 'Ali Khan, poetically 
styled jjjf ifnsii, of Akbarabad. He is the best commentator whom 
India has produced. His commentaries to Nizami's Sikandarnamah, 
the Qacidahs of Klmqani and 'Urfi, and his £j*> to the Gulistan, 
entitled (^IX-JJoLjU^, are of great value. The Siraj is his largest 
work and has gained him the titles of ^.J^a^i ^i^u, and tl >*w** oK^yo. 
It contains the Persian words of the old poets (^h^jaLo ), and many 
quotations not given in the preceding dictionaries. The words which 
belong to the <^r^Lk° JU*^*»\ form the c*j|^a cl^., or as it is often 
called, the second part of the Siraj. 

The chief importance of the Siraj lies in this, that it is a commentary 
on the Burhan and Rashidi. Rashidi is occasionally, though not 
always convincingly, checked, when he doubts the correctness of a 
quotation, whilst the critical remarks on the Burhan are so numerous, 
that the Burhan should never have been printed without the notes 
of the Siraj. There are also a -few words which Rashidi, notwith- 
standing his great carefulness, has overlooked and for the criticism of 
which the Siraj is the more valuable. I take as an example the word 
/•ILwji. Burhan has — 
*pu»| ustdm, j*IjU>j| ostam and uilxwjl ostdn. 

1. The harness of a horse. 

2. A man whom you can trust. 

3. The threshold of a house. 

Vullers gives the same on p. 142a. of the first volume of his 
Lexicon. The FJ. gives likewise the three meanings with examples, 
but he has not the form c^Juyl ostdn. Nor is it in Suriiri and Rashidi ; 
who besides have only the first two meanings. We see therefore 
a lUU^Ia. in the form <a>Uu»j| and the third meaning. The example 
which the FJ. quotes for the meaning a threshold is taken from Nacir 
Khusrau (metre Muszari') 

" If a man owes his very carpet and his threshold, his house is the 
emptiest in the whole world." 

We see at once that this verse proves nothing ; for the first meaning 

26 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. *> 

the harness of a horse suits far better. I am at a loss to see why 
Rashidi has omitted to make a remark on the third meaning. 
Sururi, as I said above, passes in silence over meanings which he thinks 
wrong or unsupported. The Siraj has— 
cHj J^° V^ 1 c5L^» f*°3 ***** ^ if^Jj Jit*?" J&. C***9* 

&Ujj jzj * v-\ *■**=" r u ~^ * ^* e,J ***** f* J * J m ( *f J 

# oH f® > &i) j *^U j aJUaj j.^yo <y*^ j^U-ji \S>&> vfi~j\ 
^ ^ ^ ij urtl !r^ V^J* ** ^ aJ > • dii? * U «^-0 

uiuJ^fti tJu«,K-f lyfj **^ ^'^ h r^' J> aU ^ s*^***> 

Thus we see that Burhan's form u>UL»j| osfciw is to be struck out as 
unsupported, and that the meaning a threshold, as given in the FJ., 
is not proved. 

The author of the Siraj says in his preface as follows :— 

" As far as the correctness of meanings and the explanation of 
difficult passages are concerned, no dictionary comes up to the Farhang 
i Rashidi, whilst the Burhan has certainly the merit of being the 
completest vocabulary existing. But in both dictionaries there are 
erroneous statements ; especially so in the Burhan, which is full of 
wrong meanings and spellings, as shall be seen below. To correct 
them is the only object of this dictionary. Hence I have not repeated 
the examples which are given in the FJ., Sur. and R. 

" Whilst I was writing this dictionary, I obtained a MS. copy of a 
work written by a Persian savant whose name is Majduddm 'All, 
poetically styled Qiisl His book, although it is not known, contains 
many critical gems ; and I have thought best to add them to my own 
remarks. Beside this MS. copy, I have used the FJ., Sur., R., Mu., 
B., the Farhang i Muriisi, the Kashf, some commentaries on the 
Gulistan, the Masnawi i Maulawi, &c. My friend Sayyid Muhammad 
Masih Khan expressed the tdrikh of the compilation of this book by 
calling it 

which will be found to give A. H. 1147, [or A. D. 1734-5]. I have 

followed the order of the words as adopted by B. and R., because it 
is by far the best system of arrangement. "* 

* I cannot give the Persian text, as the copy of the Siraj in my hands is too 


1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 27 

MSS. of the Siraj are very rare. I have only seen one, which Major 
! kindly placed into my hands. It belongs to the Fort William 

College Library, bnt is a bad copy. The Siraj is rather voluminous, 
as it contains the words of the Burhtm with lengthy remarks attached 
to each. 

The Chir&gh i Iluldyat is a much smaller work. It has been 
several times printed. A very handy edition of the Ghias, easily 
obtainable in any part of India, contains the Chiragh in the margin. 

Khan A'rzu's Diwan is much esteemed ; Bh. often quotes his verses. 
Of his other works which compilers ought to read, I may mention the 
Tanbih id ghd/Uin, a critical work on the poems of i^>^ Hazin of 
Icfahan, who died at Benares during the last century. Hazin, though 
a great poet and a man of learning, is not always exact in his 
metaphors, and borrows from other poets more than native critics by 
way of cu*.J^> allow. Khan Ami in his attack tries to shew that 
Hazin is ^^^ *j>y*'%, all( l Cb^*- Many of his objections 
(oiij/J) are, however, not tenable, and Tek Chand, Mirza Qatil 
and Warastah take frequently occasion to justify Hazin. One of 
Khan Arzd's nephews also, Mir Muhsin 'All, wrote a critic on the 
Tanbih, Again, a very fair rejoinder, entitled J^£J Jy, appeared in 
1862 at Cawnpore (169 pp.), written by Maulawi Imam Bakhsh, 
poetically styled ^'L^ Qahbai. As most remarks refer to Persian style 
and idiom, compilers and grammarians will do well to procure copies. 

Two rhetorical works written by Khan A'rzii arc entitled — 

were lithographed at Allahabad in 1830 and 1841. 

The following extract is taken from the Miftdh ut Taiodrikh* p. 

^\j^ \\ *±~»jV° (£}k£, &>£*}]£ &>c *+***£& )^<> <*JJ^ jt J ^^ 

* Lucknow 1864, 406 pp. 4to. The author of this book is JUj *xJj jj^Ua 
[Mr. Thomas William Bell (?)], a clever Persian writer and poet. Some 
of his tarikhs are excellent. The tarikh on p. 371 does not refer to the Ma- 
drasah, but to the former Fort William College at Calcutta. 

28 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

ryk ^ *,** l*V j A*f>*&i ^Xbjl isJj c»~ * •**!* *- l *M 

According to this extract, Khan Arzii died in January 1756. 
Sirajuddin's commentaries are very rare. In his Sharh to the 
Sikandarnamah, we find occasional references to the aforementioned 

Majd 'Ali. 

14. The ivorks of Munshi Tek Charal* 

1. ffM 

2. ^jj^ l^r A L^ 

3. euarS JLLj| 

4. j*l*J\j*\y 

There exist lithographed editions of these four lexicographical 
works ; the last three are somewhat rare. 

1. The Bahar i 'Ajam is one of the grandest dictionaries ever 
written by one man. There exist seven editions of it revised by 
the author. The first appeared in A. D. 1752 ; the Delhi lithograph- 
ed edition of 1853 is taken from the author's last MS., which he 
completed in 1782, or thirty years after the first edition. The MS. 
preserved in the Fort William College Library, Calcutta, appears to 
be one of the first issues. Though not so complete as the last, it is a 
good MS. and preferable to the Delhi lithographed edition, which 
unfortunately is so full of typographical .errors, as to be almost useless. 
Future compilers of Persian dictionaries ought to be very careful 
in using the Delhi edition, especially if they extract examples. 

The chief object of the Bahar i 'Ajam is to explain the Isti'mdl i 
mutaahhhhann. Most examples are therefore taken from the poets after 
the time of Jami, although quotations and phrases from the older 
poets are by no means inconsiderable. The work is so well known 
that it is unnecessary to say more about it. 

The name of the author is ^ ^ ^^ ; some call him ***. &4 
* Munshi is a title given in Upper India to Hindoos acquainted with Persian 
and Arabic. 

1868.1 Contribution* to Persia)) Lexicography. 29 

A^lj or *>J^. lS$> ij\j. lie was by caste a Khetri. His poetical 
name isjt^?. He lived at Delhi. From a note at the end of the 
second volume of the Delhi edition, it appears that he was nearly- 
deprived by one of his pupils of his well merited fame as the author 
of the seventh revised edition. Tek Chand must have died shortly after 
178 "2, because he was prevented by old age from commencing the 
eighth revised edition. 

In the preface the author states that for the first edition he only 
used the Tanbihulghafilin by Si raj ushsliu'ara (Sinijuddin, the 
author of the Si raj ul highlit), and a small treatise written by Mir 
Muhammad Afzal, poetically styled Sabit oob'. For the following 
editions Tek Chand used the Muctalahat ushsliu'ara, the Risalah i 
Mukhlici i Kashi, and another book whose title and author were 
unknown. The first of these three works Tek Chand embodied almost 
entirely; hence it is so little known. 

2. The Jawdhir ulhuruf&nd the Thfdl % Szururai were written by 
Tek Chand during the compilation of the Bahar i 'Ajam. 

The Jawahir ulhuruf contains two chapters ■ 
1. «>y^ ojya. cjLuj^ 

The former part is the completest treatise on the interchange of 
letters. It forms an excellent basis for the etymological part of a 
Persian grammar, and is an indispensable Vade mecum for the compiler, 
as it is of the greatest assistance to him in the numerous spellings of 
certain words. The second chapter treats of the syntax of the Persian 
prepositions and particles. Numerous examples are given. The 
lithographed edition which appeared A. H. 12G7 at Oawnpore, is 
taken from a unique MS. in the handwriting of the author. It is on 
the whole well printed. 

3. The Ibtdl i Szururat is the best, if not the only, work on the 
Tagarrufdt i Fdrsi, or the modifications which both Arabic and Persian 
words have undergone in Persia during the last ten centuries. In 
plan the book coincides with our popular and interesting works on the 
study of words, such as by Trench, Richardson, &c. The term eyj^ 
conies nearest to our " a poetical license," and the object of Tek Chanel's 
book is to shew that in good Persian poetry, there is no license, but 
that every peculiar expression is either based upon sufficient authority, 

30 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

or is wrong. Hence the title " Ibtal i Szururat" or the frustrating of 
that which a bad Persian poet would call a j*>& &jjj*>, although in 
reality it is L$ *^Jo j.sf or want of poetical genius. 

A lithographed edition appeared at Delhi in A. H. 1268, 78 pp., 
small 8vo. It is rare. 

4. The Naivddir ul magddir is a complete collection of the Maedars 
of' the Persian language. The quotations are numerous, especially 
those from the older poets. The book is therefore most valuable for 
the compikr. The lithographed edition which appeared in A. H. 
1272 at Delhi, 120 pp , large 8vo., is taken from a MS. in Tek Chand's 
handwriting. The book is very fairly got up. 

The arrangement of the words in Tek Ohand's lexicographical works 
is the same as in Rashidi and Burhan. 

15. ]^fij| isUXUo 

The title of the work contains the tarikh of its commencement by 
the author, A. H. 1180, or A. D. 1767. Like Tek Chand he 
is a Hindoo, and was bom at Lahore. His poetical name is *£»jlj 
Warastah, independent ; his real name, according to other books, is 
J^o Jf? JUu». From his preface it appears as if Warastah had lived 
for a* long time in Iran, where he thoroughly studied the ol^ls* 
e^LLo. His dictionary was completed in 1782 after fifteen years, 
labour, although a MS. copy of at least a part of it came into the 
hands of the author of the Bahar i ' Ajam, who has largely extracted 
from it. There are, however, several phrases which Tek Chand has 
omitted. Though Warastah's dictionary is much smaller than the 
Bahar, because the quotations are not so numerous, it has the merit of 
being entirely an original work. 

There exists a very handy copy of the Muctalahat, lithographed in 
A. H. 1280 at Lucknow, 404 pp., Royal 8vo. It contains in the 
margin an extract of the Bahar i 'Ajam, whose words are given 
without the quotations. 

16. c^Uil! ebUc 

The name of the compiler is Maulawi Muhammad Ghiasuddin of 
Rampur, east of Delhi. After fourteen years' labour he finished the 
work in A. H. 1242, or A. D. 1826. The dictionary contains " all 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 31 

necessary Arabic, Persian and Turkish words," especially those 
which occur in such Persian authors as are read in schools. The 
dictionary is therefore a very useful book ; it is in fact " The Student's 
Dictionary." Hence also its general use among the natives of India. 
Embodied with the dictionary are several small treatises, as on 
JJLii, t5 &*«y3, u^r^j tue Prions eras (vide 45^*), on geogra- 
phy (vide *jJi| c^aa), and also grammatical notes (vide L', U ) 5 a 
description of Hindustan, (fee. The work is accompanied by several 
astronomical and geometrical designs, and a few maps, which shew- 
that the compiler was not unacquainted with western science. A 
large number of scientific terms are also explained. 

No Persian dictionary ought to be in future compiled without the 
Words of the practical Gliiiis ; but compilers will do well to remember 
that Ghiasuddin is not a native of Persia. Of all Indian dictionaries 
it contains the largest amount of those peculiarities which belong to 
the Isti'nu'd i Hind. Hence for the pronunciation of words the 
Glims is not always the best authority. Even among the meanings 
of the words, Ghias enters occasionally an Indian meaning, taking it 
for Persian. In some cases, from a comparison of several dictionaries, 
his attention is forcibly drawn to the Indian usage of words, as will 
appear from the following extract : — 

^jfj^ ^XxMiJ.3 A5" sSa*«| £jJ_£ ia#l*J Al+Sk j\ ^J\ j £j&£JjJ l*)&X+& 

*. -£jl lfi**w| iy^U} &^-\jij U^♦'$ , J> hjAajUs *JU J I &'»! 8i^*J sJj-*** 

^j ^ijt+J i*j&£+ < " *^ Owwt^xj (j^xftarH ^i.£y i^xj i^xaJ # \*)^^y. L 5^**J 

j ,£)&£ {Jpftei j o^t^j &" X +J ij"*)^ <^l jo iamH^^t** * <rLr"> J' 

M The word u)&&*£ means to meff, and belongs to those Arabic 
roots which the Persians have adopted and altered according to the 
genius of their language, as O^-H^, cJ^-Lb, &c., because the word is 
derived from the Arabic /♦•*> to smell. After writing this, I found on 
examination that not UtH*" has the sense of to smell, but (&)*£*£ 
with the nun, and that the form with the mim is wrong. Thus in the 
Siraj. But Uti>£»«&, as an original Persian word, means to be frightened, 
to be perplexed, to be afraid, as mentioned in the Farhang i Jahangiri 
and the Muayyid." 

32 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

There exist two lithographed editions of the Ghias, one together 
with the Chiragh i Hidayat, and another printed in 1847, by one Mir 
Hasan, from a MS. corrected by the compiler. 
27. oUJUl cJt'Us! 

The name of the compiler is Abdullatif ibn i 'Abdullah Kabir. 
His object was to write a special dictionary for the Masnawi of 
Maulavi Rum. Hence he says— 

He has also written a commentary to the Masnawi, entitled Latctif 
id Ma'naioi, of which our Society possesses a very good MS. (No. 846, 
220 leaves, small 8vo.), bearing the muhr of 'Abdulwahhab Khan 
Bahadur Nucratjang. . 

The compiler lived during the reign of Shahjahan ; but the 1 J. is 
the latest dictionary consulted by him. 

The Catalogue of our Persian MSS. calls him Gujrdti. 

- I subjoin a few notes on the HffmM i Hind. Those who wish to 
study this important subject, ought to make themselves acquainted 
with the writings of Mirza Qatil, entitled JW\ */F~, *& M and 
UUM.j?> t and a treatise by Anwar 'Ali on the spelling of Persian 
words, entitled Risdlah i ImU i FdrsL These works have been litho- 
graphed and are easily obtainable. 

° The change in spelling, form, meaning and construction, which an 

Arabic word, apparently without any reason, undergoes in Persian, 

or which an Arabic or a Persian word undergoes in Hindustani, is 

called d>j* tagarruf. The tacarrufat of Persian words are included 

in the <j*y JU»I~I istVmdl i furs, the usage peculiar to the Persians, 

and the tacarrufat of the Hindustani language, and of the Persian 

written in India, in the ^ JU«i~l Wind i hind. A knowledge 

of the latter is of great importance, not only for those who read 

Persian books written or printed in India, but also for every 

Hindustani scholar ; for although the Isti'mal i Hind is looked upon 

with suspicion by learned natives, we have to bear in mind that its 

peculiarities are generally adopted and therefore correct. So at least 

for the Hindustani, according to the proverb g*> j g**" f u • 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 33 

In its relation to Persian the Isti'mal i Hind will of course in most 
■ appear as something faulty ; for the peculiarities may no longer 
be a natural form of development, or a fU kii, but the result of 
ignorance, a f UJSIK flj* ^U. Nevertheless the Isti'mal i Hind is visible 
in every Persian book written by Indians, from the works of their 
excellent historians down to a common dinner invitation ( 4/oUiil^ ) 
of the daily life. Even the works of a writer like Abulfaszl, " the 
great Munshi," shew traces of it. Hence the truth of Mons. Garcin do 
Tassy's remark that every Persian scholar ought to be acquainted 
with Hindustani. If this be true for the Persian scholar, it is much 
more true for the compiler of a Persian dictionary ; for a good 
dictionary ought to be based upon a thorough knowledge of the lan- 
guage in all its forms of development, and must be a history of the 
language as well as a vocabulary. 

But if we only understand l>y Isti'mal i Rind the influence of (he 
Hindi and Hindustani upon the Persian, we would almost identify 
the term with "the usage of the Persian writers since the establish- 
ment of the Mogul dynasty." This would be wrong ; for the Isti'mal 
i Hind includes peculiarities which once belonged to the Persian, as 
spoken in Persia, but which the modern Irani, in the course of its 
progress, lias entirely discarded. In early times Persian had become 
the court language of Tiiran, and from Tiiran it was carried to India 
by the waves of the Turanian immigrants and invaders. Hence on 
the whole the Persian of India is Turanian. As Latin in the Middle 
Ages, so was the Persian in Tiiran, and subsequently in India, 
the language of the learned. The works of the pre-classical and 
classical periods were studied and imitated, and peculiarities have 
thus been preserved which have long since disappeared in the Irani 
Persian. The difference between the pre-classical and the modern 
Persian is, of course, not so great, as between Latin and any of the 
Romanic languages, because the pre-classical Persian had already 
attained that logical simplicity to which our modern European lan- 
guages happily tend; and though representing the growth of the 
Persian language during nine centuries, it is scarcely greater than the 
difference between the English of Fletcher and Beaumont and the 
English of our century. The Persian language has been compared to 
a bare tree, stripped of all its leaves. This stripping process, however, 

34 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

is going on in every spoken language, and shews that the copious and 
beautiful forms of languages like Sanscrit, Gothic, Greek, and many 
modern savage languages, are as many illogical incumbrances. The 
sequences of events and the order of things which the imitative 
genius of the modern languages expresses by the order of the 
words, are expressed in the ancient languages by the annexation of 
words and particles rather than by a logical order of the words, as if 
the speaker was afraid that the hearer could only understand those 
ideas for which there was an audible equivalent. Whilst many are 
apt to look upon stripping off the leaves as a matter of regret, I would 
consider it as a step towards delivering the human mind from the 
fetters of form. Perhaps I tread upon contestable ground. But a fact 
remains ; it is this, that of all nations whose languages are preserved 
to us, the Persians are the first Arians that pitched the tent of speech 
on the elevated tableland of logical thought. 

Simplified then as the Persian language is, further change in termi- 
nations being impossible, the growth, as in modern English, is only 
visible in the pronunciation, the spelling and the meanings of words. 
For the study of this development a comparison of the works of the 
older writers with those of the modern, is essential; and as the 
Persian written and studied in India has hitherto been imitating the 
pre-classical and classical Persian of the" early invaders, the importance 
of the Isti'mal i Hind is easily recognised. 

The following peculiarities are said by native writers to be common 
to the Persian of Turan and India. 

a. Many words end in the Turanian Persian in <J (kaf), whilst the 
Iranian has a J (gal) ; as ^ a kind of partridge, in Tiir. ^jS ; 
J&o mislig musk, in Tiir. ^U-* mus hk ; *SM a tear, in TAr. dU| ; 
J&y* a drop, in Tiir. c^U^. Similarly, cJU» a doctor, J^>j jeal- 
ousy, 1-&&LL, &c, in Tiir. with a final kaf. 

b. Also in the beginning of certain words ; as a)itf&, in Tur. 
it^Ur (as every Muhammadan in India pronounces) ; )^ coriander 

seed, in TAr.^fc^'. 

This difference between the Turanian ^ and the Iranian J becomes 
very apparent in Dictionaries arranged according to the first and last 
letters. Thus in Suriiri J&\ stands in the ^;l» oK go dJ\ cU>, 
whilst in the Madar in the tsfi oK £* ^ j l cU». 

1808.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 35 

c. The Turanian has preserved a clear distinction between the jlj 
and b, when J^s* (6, e) and o^ (tt, i). The modern I'ranian has 
only Jj/w forma (i, d). The words which have a majhul letter must 
be learned from the Dictionaries ; Indian Persian grammars specify 
the cases, when the ending ^ is pronounced ojj**. 

d. The Turanian has in all cases preserved the <^ oy. The 
I'ranian has given it up in some, especially after an alif. Thus 
forms like f^U>, ^\j, »!? c/f, <W> &c -> are Pronounced in l'i an 
onandam, rundam, ungdh, harunchi, but in India still mondam^ randam, 


e. The Turanian never adopted the interchange of Jut 0) and 

itzctl (i). 

/. Certain words are peculiar to the Turanians. Examples— c5J 
he for the I'ranian j\ ; ^J «0fl for^~J ; y~> side for o^-b ; ^ hnsband, 
iovjbjb ; a& t&zum for ^ ; »^W «?«i*»jj for fU ; <jr;i for c*^ 5 *& 
brother-in-law fory>i^y*^ ; »&i or &4 sister-in-law for ojj^ ; 
j^j> &ro$A«r for j^ ; i^U Jb* mother-in-law for i#j*U ;y-^ 
father-in-law for oj^ ; ^^ for ojj^-f; i^JIj and ^K to 
wkwcA for ^i~^ ; er^'^ L>J*> ^ ^ roto t*e* rrow for l^M 

Uj*? ; ^-^ ^ 5 ^ for c^^ ; lj 1 ^ /y r ^ e l01 ' ufi^-J. 1 -ly^ ( cl - 

j^ i£U& J) yesterday for j^W ; wf P**j!j* to *" r// (footer) for 
v f cj->^ lto4) ; jty cJ^jLr» to ^ww* awfl^ (<%) for jjy i^i*<w ; o^oy 
to to; .tttf* 5 ^ for &*r*>j\j*\ ^«Hfr*^ to steep for c^Jrfl^ ; ^J, the 

same as «*>&, e.g., ^^4/ J «*» % sacrijice ; &*4> ^^ l ° l " 
cJ^of <ij/ ; oajJ&L for o'^'f ; iy*JU» 1. the same as o^ to put ; 
2. the same as ^^1^ to leave behind, e. g., fO^ O li = j4 L>-Ht ^ 
have left the thing on the shelf, where j^ is a Turanian form for 
K^Lc ; or, A^Uj [;*H* ^1 foroe *Ais &©»*« ( *^t*4 ) I 8 - tlie same as 
t^iU o^J= to divorce; 4. the same as a>«H^; ^^ to leaoe he ' 
hind ; &c. 

Although several of those words do occur in I'ranian authors, yet 
we generally find them used in peculiar places, as in rhyme, where 
it was difficult to avoid them ; or in order to prevent repetitions, &c. 

The following peculiarities appear to be limited to the Persian 
spoken and written in India. 

a. Words have peculiar meanings. Examples — Xdj»»1 , the same as 
j*» satisfied ; »^^»o^ leavings ; o***^ absence for c*H p ; Jvo misl a 

36 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

set, the same as Uj ; A*U a (made up) mat ; »*)**, toe same as yjtf 
OIUJ)J ^ « ,raq>0r; o>» 6flf^ often pronounced barf, zee (lor 
^j; .Lou vide Vull. Diet.; **U a flattering title applied to 
cooks, tailors, &c. ; u&- *** ior ^y, ^ v ^ afternom ; ^^ 
M* ; u^ u despairing ; j^c5 1 ^ « c? ^> for ^y^ ; **ih KAbnl 
and Persia* ; A*JLL the royal exchequer ; *-j^ and u(p tor* the catch- 
word at the bottom of the page of a manuscript ; j(*>, vide Vull. 
Diet ; jfi*, vide Vull., also board given to a poor student who is to 
teach children in return; *>yo 1. a province, 2. the same as j\**>y 
an officer in charge of a province ; *)U Jt the same a*j\i*)Uj t an officer 
commanding a troop ; cgM vide Vull. ; llj&f «^ without reason. 

5 The word *T is pronounced to, not ft This seems to be the 
old form £, still preserved in &H. The Iszafat is pronounced e, 
not I, and 6 in cases of words ending in » ; e. g., ^ &U> khanah e man. 
The word »U,>b is pronounced *Uob badshah, as ^ pdd in Hind, 
means <*vpta» ventris. Similarly do the Persians use the form )p\ 
(a prick to urge on an elephant), in order to avoid the Hmd. ^1 
which sounds, as Rashidi observes, like ^t Other Indian pronun- 
ciations are-^ pM and pMk for pilh an eyelid ; ^ figUn the 
same as aW , for fughdn ; vfl* for *>>", already observed by Abnl- 
Faszl in the Km i Akbari. Words of the same class asy*, e. g., *«* 
a mistake,^ a satire, ^j a revelation, ^ exertion, have lost 
the jazm and are pronounced '«/o, hajo with the Jj^ j\j } the 
accent being on the penultima, but M 't, waM with the accent on the 


a. Peculiar forms are j^, J^j, J^ ^ first and last occur 
in Abulfaszl), for^l^, J^}\ LSjk, the ending ish being properly 
restricted to nouns derived from verbs; J&J for fj acidity; 
J\~f (derived from ^) ? f °r ***wf humanity; ^U., o~^or 
JV^JU a groom, /or jjJU ; a plural *U| q/»nnaA ghosts ; ^J a 
pack of cards, for Ml o^ for ^^ vide VuU ' 5 V**" 5 ?* 1 

* Vullers lias at least half a dozen blunders in his dictionary, all 
arising from his ignorance of the meaning of this word. Tims under 
J~a| in his Corrigenda II, p. 1558, No. 2, in regione Kashmir ^hj^ } 
a blunder for *£*>.bjj*¥ KasWr and Persia 3 alS ° SUb ¥*/**#* ***** 
I, p. 546 ; s. &\J±& JU I, P- 578, &c. Now-a-days in India, OJjlf mean s 

E-uropc, esp. England. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 37 

L$^irt*j ls^" 3 (Abulfas/1), for LS '^)^>, Lr'^/t* ' i5 S **"j ^ 1C ending 
U> not leading' to an adject, form in 8 ; aA-cp and &l»>>i a mongrel ; 
Aj^U c^*,! for B^l* «-/-*»! ; *J Sit for S/| ; *U| ^ for *JJ| jlxc, a proper noun ; 
aJUSj for <xJJL> j jS$U for J^&'J ; ^jp^la* a wardrobe, for oi^L*. ; AJbj^ 

a^fM, for*JU^ ; ^LaJI ^ for^SJl £j£>; Jjlll aU^ and^S/l aUa. for 
jf^jKlt^^U^ and tl^^^lc^-^ ; &\)\* for olj^ ; ^j>jJ> for <^j>jb ; 
e;(^ for iyft>, a shop ; i^lji for j^jij.5 ; *Jj* foT *-Li a certain dish : 
***£ for j***^ 1 ; ^-Hi-*- pure, for f^-*-* 5 ; ^J^ for fjSJ ; i^l^i* 5 for 
ujli-** ; &*/o for £*; i^r^ 3 for c)k ; £-y*> for £y^- 

rf. Iii words beginning with f, the Madd is often omitted ; asjUd 
pickles, jXm»| lining,* i^i*-*l sleeve. o^&j| canvass, 2f^Lc| ready, U*U| 
a royal order, j&l a distiller, for -) Uf, J Ju,f J cui>T, ^Uf, U-iiff, j&f. 

e. After a long vowel we often find a vowel elided ; as \&*j*\ 
dj'iiuj for the Iranian lij'an'n, Lj^y* maulwi for maulawi, J^\ wnxa&gi 
for dmddagi, ^^fi^pdshidgiioT poshidagt, *wa^UL Ichalcah for hhdlicah, 
U<iJT arJidair]- for dzhadan. 

f. Two Sakins are avoided; as ^-^.^ji arjamand /or arjmand. 

y. The Persian letters ^, ~, <-j, are used instead of the Arabic 
c£, 7., uj ; as in ^Ju&i, «ij£&, i^i&| 3 for ^^'^, **!*&•, ts>**£»l ; «y-»f, 
yii, for <-~*\ and <-o ; te^for ^^ ; A^Lua for *a%«5 ; *y* for ^a>. 

//. The Tashdid of many Arabic words falls away, as yt^J nawdb 
for nawwdb an (Indian) Nawab ; Bji, pi. ol;J>, an atom.;;; 

i. The following pronunciations are very cornmon, though gener- 
ally prohibited in the Dictionaries — ulj-^ khizdn autumn, for liM^a* 
khazan ; Jtj^ dirdz§ for the Persian dardzlong] *M& shambah, and 
even sftwrnoaAy Saturday, for *ji& shambih ; j^J^wZrfw, and even j^j, 
a well known disli of rice, meat and spices, lorj&Jpaldw. The modern 

* Entered by Vullers as Peisian. It is Indian. 

f So in many Persian Dictionaries written by Indians. 

+ There is a curious mistake in Vull. Diet. I, p. 37S. Burhan, whom Vullers 
copies, has c^*>| 8<Wf ^Jaij *A olji J *JaS6 ^^-^ 3<^J ; but Vullers does 
not observe that &Ja9.i and edji (the Indian printer of the Burhan left out the 
Tashdid) arc synonymous, reads of;3>, for the A. d;*;i,and translates canities 
in antcriore capitis ! 

§ Vull. also has dirdz, although Burhan gives clearly jUJ \!)}}j* namdz. 

II Vull. also has d^Lwusr^ panjshambah I, 375. b., and &xi£&M» sihshambah 
II, p. 354, whilst in other places he has correctly shambih. 

38 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

Persian and Turkish have j&> pOdw. \fr.»* durwflBh,* for darwish 
a beggar; ifW nimak salt, for namak ; &#*> nimkin, adj., for 
namakin; S\j$ gawah a witness, for ^ &™& 5 ^ S irah ff to *' 
foryirtt; ;>>>* mazdur i*y«, for j^>> mnzdur; ^K kagliidz paper, 
for <^(£ kaghadz. 

A. A great number of Arabic words are universally wrong pro- 
nounced in India; as **U qil'ah a fort, for qal'ah ; ^^ 
qaiamat the resurrection, for qiyimat ; A*U gutf'afl, ior qit'ah ; u»y> 
'urns a frtTfe, for arris ; ^ A hijr separation, for %> ; >^ 'ij z "***;- 
ness, for '9*; l« rija hope, for raj U ; ^ fiz& *"* for JM; ^ 
raza tanUmtmmO, for rfef ; -^ job a pocforf, for jaib ; &ltf> ghaias 
for o-hias help; J& shahab for rffefft, a meteor; cu*^ 'acmat chas- 
tity, for tpM#; &S° mauqa' for n**? ; r y> mansam a wfl»o», for 
»au.m; *^ khunah a tent, iov Uaimah ; ^^ th^t bravery < 
for «%M; cJU~ W^ fOT *«42«*- folly, j^ «* ■/«* ±or 
gupfr; ^j** 'aqubat &v 'uqubat, punishment; o^^ liashmat 
pomp, for totac* ; *a*» ,;««•*< paradise, "for ./mum*. ^ 

J. Peculiar spellings ; as : ^j\ for fUijI ; ^ forj^ ; JH^ for 
WI Proper nouns are often written together, as ^^ for 
T^. Similarly, J^U for da^-U j ^Ul *Ui>l*| f ■«« 
TJUj *b| *U cil ; yJW^* for ydUJ&* consisting of; *>j**?\ for 

*-4^f ; ^Op, l'~^, *F^> "^ f ° r ***** **^ &C ' 
j^, U*iU., U^aU, for W^ W»*U. Also, Uj- for 
^^ ; ^ loppy for r > khurram, *L-j for ^y. 

m. Barbarous forms ; as ^^1 j|a, ol^, ^ books for l^UT ; 
JL^I gjo for cM <^> ; v^rf* mueharrab greasy ; j^l *V v^, 
as we say tfri i^ of ^a& el Mandeb ; ^y firisad, for *i-^ 
he sends ; ^ qulfiov d& qufl, a lock ; *>i ^ & *^ j ^!>*M 
Hind. Uaj^ jU, for o^/ jUJ. 


The following terms, abbreviations, &c, are of frequent occurrence 
in native Persian Dictionaries : — 

1. U&rWl Asadulhukamd, the poet Asadi of Tus, Firdausi's 


* Adopted by some Indian Diets, , as the Ghias, on a mistaken etymology. 
•\ Thus also in Persian MSS. 

18G8.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 39 

^j-Js LfLH^ Shiwd i ThsI, Firdausi. 
^s^Ai Faci7i-i-Ganjaici, Niziimi of Granjah. 

tJU+Jltf^Khalldq ul Madid, the " shaper" of meanings, Kamul 
of Ic fall an. 

L5Jlr-^ f%" or ^J-'!> i ■^ ,, *-***} Sa'di. 
/c»|«xw <!U>I*^, or to^V*Wl JU*\ or < 

c5JLrfc* <^L^> or t^!/*^' JUi", or v^l c'l — ', ILifiz. 
j$j3Lo( f&S haldm i asdtidzah (plural of ustddz), or c £*jai/o f&Z, 
or *Jjj* (s\j**» r*^> the pre-classical and classical poets. 
In quoting a poet, the word c^olj vast is often used, as o~«»|j iLJL^ 
JI////Z says. 

2. The Mogul emperors of Delhi are rarely mentioned by their 
names, but by their laqabs. 

^ICo^j^ Jirdaus mal-dni, Zahiruddin Babar, 1526 to 1530. 
• JUL»f cui.^. format astdnt, Naciruddin Ilunniyiin, 1530 to 

155G. Jannat dshydni is also used. 
c5 J^f<J» r c 'arsh dshydni, Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, 155G 

to 1GU5. 
^iK*oA». jannat makdni, Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir, 
" 1G05 to 1627. 

l jilx&'f ( j»)&j* jirdaus dsliydm, Shilmb udd'n Muhammad Sliah- 
jahan. He is also called ^yb <jjy t-^La cahib qiian i sani, 
the second lord of conjunction, Taimiir, his ancestor, being 
the first. 1627 to 1658. 
^J&o i>la> khuld malcdni, Muni uddin Muhammad Aurangzcb, 
1658 to 1707. Native historians prefer the name 'Alanujir. 
<Jy\* *1±. Muld manzilj Qutbuddfn Muhammad Mu'azzim 
Shah 'A'lam, also called Bahadur Shah, 1707 to 1712. 
Regarding the form of these laqabs I may mention, that there are 
abstract nouns. Thus ^±^1 ^J> T * means an occupying of the highest 
heaven as a resting place. Like the abstract noun &*&£■ 'alld/nah, 
it then becomes a title, " dwelling in heaven." Similar terms are 
iS^^fif miryam maMni, dwelling with the Virgin Mary, the name 
of one of Akbar's wives ; ^■^■^ jy nurcliashni my dear son ; ^(f&lvi 
qiblahg&hi my revered teacher; L? Jj*S.s: /0 majdzuli, pr. my attracted 
one, my pupil. Native grammarians call this ^ the JlSXc ^Ij yd i 
m ut ah alii m, as if ^(f <xl\j' were the same as ^ *(f <xJlxii qiblahgah i man. 
We may compare our Mylord and the A. sayyidi. When these words 

40 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

are followed by a proper noun, they do not take the cJU|, as ^(f^V 
by* ±+=* qiblahgahi Muhammad Ghaus ; but you may say ^/o^'f &V 
qiblahgahi i man. Similarly the word <_/^-? bandagi does not take 
the Iszafat, when followed by the name of a Wall or a Shaikh, whilst 
other titles, as o^, v^^, tyboj&o, &c, take the Iszafat. 

3. oJJ %Aa2 means, 1. a dictionary, the same as &*>J ; 2. the 
words of a dictionary are its ol*J ; hence you may say oliill^ or 
oAJJ|Li^; 3. language, as <jrjb <^, although in this sense the 
word ubj is preferred ; 4. a particular form of a word. You say 
LL*jt jl c~w! J£J Uu»| usta is another form for avestd. 

jJU '«to, a class of words. You say, ;U&j is jU^jj ^JU j|, be- 
longs to the same class as riidbar, i. e., to the nouns ending in jb 

aAi^i. t^xw ^j|, this requires a proof. 

**£*2UJU>o*w ^b ^aj^j), this meaning is supported by the 

following verse. 
ajjf _&ay ji, a^i <j?^j ja, the author of the Farhang says, 

Kashidi says. 
U sarna, and £*U3 tasdmu', verbal information regarding the 
correctness of a word, obtained from the c;bj J* I ahl-i-;audn, the 
Natives of Persia, or from an aU*»l ustdd. The same meaning 
has the phrase &J^j Jj&s^ e>bj cUl jl. 
te*^ &%'#& provincial pronunciation. You say 

<Mto is the Indian pronunciation of dulctm. 
Jtjfi Wf or ti)l*3 ta'druf, usage. 
ciAs^ tacM/, an error in spelling. 
■J^ to^r*/; an error in the meaning of a word. 
JLotii fa-ta-ammul or f«*b fa-ajham, reflect, be careful, pay 
attention. Lexicographists often use this phrase after explaining 
a difficult verse. 
gi3 teta&fo' or o^ 3 tafalihuc lexicographical criticism. 
4. The following grammatical terms are noticeable — 

^ojli ^b or u ^jh, the same as <-!tt^°<^> ^-n^J'-?- 
»*), the same "as Jy/; e. g., ^j f*F* *i**y|, "pronounce 
aj^jl arjmand with a jazm above the ^, and not arjamand. n 

1868.] Contributions to/ Persian L&cieography. 41 

The word jasm is never used in Persian Dictionaries, suhun being the 
usual word. 

Every alif in the beginning of a word is called *>+a ; hence in 
spelling *>&*»!, you say &y+*> ***>, baszamm-i-hamzah, not baszamm i 
alif. And in spelling •J-^fj y° u would say Xdj <^l> ^ uaJ| j *}+&> Jjo. 

The sign is called Xj+*> d&» shakl-i-hamzah. This explains 

the phraseology of Bh. under l^a* chihrai pwafc, where he says : — 

II kA. **oj j^ *J kAUj^ ****•; ^Li^ j 3>4J 
" The word fj**-, when pronounced, has an alif and a ya-i-tahtani, 
^1^$^ but you must not write them." The sign of the hamzah 
above the 8 cannot be left out, as Vullers has done, p. 605«. Similar 
words are <^~J, <xLLli of the same colour as the/^M^A-pigeon, lyb, 
&*j». The spellings t 5^ r AJ, ^,5^-J, ^^o^ are Indian, and not 
considered good. This corrects several mistakes in Vullers' Lexicon. 
Regarding the shakl i hamzah in words as 1st , j>*^>, &c., vide the 
author's Prosody of the Persians, p. 14. 

In Lucknow and Delhi prints we often find a shakl-i-hamzah above 
the silent 8, asjl^ j S«HJl>^ for j\±#j jj^jjjj^A.. This pedantry is also 
recommended by the grammarian ' Abdul wasi' of Hansah. Another 
absurdity of modern MSS. and prints is the spelling tXb for *£1j, 
though Ghias approves of the former. 

The letters of the alphabet may be treated as masculines or 
feminines ; you may say «kyii/o { ^A } or JojS^o y^i. For &loym>j±f 
cjliair manqutak, you may say &bh<L, or ks^L. benuqat. 

The word *jU^ Icindyali is followed by the prep, jl, in imitation of 
the Arab. ^. You say : — ■ 

eJiy^U jj^ j djtjJ cL jl AjL^ ^ 
" The sorrowful heart of a poet is compared to the plaintive nai." 


Among the Dictionaries printed in Europe, I shall only mention 
Johnson's Dictionary and Vullers' Lexicon Persico-Latinum Etymo- 

It is difficult to make a comparison between the two, as the objects 
of the compilers are different. In point of usefulness, Johnson's work is 
the better of the two ;* it is eminently " the translator's dictionary." It 

* Vullers does not think much of Johnson. He classes him with Castelli, 
Meninski, and Richardson, and says : — " Horuni enim operum accurata compa- 


42 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

does not pretend to be a critical dictionary, which Vullers does. Johnson 
gives Arabic words, in which he is exceedingly exact, as he had good 
sources; Vullers has only a few. The Persian words of both Dic- 
tionaries contain a great number of words and meanings that never 
existed, and many wrong spellings, because both used the B. and the 
Haft qulzum— works which compilers onght not to use. Bnt the 
number of mistakes is greater in Vullers, because he has used other 
bad sources, as shall be shewn hereafter. On the other side Johnson 
has given many meanings derived from the study of Persian writers, 
in which point Vullers is sadly deficient. Again, for the Isti'mal-i- 
Mutaakhkharin, Vullers is better, as he has used, from the middle of 
the letter £j the Bahar i 'Ajam. 

For those who use Vullers' Lexicon, the following remarks may be 

of use : — 

The words marked in Vullers 
C. (Castelli). 
C. expers. vers. V. Test, (words taken by Castelli 

from some version of the Old Testament). 
C. ex G. I do not know what this means. 
F. (Farhang-i-Shu'uri).* 

M. ex F. (words which Meninski took from the 
and B. in app. (the appendix by Captain Roebuck) are 

nearly all doubtful. 

As examples of words marked C, C. ex pers. vers. V 
Test and C. ex G., I shall mention-***!, a blunder for »*"' ; 
Jii,'; j\j\ and ufol ; »tf , a blunder for tfejl ; 44,1, a blunder for 
|bf • s^b • ribab, a blunder for «H^b ; gjajb ; J±iJ b . ; *X>4, ■ 
mistake for a compound ending in ljU ; ^^M I ™t \ &#$* 5 ^/ 
a blunder for gXUi (which itself is doubtful) ; ^\j». ; *^ J *>*i>^ \ 

j-Ai ; j\*y. ; '^ ; ^ 5 *** ; ^ a blunder for /^ ; /^;° r ' 

to take another letter of the alphabet ,-eWAiA ; ^.5 *^ i *^ J 
aiJui ; ^jU^ ; &c. 

M : U l ^Inlnese werds marked with the letter F., whiefi Volte, did net find 
in B., Bh., HK., SHL, 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 43 

The MS. of the Far hang -i- Shu' uri which Vullers used, must have been 
the worst possible in existence. But I do not think that the Dictionary 
itself is trustworthy. As I have seen no copy of this Turkish Dictionary, 
I am merely guided by quotations in Vullers which mention the 
sources from which F. extracted. As F. used the Sharafnamah, Far- 
hang-i-Jahangiri, Sururi, the Majma'-i-Khanf, his Dictionary ought to 
be a model. But F. has not made a proper use of his sources, and gives 
hundreds of words from them, which are nowhere to be found in the 
numerous aud most excellent MSS. of FJ., Sur., Sh., &c, in my posses- 
sion. Thus the references of F. in Vullers to the Farhang i Jahangiri 
under v^^j ^^> r^fjv* f^ji^ are wron g j m Y MSS. of the FJ. 
contain neither the last three words, nor the absurd meaning of the 
first. * So likewise F.'s references to Sururi's Majmauliurs under 
vfjjj^ ^jy.,* ^H, *^"H, **J*it ^ji- ****Lriv J Sururi contains 
nothing of the absurdities ascribed to him. F.'s references to the 
Sharafndmah under uJ**"*v Jlfc^ ^4 ) lin{ -\ to tne M aj ma -i lughdt ■ 
i-Klttini under v^x-jx^, Jt^% O^-t are entirely fictitious Nor 
did Burhan find the above words in his MSS. of the FJ. and Sur. 

These are examples taken only from words beginning with v-> be and 
<-> pS. 

At least one-half of the verses copied by Vullers from F. have 
neither sense, nor metre ; and it is a matter of surprise, how Vullers 
could have entered them at all. Examples : — 

^{^Ljiij locus munitus. F. ; e. g., in hoc versu Ls xxyj aUL»| — 
SjtyLao) ^xa c^Je- rJ 1 ^ *&J ^J ^ ^ f^J 
This is a blunder for 8)l^wLjJ|. F. did not observe the curve of the 
letter Lr sin after the £.f Bh. quotes J*&± (metre hazaj) 

i)\j~*>&\ oj^ y*> j*;toJ ^j sJjS ^ ^A f&»>j 

.y^U Read in Daqiqi's verse IJl^jl^L O God /, for AjKj |^ ; and for 
the absurd verse of Shams-i-Fakhri read (metre hazaj) 

" Thy enemy has fallen into a mire like a lame ass, laden and left 
without help." 

* For (>Ju <jU*5j»; jlx*0, as given by Vullers, Sur. has correctly 

f Similarly Vullers on p. vii. of his preface, in the fifth note <U^ labbuhu, 
f or &x«a. hobsbufm ! 

44 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

JZ. Vullers' verse from the Shahnamah is given in Bashidi as 
follows : — . ' 

~S^ bn'rn^. Vullers quotes from F. the following verse of Nizami- 

and says :— " in quo tamen falso et contra metrum legitur ^J. 
[burinish], quod e conjectura in J^y [burrinish] mutavi." But by this 

conjecture Vullers makes the second foot ^j*** mafulun , 

instead of^> fa'ulun ! My MSS. read correctly 

& j^^j *te J^ky ^ j & b ***** ** ^ 

1E7 In the verse of Amir Khusrau read J-j jd instead of Vullers' 
JUjya and translate :- " How may a weak man get rid of his frame of 
clay; an elephant even is helpless when he sticks in the clay.'' The 
fourth meaning in Vullers is quite useless, as ^ is an adjective, 
and the same as the J&J of the fifth meaning. 

^ 3) perturbatio. For Vullers' verse from the Shahnamah 

"~Iy iM -j <-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 8 ^ *** b lA ^ ^ 

Again Vullers' words 2) m hoc versu ejusdem poetae are wrong, as 
the verse quoted belongs to &*>& H-, but not to ^ fiW * 
having changed the order of the meanings given m the FJ. lhe#** 
meaning is very likely wrong, as the MSS. read the second micra 
(metre muszari') 

**> &\y. * [ > &j—*> t U ^ 
IT. Vullers p. 408, a. For the verse of Shaikh Auhadi read (metre 
khafif) „ . 

where some of my MSS.- of the Jam i Jam read j^L «- J, . 
« He (the king) writes out at once a money order, when he (the 
paymaster) pays him (the poet) out of the two loads of money ordered 
by the king, only half a load." ^ 

The verse quoted for the fifth meaning, is given m good MSS. ol 
Hafiz as follows (metre Mutaqarib)— 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 45. 

" Where art thou, singer, strike up a tone! By His unity, strike 
up B tune I" Vide also Vullers' Lex. I. p. 920 a., under 13^. But this 
verse belongs to Vullers' sixth meaning. Again, in the filth meaning, 
my MSS. give the second micra' of Katibi's Ruba i as follows : — 

sSiJ. For the verses read - 

^ylg — jJj j*oi Ul — a£j ij^y y. ifiij—- *■* j^, 

but there are a few verses intervening between the two. The two 
causatives i^^^Jyy and yi^^ may safely be entered in our 

y. For the first micra' of Hakim Sozani's verse read (metre 
hazaj) : — 

11 1 do not want to eat the goznut, because, etc., where \y1j*!j\ is 
old for e/f^«J Jl." Old Persian poets often use \j after the prepositions 

The words extracted by Vullers from F.— I mean again those 
which are not at the same time marked with B. — are very extraordinary. 
Examples : — al^f and a^aIjT ; j\j&\, a blunder of j|a&»| ; fLjf ; jJj? 

for oijjk-jf ; AJ^Cif for AJ^Jlj ; v-ir^f for v-i^t ; S/=f , a blunder for 
8»sr*| ; &liof , Oj^1 and UjJ^f ; U^ dial. Kharizmiae, the same as 
ufldila* ; but it is Arabic \y^\ for ^1 ; o^-j^jJf ; cj-*>f dmdgh for £yof 
&murgh ; cJof 4m*fcj a blunder for ^SS\ abuk ; cJljf a blunder 'for Bjl/f, the 
re and At' having been drawn together ; cj-W-^f the nonplus ultra of a 
Persian Infinitive ; j^f ; c^jf and earf ; c^f ; Infinitives as iy*jW 
e^jj^f, ^j.jjxofj and hundreds more, for eJ^f, c;-^j^°T, &c F.'s 
Infinitives, though perhaps correctly formed, have been invented by 
grammarians in usu tironum, but they ought not to be given in a 
Dictionary ; just as *13 ta vacca quae semper mulgetur (Vull. p. 408), 
*(i sa vivum facit omne (Vull. p. 495), &c, were invented in usu 
ab c dariorum on the C for coiv, D for dog principle ! 

As the above examples are at random taken from the first sixty-five 
pages, Persian scholars may estimate the number of useless words and 
blunders in Vullers' Lexicon. 

46 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

Nor is Vullers happy in his etymologies. The reference to pisang 
under JB-j, p. 243, may be learned; but a date-palm is not a 
plantain-tree, o^., p. 249, does not eorue from patncms, but from 
patriarch. Under ^ Udrah hastiness, p. 162, Vullers compares 
1 rah with » b rah, mistaking «,*4 for a Persian word; but the word 
is Arabic, and should be pronounced Udirah.lJ^- bakshi, p. 197, is 
quoted as belonging to a lingua exotica, but it is Persian, and the same as 
80 iiS- J^>. . Under u*»S. clover, p. 221, he says, deest in ceteris lexicis ; 
it is in every Arabic Dictionary ; just as elyJ, p. 480, is in every 
Turkish Vocabulary. The Sanscrit word under <&->., p. 239, may 
also be very learned, but it was useless, as the whole word is one of 
the PJ.'s blunders* 

Another defect of Vullers' Lexicon is this, that in case of words 
having several forms, the meanings are often given under the unusual 
or doubtful form. Thus, in the case of J>f and J~f, where Vullers 
has put the meaning to J^T, instead of to J-f, for which alone the 
Dictionaries give examples. Examples of such displaced meamngs 

are frequent. , .. 

The use which Vullers has made of the Bahar i 'Ajam, cannot be 
approved of. His extracts are most desultory. In hundreds of cases 
he has given the least useful examples, whilst the number of words 
which he has altogether omitted-on what principle, I do not know- 
is very large. We have only to compare the articles J- Jul, 6** jalLAd, 

*J^, *U, i,*i-:, A &*> (•*• JU ^' ***' ^^ ^***~' 
jL janndb, jUi*, <*&*, *M^ ^> ^ lw F^> ^ °^' f*' 

;W, <**i si*, *>> '*»*>*> >^> ^ ^ ***T "I S 7 U 

in Bh and Vull. Bh.'s valuable notes to some of these words, his fine 
articles headed *«l*, dU^****, d*. ^, &c, arc entirely left out. 

* It should be Ar. O-j to**-, smiling i Khusrau (metre mujtass)- 

4. world which in the eyes of wise men is a book of laughter, .no 
worth half a smile from the ever-laughing Up of the sweetheart -where 
Z W. reads Jt- KM* inventing at the same time the meamng a coraL 

Besides it would not be Persian to -y^*,' coral lip , i. .should L j. 

least be JB J( 0X-. oJ, as you -7 ^^ ^ Smular m.tak s „MTJ. ; 

adopted by B. and Vullers, are |^| uW, a star, for A. |y| »»«, pi- of *y 

M« ; -a» ioiom, for the Arabic ^ Mjm> ** 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 47 

In the verses and explanations quoted by Vullers from Bh. we find 
the same want of understanding, as in the verses quoted by him 
from F. Examples : — 

fy+jurm-j p. 513. ForJIj L^ balid ruz read jl jUt bahdr az. 

&+*■+, p. 517. Vullers has no idea of what Bh. means. He 
reads u/f &y jd clar tari i an, and translates fructibus recentibus ; but 
Bh. has diisyj* <lar tl ' LG ^ in tne insme of which. Again bj^J>j^ 
sarposh, Bh. means a lid, so that (j^Ja will be the cup or plate, and 
&v*^ the lid of it. Hence the nice verse of Tasir, which in Vullers 
has neither sense nor metre (Ramal) — 

— where the two lips of the sweetheart are compared to a rose and a 
rose bud, the latter resting like a lid upon the former, and the scent 
of which is used by the zephyrs as provisions for their journey to 
paradise. Vullers reads j\& ddr for jlj 6 ".. 

A£flA>, pp. 519 and 520, c) paedicare. For i^j>y j*3U ^ read <d^ 
j*^l. In the verse read <^j! ^-Jrf bisk azin, for c^jlcr^ pish 09&i. 

s£y^ p. 533. Bead £&j for ^^JJ ; else the verse has no metre. 

iS ^^ p. 534. Read ^yj ru'unat silliness, for Vullers' ^j-^-j 
za'aunat. This verse is quoted by Bh. as a proof for the word 
U£j ^jjI&a. jangali i yakpa, an animal of a man's shape, having only 
one leg ; it is proverbial /or its stupidity. Hence Vullers has left out 
the word, but given the verse. 

j^ p. 535, 3) coll. isj-^- fluvius, et dicitur de aqua quam in 
calamo narcissi servare solent, ut narcissus diutius in statu recenti 
remanere possit. This is a sad blunder. Bh. has ^jJj y*. jaw-i- 
nargis, a grain for the narcissus, not ci>^ a river. The metre of 
Mukhlic i Kashi's verse (hazaj) shews that we have to read jau, and 
not jit. The grain is put into the cup of the flower to keep it from 

The reference in the fifth meaning to the Sharafnamah is also 

Thus throughout his whole Dictionary. 

The mistakes in Vullers arising from his being unacquainted with 
Hindustani, deserve a short notice. Examples : — 

lsJ?\, P- 116, i. q., t^V^T . First, the madd of ^^T is wrong ; 
secondly, i£j£\ is a gold or silver coin of the emperor Akbar. 

48 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

yifi\ p 134, English, an Englishman. The Persians and Arabs 

say" IlX5| Ayfe, the Hindustanis J^l ffyi*. We ™? COmpal ' e 

the modern \±J girjd, a church, with the Portuguese igreja, and the 

Greek ekklesia. 

8^1 p. 140, nom. urbis cnjusdam B. It is Oudh, the famous 

^pre or ^fift'srr. 

.jb p 155 a hind of wandering Muhammadan monk, J£. 
Vullers might 'have left out this error of Richardson's. Similar 
mistakes are Ujf , ttO-tft , P- 29, for v >* W and *U~4>* W 
^SLfci bakhtigdri, p. 194, for ^tl** pukhtahMri ;y±^ P- 1^7, 
f ; o ^ ^£±* bakhshi-i-juz, a deputy paymaster- who serves under the 
ctf^ii bakhsM-i-kul, or paymaster-general ; ^, p. 204, for 
Jjij taZraitf, as you say gi-J^ ^ti^san;', graceful ; tf /H 
fadzr'gari, p. 207, for ^ k^n', or c5>J* 6«r.a%«n ; ^, 
p 239, an Indian spelling for.«i-J ba*tah;j*& bashgir, p. Stt), tor 
y^x, fmtyr; 6% Mfc, P- 303, for c3% 2/^' ^ and 
J&jj JiJb, p. 323, for s&b and lAfJwftl*, &o. 

&kb, p. 269, nom. magnae urbis et olini metropolis in Hindustan. 
This absurdity is supplied by F. > 

a 4J p 287 ; the extract from Richardson, with the exception ot 
the meaning, a violin, is correct. The word is Hindee, but occurs very 
. often in Indian Historians. It is a purse of money kept at court lor 
paying alms, rewards, &c. 

Jy Ulach, p. 279 ; this should be Jjitfbj. 

% p. 384. This is the Hind, fc* V% a word often "W^ t0 

fl " 1 ^ p 406 This is the Hind, term for pulex communis. 

Jjfl p 465. 3) nom. arcis in Hindustan, B., nomine jtf*$ 
zantamL Celebris, P. This absurdity is, of course supplied by P. 
It should bej**^ rantanbhur, as correctly given by FJ., or Rmtarn- 

h0l ^y tob, p. 475; Vull. does not understand the Hind. is*<3 **» a 
piece of cloth of a fixed number of yards, Germ, eine Webe. 
J^ p 521 , the same as ura^, a squall. 

SU P- 543. Yullers in his extract from Bh. writes tou» 
JL^SA luyjaUn, for uA^ fiWtfflM* the famous emperor ot 
India. I am afraid Vullers has not understood Bh.'s phrase 

1868] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 49 

" It is ironi obstinacy that the Persians call this town Jahanab&d, 
and not Shah-jahanabad." The emperor Bhahjahan was often ridiculed 
by the Persians for assuming the title Si/ah of the world. Even the 
then Sultan of Constantinople ( fjy j'^oj^k ) made once in a letter a 
satirical remark on the emperor's magniloquence, when his clever 
court poet Kalim got him out of the difficulty by composing an ode, 
in which the following verse occurs (metre muszari') — 

" The words c^a (5 + 50 + 4= 59) and ulf* "(3 + 5 + 1 + 
" 50 = 59) are in point of value the same ; hence the emperor has a 
clear right to the title Shdhjahan" For this clever verse Kalim 
received from the <^1-$J his weight in gold, and his ode was sent to 

^i. chapparj p. 560 ; this word is the Hind.^x^. chhappar. 

JLSLxi. ch$tal. p. 607, This is a mistake often to be met with in 
Persian books printed in Europe. The correct form is Jj^, with a 
£ jim. The word is spelt by Abulfaszl in the A. A., p. 27, 1.4. 
Nor is it a numus cuprinus^ but an imaginary division of a ddm, one 
silver Rupee (of Akbar) being equivalent to forty copper dams. 
" Accountants have divided the dam into 25 jetals" A. A., 1. c. 

|V*G«*j p- 918, a coin, the 8th of a gold muhur. Thus Vullers 
from Johnson. It is the eighth part of a rupee, not of. a gold muhur. 

d^'idjd, dud dlud : p. 923, 3) n. s. nom. magni oppidi in Hindustan 
F. sine exemph. This absurdity is'likewise supplied by the praeclarum 
opus of F. Whoever heard of a town Duddlwl in India? It a blunder 
for »ibfoJ)^ Daulatdbdd. 

J-^, II. p. 797 ; a reference to J3^ was required. So likewise, 
j p. 920, under Jy, to W^ ; and under 8jP, p. 479 b., 1. 24., to IJ^gJ. 

Vullers is also most unfortunate with his oliU|. As the Iszafat 
of the Persians is very badly treated in the existing Persian grammars, 

I trust I shall be excused for inserting here a few notes on the fakk 

• . *** • 
* Iszafat ( cu*U( ^3 ) ; or the omission of the Iszafat, reserving some of 

Vullers' mistakes for foot notes. 

The Iszafat is omitted 

a. After v^^j j&°, O^i er*"*°> V^j lt^» f*^*°> J~i ( not m 

O o o ' o 

prose), *\*»» ; as — Jjv-^u^U^ JUS >^>.[*c } jsf y^c an admiral, ^X^>j'S^/o 


50 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

the keeper of the wardrobe ; Jit. J-SU a passionate hunier lW ±- J*U, 

^ JiU, s,U ^AU j^u'^ia a foe of science, U-er-^ a foe of 
decency • (J ^ the representative of God's mercy on earth (a 
flattering epithet for kings); ^ijj «* »*'««<, a benefactor ; 
O^j a viceroy ; similarly, flS-fJU one who acts for another ; ^ J"* 

and^J- a beautiful boy.j^^, y»*rf«<t* < U ^aMn, 

,^U a harbour-master (in poetry the » in .U would have the nmnat- 

hah) • d\yj^ *** an Indian sweetheart. 

' b. ' Afters ^ cA*-, Jjl, 1^5 ob-u*^ *^^*^ 

Jyxy*, S|^, *•**/-, J»^U-* the space behind a wall, ^o** 

„y^ the day of judgment, ^jjP^ leavings (IndiaD usage) ; 
d^UyU- ; the same as j\^ and ^i ; after Jj\ in -- JjK m the 
banning of the night, fr Jjj, i***.^ Jjl ** first of the worsh^ 
pers. The last is poetical usage— 

(Sa'di) " What can be the secret of thefiyure of tins idol (of Somnath, 

which moved itshands), Me ^ * worshipper of which 1 am /-where 

the metre (Mutaqarib) requires the omission of the Iszafat after Jjl Also 

S^b cttman koh, the side of a mountain, for ijj^i daman ikoh* 

■ c. In compounds often used (J^-^Jt^)as,^ a pomegranate^ 

C— d|f water for the ceremonial ablution ; >^ sugarcane ; ^*» 

a night attack ; ^f JU m?-4M a seal, &c. ; for jlitft e^yi>>^> 

&c. Thus also jj V t «ftrif (pr. the lustre of the face) honor, jlj^jjj 

ruzbdzdr, the flourishing state of the market, nourishing circum- 

stances.f Many of these words are even written in one word. 

* The pretty little linen draper, the pretty little batcher boy. As our poets 

speak of Jane of the mill, the fair dawy maid, &c, so do modem Persian poets 

speak of pretty boys belonging to the Trade. *i,„T aw *&+ Tn 

t Both words are wrongly marked in Vullers' Diet, with the Iszafat. In 

poetry, of conrse, they have the Nimfathah. 

Similarly, II. p. 759b., \Jj\f Mr i giyd, which be translates rex ; but L^ ; 
or better \tfj\£,with the Iszafat, means regnum, the business (,(£) of a US' (not Uf) 
or prince; but l$Sj& without the Iszafat, (for jtfcff^O means rese, and the 
derived abstr. n ^LTjK re^wra. It is plain that this abstr. noun could never 
have been formed "from Vullers' U^>1£ kar i giya rex. 

Reversely, AJ^^U, p. 168, must have the Iszafat, bad i shurtah, as correctly 
given in Johnson. Vullers' remark regarding the Iszafat, on p. vii. of his 
preface, has no sense. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 51 

The Kasrcti-i-Isti'mdl explains also the omission of the Iszafat in 
names; as, ^-fc-*. p&e Ghuhim Husain, for Ghiilam-i-IIusain. 

d. After ^J bin son ; as, (Sa'di) ^j ±*~» ^ j£ij*\ ^^1 Atabak 
Abnbakr bin Sa'd i Zangi. 

This is not absolutely necessary in prose. The Persians use even 
the form <jJ|, with the alif, when followed by the name of the father. 
Hence it would not be wrong to say, ^j ±*~* \&\jfcj& Abiibakr 

ibn i Sa'd i Zangi. 

e. Under the influence of an alif i wa<;l. This is poetical ; as 
y j^,, c ^o ^ jUJL^yfc^ ^x^ l^, ol^k^b ; for j><g\j~ beside you, 
jLJL^ jkj> v*^ LS^t*. tnc P l ' ice °f sttCU a j«wel, jjl^^c^b one who 
reads (elegies on Husain) sitting at the foot of a banner (as used by 
the Slifahs during the Muhnrram.) 

f. After a hidden 3 (^ju^^Ia ). This is poetical usage, and not 
found in modern poets ; as, J^i-^^x^j yjlt A^y, vl*^ A/0 ^> Jfr* ^^^j 
for Jji*o tjx+^ } j\jl> &*jf. 

g. Before d}i\ God ; as, y^J J&i handmizid ( ^.UsU/o ) ? .sjJl^-k** 
sipdsizid, the praise of God. This is poetical usage. 

h. After <*J, as 1oj^j<^ tah bam't, for ta/i » &as#, the dust below a 
mat ; 4j^.^&3 tah jar'ah, the last of the cup. 

i. After the preposition <jrj gftowards, as,>> &*p tfj zi da^r/ah i tic 
(Mir Mu'izz), towards thy throne, for y &(fj.i cij. The word ^) does 
not occur after Sa'di. 

k. In Qs+xjyfr kafar ni'mat, ungrateful ; AJX'siJb safo's saldsah, a 
Christian (Niz). 

1. After i^yo I; as, 3^ ^, ^j &*, ^k? &*• This occurs 
sometimes in poetry for 8o^j ^ man i bandah, I your slave. The word 
i^&j does not occur after the time of Jauii. 

m. After nouns ending in alif or wdto. Thus, &j*k"jf&*> haldkii 
maVdn the accursedHalakii, ^)j*> 1^°! Amind Harawi* for cj>*^ es^^fc 
and cfiir* c^-^ '? which would not be wrong. 


I conclude this paper with a few notes taken at random from 
marginal remarks made by me to several Dictionaries at the time of 
reading. If it be not presumptuous on my part, I would point out that 

* The Alif at the end of proper nouns is modern f rani usage. Thus LaJij 
[J&J, Lai^° } UuLe, for jj^jl*, ^\&o 

52 Contributions to 'Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

notes such as the following in form of an index, ought to accompany 
the Persian text of every book now-a-days printed ; for the compilation 
of a reliable Dictionary, based upon a knowledge of the Persian language, 
must necessarily be the work of many. 

olabf cultivated. You say a/ Mitf \jj£v# he built this town. 
Also d * Ulabf J^ f & \^ W# he built this town and called it 

after his name. 

Aiibf abaftah, made of canvass. In Indian books mostly without 
the Madd. Indian Historians use the word as a noun, the same 
as dbdft, canvass. The forms iftirf dbdjt and Atof rf&a/fafc appear to 
he more' in use than uuibf <&40 and ***bf rfftij^a*. 

J^?vT abjosh grraiy. Also, dried raisins. <J»&f kishnish is a 
smaller kind. ^^ munaqqaw the best kind of dried raisins. yy> 
mawez is a general term, dried raisins. 

^jiyt^Jisk frf Adam i haft-hazdri. People say that the number of 
inhabitants on earth at the death of Adam, had reached the number 
of seven thousand. 

iDdjjt Yullers and several inferior Indian Dictionaries maintain that 
tarclan is wrong, and azardan correct, as the word is a contraction 
for &*j\j1 . But *j)1 aztii-d occurs in rhyme with ±/°y*, *j£*, and 
is analogous to u>^*A shumurdan, U^*A shumardan and c^U£, 
&*j&* and i^t&J, 0^^» and e^jU*, &c, 

e)**o|;f drdmtdan, transitive and intransitive. You say 
**>!;Ui u)|i>J ^*> Ja, or, p*1jl&.&\*i \j *>*> Jd. 

,yf <fe, a millstone. You say iite/<j.f lj*^ to grind corn. 

v xu>T ase&, corporeal pain, djd <Zard, both corporeal and mental 


isiAjjUf and cD^Ufy to begin. The word is constructed with the 

accusative, or with <*J r. 

u^Uif dftdbidan, to become red like the sun. Infinitives in {dan are 
formed from Arabic and Persian nouns. Examples :— e^U, to require, 
i*>W to understand, e^j to dance, &*$>* (Niz.) to plunder, 
e;^ to swallow down, ^**>U> to rise (smi), «*>&■» to die (Turanian 
usage), a'**** to go to Mecca, O^V.^ to go to Madinah, O^^ and 
^jyubf* to visit the tombs of 'Omar and Abiibakr, «*>*»>!> the same as 

* For &SJ&y.\ . The form with the Alif occurs frequently in this 
name Similarly '^b hdyazid t for *^| a^ ^cZ 5 the famous saint of 

1868.] oCntributions to Persiani Lexcography. 53 

c^^ol^Jr, <D±jj&° the same as ^^ j&>, c^Lrv" the same as 
^i^j.if i\j*- } u^i> the same as ePVj, (^°^>i the same as &&j$ ^js, 
^aj^UI^-j the same as er^ *U'fH, a*^** the same as c>oj ^-ft-i*", 
U^/o the same as c^"*-* *U. Khusrau (metre Hazaj) 

(JiVcf. Xou say U^«*fp «-»!>*■ J 1 to £ et U P> aim ^-UjTp vl^ J 1 to 
rouse up. We might expect u^f^ lar-dmadan, but this is not 
idiomatic, Nizami, — ^L>^ **£>** j **!><* w^V^y- So also AA., 
p. 251, 1. 3. 

tP^jf. The compound yj^jlj^ means tofujht and to make fight. 
Vide A.A. p. 205, 1. 9. The nouns *>yj\ dwezah and J»jtf\ dwSzish 
mean a fight, a tattle. Also, a >'///*£ between animals. 

Jbf rfyigj or jLjl oy*fe, or ^bl dyefo, the name of a slave of Mahmud 
of Ghazni. He is proverbial in the East for his faith lulness. The 
form aijuz is the usual form. There exists a Masnawi by Maulana 
Zulali of Khwansarf, entitled Mahmud o Aydz. Huzni of Icfahan 
(metre Ramal) 

o~j djT j »**J ^^ Ai 4; ^b jl J-«** o-oIjJo ^(^ ,^«^?jIseMi jL»j^ 
11 Whether it be Ayaz or Mahmud, here (on the path of love) his 
duty is slavish obedience ; love ties with the same string the foot of 
the slave and the freeman." 

<^j j dm, manner, method ; as, L£j£\ V#'\ tne manner of governing 
adopted by Akbar. Also, one's duties, official work ; as, J\j^ J\ 
bJ> d?=^ri j\ lHhT \*£\jd ^^j "If there be no kotwal, he (the 
collector) will perforin his duties. The plural l^f means orders, 
laws, the same as ^^1 ; as, ^^oo ^I^ajj dm/id t muqaddas, the 
orders of the king. Hence the din (singular) i Akbari is divided 
into several dins. 

oLa3| itticdf. This word is constr. with ^j-^ia and «*j. You 
say cu-iu oUaJ| &j^. he possessed piety. 

a5o| athah, or *£»l atgali, a foster father. The latter form of this 
Chagatai word is given in the Calcutta Chagatai Dictionary. As 
A^y kokah and ^Uliy kohultdsh, a foster brother, it often occurs as 
a title. Thus uL^^I atgah khan, the name of Shamsuddin Muham- 
mad, whose son, Khan i A'zam Mirza Kokah, was Akbar's foster 

-c^l ahkdmt, adj. In Indian writers the same as ^"J^ 3 nujtimi } 

54 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

referring to Astronomy. Thus u**^l £ft», the same as ut*#yfi 
tarikli i munajjimdn, the era of the astrologers. 

«*| arshatl, superlative of t^j, often used by Indian waters as an 

epithet for a son. 

.80,1 artak. The form d& urtak also oecurs in MSS. A quilted 
horse-cloth. The word which is often used by Indian . writers, is 
explained in the AA„ p, 142, 1. 19, as a *-f«* ****, a piece of 
chintz stuffed with cotton. 

^ ^Jj\ artak i kajim, or according to the Chagatai form, 
J^sQji artak-i-Jcejam, the quilt upon which the coat of mail of the 
elephant is placed. AA., p. 124, 1. 3. 

^t asp The form —I ash is the Iranian form. It occurs in 
the Bostfin in rhyme with ^S kash, whilst no Persian poet 
would rhyme hash with asp. The'Imnian Sururi quotes also several 
verses, where it is rhymed with *-*%», which itself stands m the 
(cjti cfL> £* «-ft J l cUi, not ^«;^. 

The'ludian Madar gives distinctly ^^U U. Mirza Ibrahim m his 
grammar has everywhere asb. 

Jl-| astar, a mule, Hind, y^, which word is also used by Indian 
writers Fir'aun was the first that bred mules. The belief in the 
East is that the mnle is not sterile, but dies in foaling. Hence a 
mule is compared to a man who is liberal beyond his means. Khusrau 
(metre Muszari') 

iAf *<«<• ^ bO» WH >•' *"* «*" ***** **-»* ** ** 

«« If the liberality of a liberal man is unnatural, it is his death, just 
as the female mule dies when she brings forth a foal."* Observe also 
that the metre requires the omission of the Tashdid in the word Jcurah. 
In accordance with this idea, farmers are said to place a *^ over 
the vulva of the mule, in order to prevent gestation, a practice to 
which Khaqani several times alludes. Thus in the Tuhfat ul 'Iraqain, 
in speaking of the sun, through whose agency all metals and precious 
stones are called into existence, he says (metre Hazaj) 

" Through thee (0 sun), the vulva of the mule is closed with a lock 
* This corrects the reading in Vullers' Dictionary, II. p. 826. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 55 

(or ring) of gold ; and through thee the neck of the ass has an orna- 
ment of rubies. 

c^li5| uftudan. The spelling a^LujI is an ancient plena scriptio, 
which in iJolHl has become the usual form, although c>j>lx*oj. is 
pronounced. The older Indian Dictionaries, as the Sh., Mil., Ma. 
mention the pronunciation aftadan as having then prevailed in India. 
You say *£*| &xjjj ^jjj^ ^j| it costs- a rupee ; *>J&vi *^— ^ U3 3 ' erii"^ *^ 
ajb <j*^ he takes care that the land does not fall off in cultivation ; 
Jbtii| ^/oj land n0 longer cultivated ; ^Y>j &**^*\ the state of 
being waste land; *xk| AJU) jj> )\j the secret becomes public; 
^Uij Jjir*^ J «*^**^ j*" ^43 cst^l j^Lr - * jl from childhood he made 
verses and lived in 'Iraq, A. A. p. 251. 

jUi| tujlnjdr, plural of y^. The word occurs used as singular, a 
rival. Hay at i of Gilan (metre llamal) 

tl Inconstant lovers are hostile to each other on account of the 
inconstancy. of their love; in true love no one has a rival." Vide 
cr?t-^ bulhawas. Similarly, |<>-c| add, pi. of 'aduwio, occurs used as a 
singular. 'Umar i khayyam (Iluba'i) 

«£**• to.* I \j vJd *$ JS^b^i* <^ijt i£***\j ^w*A.jl &l&)l="j (*jL> i *"°c$'° 

" I drink wine, and opponents from the right and left cry out to me, 
' Don't drink wine ; it is the foe of faith.' Since I have learned that 
wine is the foe of faith, I must drink the red blood of the foe ; for 
this is lawful." In the third micra' we have to pronounce 'aduunv, 
and in the fourth 'add. 

ijM\ aqdas. In Indian writers the same as royal. So also ^s&a 
muqaddas and L ^wtii qndsi. c5 ^^ oli dzdt-i-qudsi, the royal person. 

f\jJ\ ilzdm, c. <Jdj£,Od\d, to make a thing Idzim or compulsory ; hence 
to force, to overcome, to defeat in pi ay. So also, O^ ^Cj^ mulzini- 
i-hase shudan = i±)dJ& i~JU. 'Urfi (metre llamal) 

+±~Ju <JUJj> cu~» I &ji j&jA. f *>iA ->4b' v lj;l fjX*> +j£> &sziji*> [£)ja. 
u When by way of play I defeat the literary writers (who hold the doc- 
trine of the jauhar-i-fard, i.e., the atomic theory, which the hukama 
do not), the jauhar i-fard (here = the mouth of the sweetheart) smiles, 
and proves the divisibility, (because the lips in smiling divide)." 

56 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

iJ iJ\ dlmis, a diamond. The idea is prevalent in the East that 
diamond dust is a deadly poison. Faiszi, (metre Ramal) 

« Do not ask to know the ingredients of tlm antidote against love ; 
they mix diamond dust into a deadly poison." • 

e,lUi .1 - i ghilan, in Persian generally o***- nmghilan, the babul 
tree a kind of acacia. The pronunciation muyhaiUn, given by Burnan, 
is unsupported; the word occurs in rhyme with <i>Xy fUm elephante. 
The ashes of mnghilan wood are largely used in the East for refining 
gold and silver, whilst the thorns of the tree have become proverbial ; 
hence fig., the dangerous obstacles on the road of love, Cairah at 
giwah (metre Hazaj-i-salim) •,<■,. 

-The road towards the ka'bah (of love) is forbidden; else I would 
gladly direct thither my feet, not caring for the wounds which the sole 
of my foot would get from the acacia thorns of the road"-in allusion to 
the law which prohibits Muhammadans from sleeping with their feet 
stretched in the direction of Mecca, which would be disrespectful. 
Judai of Tabriz (metre Munsarih) 

, .ylUi-jli JLSti J»jj~ >\ *&* &" *•* ^ <& W*" 
'•The beauty of the sweethearts is a ka'bah ; love the desert 
(through which the wanderer has to pass) ; the obstinacy of the 
wretches (the v*J, the watcher), the acacia thorns of the road" 

J&o\ imUm, adj., human, referring to man. God is sjtjl v*!> 
necessary; man is a^lw^* *««■*■» ulwujU, possible ; idols are 
Wlffii** impossible. Hence J<*\i/r>*ji nnman efforts. 

^In «n<fan», this, within this. This word is, however, often 
used as a preposition, within = >,'. Observe that in this ease it 
cannot take the oiW|, just as^ 6»n<i6ar, or ^> »«*«r o«r,„, on 
account of. Payimi (metre Mujtass) _ 

,,-u y^ii ar a, ^ a-rt .w jy* ** r 1 8 ^ --#!/■ tfw 

'< I am living in a world where my Yusuf would be better in the 
pit than in the ba,ar,"-where Yusuf = life, the pit = non-existence, 

the bazar = existence. _ _ ,,,/•. 

SU1 , ^M\ cmfusi o dfdql, referring to the spiritual (anfus.) 

and" to the visible world (ifaqi). Hence mard-i-afwi o ifuqi, a man 

who looks upon life as something agreeable, but who at the 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 57 

same time strives to grasp the idea of Godhead. Such a man is 
both c5 al*3 ta'alluqi, attached to this world, and ^s^ tajarrudi 
(or Aiwjfj wdrastah) independent of it. A. A. p. 49, 1. 17. 

Lf)^ lSj x ^ j ^ angushtari bdzi. The players sit in a circle and pass on 
a ring. The person standing in the middle has to find the ring. 
If he says to one gjj pack, empty, whilst that person has the ring, he 
is Hy burdahj defeated, and must continue searching for the ring. 
Vide Vullers' II., p. 802, s. ^ hachah. Tashbihi of Kashan (metre 

QH wh %>t ^ cu *** (J-V. *%? Qrt u> l *^c/fj e^H> e^l o^j.j 
' Both worlds are empty and have nothing concealed in their hands ; 
/ have the ring (of true love) ; every thing else is empty." 

cL»l el. Indian writers use this word in the phrase *>*& <Jt>! ^{JL^t 
the rebels became again obedient. MSS. have often Jj|j yjdil, pies, 
part, of Jfj wa-l. 

^1 eman. The fathah of the mini is the same as the I'athah in 
h/far, Hdtam, &c, for Jcdjh; Ildlim, whilst the first syllable is a 
common Imalah. Hence the word is a corruption of ^j dmin. 


^Lkli bdkhtan, 1, to play ; 2. to lose a game, opp. &zy burdan 
to win a game. Shikebi of Icfahan (Ruba'i) 

" The world is a nard play, the winning of which is a loss ; skilful 
nard playing consists in being satisfied with a low throw. The 
world resembles the two dice of the nard play — you take them into 
your hands to throw them down again." Payaini (metre Ramal) 

" Fate cheats in play and takes back what it lost ; one cannot play 
with a companion that practises such tricks." 

Observe that in the first example, the word ^^6 naqsh means the 
dots on the dice. The dice used in India are rarely cubical, but long, 
because the four long sides only are used. 

Jifjk bdryir, the same as y«»l asp, and ^b bdryi, a horse. 
2. A slave, Hind. &1j^ chelah, Muc, Bh. 3. j^M Or* 
ha>f-i-bdr<jir, an expletive particle. Tdsir (metre Muszari') — 
I jj&ojtkjj^jb o^ cJj~*» — " Like an expletive particle, pleonastic 

58 Contribution* to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

and merely repeated." Compare ^ W which has the same meaning, 
i^to, This word is often used in the sense of a no,y place. 
Hayati of Gilan (metre Ramal) 

■ ■■■; ^ ^ l*M| *h *; vJ *-* J^ J- <*' ia ~ l <>"* ^ 
"Thi/is love's lane, but not a bazar; hush, you must not talk here." 
cuiUb mydfi, stoppages, a fine. Synonyms are, oljU taioan, **y* 
jur^'nak, „^> sarskikan, **&&**»«, &V","* *~^& 
MM The last word is a general term and may also mean a ^ 
m «»d/or mMv a satisfactory account ; c-t^ft j» ras-vfcfafc W 
nwma/oi * _ o—l^jb Mzkhwdst-i-sarJcar i 

the day of reckoning; Klj jKj~ <— "!*=-J • G 

«rf» that which is due to the state ; hence ^,^,OW 
S ignify a fine; you say ^j! ^ **•**! **<*«* 8* «»- 
4wS-, Auctions from salaries, &c You say ^U «U *, 
J iib;b three months' wages of the grooms are deducted; 
2 ~. y*l j| ^U*U ^ ^ the fifth part of the monthly 
ZZT* the Amir is stopW ; +> -** cf* «■*«*• 
the collector makes a deduction according to the difference m weigh* 
(of coins brought by the peasants). The meaning J^ **** jj 
Vullers (from Richardson) is doubtful. Sharslnkan » general y used 
in the sense of military stoppages to which a whole squadron is 
condemned. For example, A.A. p. 283, 1. 13 : 

"If a trooper be found to he without his horse, he (the faujdar) 
gives him a new one, charging the price to his squad in equal propor- 

tl0 J tr , h«rdnrjar,tU right wing, Jji qolthe centre, jWj*. <**■ 
J^f the left wing of an army. These are the usual spellings. 
Other forms are jUilj* burangar, jttjrf hurungar, as xn the Chagatai 
vocabulary published at Calcutta, and j^J. brangar (as in Zenker s 
vocabulary). For jUSfc*., we also find jUiy^/fir^dr, with a/m. 
Vullers' form jttilj* jarvdngdr, with a «*», is not in my dictionaries 
Another Turkish word often used by Indian writers, is ^^charkhchi 
an avautguard; a foraging party. As the article in Vullers, p. 569, 
has no sense, I transcribe part of the article in the Muct. and Bh. ^ 

« The word charhhcU occurs in the book entitled 'Alam-ara, by 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 59 

Sikandar Beg, in the sense of fanj i hardwal, an avantguard. Asr 
(metre Hazaj) 

11 If on the day of battle thy voice is the avantguard, the opponent 
is easily defeated by the Muslims." From some commentary I have 
copied the following passage — 

Hence a foraging parti/. As Vullers did not understand Bh., he 
might have left out his etymology. The word is connected with the 
T. <J^.a. chvrih and ^b^. chirik, vide Vullers, I. p, 572. 

The T. t_(pJ bulok, a troop, is likewise of frequent occurrence ; only 
the pi. is not buldkdn, as in Vullers, but o(^-L> buldkdt. 

ci^J^r? burd o bdi, or ls^jZJi burd o ptii, or <3yjL5^ bdio burd. 
This word, which is often used by Indian Historians, means betting 
on fighting rams or other animals. The margins of MSS. generally 
explain it by the Hind, oj^jIa, which has the same meaning. I do 
not know the meaning of is^i °^- At the courts of the Mogul emperors 
betting on animals was carried on to a great extent. Akbar had to 
pass several limiting laws. 

i^+kj, barhaman. In the poetry of Hindustan and the later poets 
of Persia, the Brahmin is enamoured of the ^> canam, in the same 
way as the nightingale of the rose ; the atom (*ji) and the chamelion 
(bj.A.) of the sun; the *&*.li, or the jj<^, of thej^*» sario ; and the 
moth of the candle. The following verse is sufistic (metre Ramal) — 
oJ| ALU*, ^u-^j ) >^ ^^a.aJljj o^j^j i£^&**j (j-^ i-**JoAiftA. ,^ 
" In reality there is no difference between the lover and the object 
loved — idle thinkers speak of the idol as distinct from the Brahmin." 
The verse requires the pronunciation barhaman, not brahman or 

^tijo bughdi, a kind of camel of high cost. So Shahsp. It would 
be more correct to say dromedary. The Bactrian camel with two humps 
(c^ 1 * 5 ^ dokuhani) is called in T. jAj, jy>y ti or, jj^> bughur. The latter 
word is used by Indian historians, but is often confounded in the MSS. 
with the Arab, j**-* ba'ir. Zenker's Turkish vocabulary gives the plena 
scriptio jy"j>, but he translates a dromedary, instead of a Bactrian 

60 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

L ,y^ bulhawas. It is wrong to derive this word from the P. 
prefix JL.M much, as some Indian grammarians and lexicographers 
have done, whose opinion Vullers adopts. It is another spelling for 
,Wl> • This is also confirmed hy the fact that hut bulhawas occurs, 
^d not bulhos, whilst Us is a Persian tacarruf of the Arab Unas. 
Again, the few real Persian compounds with bul are a11 a » cient 

The personel of Persian love poetry consists of the JAU, the u^*-, 
the ~U &U, the v*J ™# (« «**> or ^ mudda Q who watches 
over the LvftOg, and lastly, «n*«e«. Among the latter are those 
who are ^ Mid abstemious, indifferent to love, and those who are 
^ W MftawB, who possess no J**, hut u^taM Ishq h 
Jl^l^lu batiuzzawil constant ; ftauas is transient, J U><t fc^ «•* 
uzzawil, though passionate. 

^ * W.J more. This word is followed by jl ; jb *. ^ more 
than a' hundred times. But Jl may be left out, when J* stands «/ter 
the numeral ; as ^Ji ~ more than a hundred times. A hundred 
times more would be jf# £>. *° 5 ad *** ' d, g ar - 

, e b pai. In pre-classical Persian we never find tfb, t«j, tsrf, and 
Imperatives as tf l*, ^W, &c, without the l/ . During the Clas- 
cal period the J is often thrown away. In modern Persian the 
forms without the * are the usual forms. Hence the modern adjective 
^U~b pi-hisab subject to rendering an account, in the Indian phrase 
Jw/Ji—b U g$. Similarly, taxes are the ^kU ^b param , 
salrlimt. In compounds, when ^ is not followed by a genitive, the 
shortened form & pai is often preferred ; *# * *W ^J* «* oyery 
one cares for it ; ^ *>^ to go straight at a thing, to understand 
the essence of a thing; «fet »j-M uj to strive to reach the 
goal; but b«>S| *-J** lAV ^.*te same, ^b occurs also 
adverbially, under, the same as iybb >>, or c^j. dar taht; «. y., 
^^y^li ^b J |eJ^«-' r b the collector writes the name of 
every Tahcildar below the name of the village. 

eJ^jb p&ogosht. What Vullers has copied from Richardson is 
wrong. The word means ijfe**, and is the name of a regulation of 
the emperor Akhar by which he wished to determine the fatness, or 
otherwise, of an animal in proportion to the quantity of food given, vide 
A.A. p. 163. jb is Hind. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 61 

*tiH parchah, for A -^)4- This form I have only seen in Indian 
writers. The author of the Mir-at ul 'alam uses it frequently. 

8^j pardah means 1. a screen; 2. the place behind a screen; 
hence &^*t>j* a woman of good family ; 8^ j* behind the 
screen ; 3. the thin membranes in limes, pomegranates, &c, vide 
A.A. p. 80, 1. 6. As jb so does also *^ take the meaning of 
the king's court ; hence, in Indian writers, t*tyT*«^ the adorning of the 
court, doing something for the pomp of the court. iSj***ji pardah 
dari a tearing of the screen, the exposure of a secret; A.A. p. 198, 1. 20. 

&*irt parridan and paridan. To fly. Also, to evaporate (scents). 
Similarly djj &*>L^j\ Ia^ j\ ^y its smell remains long in the clothes. 
Scents, colours are by,* derpd, lasting, fast. 

jLLc~oo pusht khdr, a hand made of ivory and fixed to a 
stick. This instrument, which is very common in India, is used for 
scratching (cJ^Li.) one's back. A larger kind of this instrument 
is used as a war club, in which case the whole, or only the 
hand, is made of iron ; vide A A. p. 122, 1. 1. The shape of the 
hand is either fist-like, or half extended with the fingers bent. 
c~So)Ia> is, of course, a back with khdrs or scratchers, hence a 
hedgehog. Observe that in the Indo- Germanic languages the last 
component of a compound expresses its genus, and the first its 
particular properties. 

Other compounds of pusht are c&3c^.*o pusht tang, i. e., something 
tight for the back ; hence, a broad girth for fixing the saddle, A.A. 
p. 143, 1. 3. The word is given in Vullers, on p. 364, but his spelling 
<*XxtiUj pushtank is wrong. i y°^ t ^ i ^ pushtgarmi, support, assis- 
tance. Sarmadi of Icfahan (metre Mujtass) 

" What have I done to myself in the heat of transgression (cjLx^, 
as +?*>, cl^, i^\y»j, c$"4' , ' U< r-> *^> love); with the help of God's 
mercy, what crimes have I committed ! 

^iU paMs, the coarse stuff used for making moneybags. The adj. 
^ % palasi means like palds ; but the adj. i^**»^J palasin, made of 
paMs, as u-jf*>^:> **«■£ . The same distinction holds for ^^T and e>*W J 
i£±*\£ and lk>^(£, &c. 

02 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

XjsH pinjdrah lattice work, framework, used for hedging in 
flower beds, or as supports for creepers ( Sjl* bayarah*). Pieces of 
wood or bamboo are stuck into the ground, at proper intervals, 
and cross-pieces are tied to them. The shape of the interstices may 
be varied by differently arranging the sticks. In the kind called 
iSj**** jct'/art, each interstice is a rhombus, the sticks being placed 
obliquely, but parallel, into the ground ; and so also the cross-sticks, 
which incline, however, to the other side. In is^J** shatranji, the 
pieces stand at right-angles to each other. More costly are the kinds 
*J gird, where the interstices present the appearance of a square with 
a circle inscribed in it \j*»<J& shash-sar hexagonal, j<»S*jb* duwdzdah- 
sar twelve-sided. The ja'fari and shatranji may be ^^ 9 liair 
ivagli, not tied, where the sticks are not tied to each other with 
strings ; the other kinds are ^j wagM, as strings are required. 

In Vullers' article l?j***> P- 517 > the tW ? d raeaniu S' is the same 
as the fifth ; Shakspeare's etymology from tj& is wrong. 

^ pSchdn, 1. twisting ; 2. twisted. The passive meaning seems 
to be the usual meaning. Sanjar of Kashan (metre Rajaz) 

" (I come from the monastery) with the cord tied round the waist, 
and the gong under my arm." Vide another example in Vull. I. p. 597, 
1. 1. Similarly L-^ shm&sd knowing, and^crn., known, as &iLLU£ ; 
but the passive meaning is rare ; vide A.A. p. 284, 1. 7 ; \j>&$ 
pidzird, accepting, and accepted. 

<UJo yj pir i pambah a scarecrow. Vullers' meaning is unsup- 

ajUo paimdnah. The paimdnah is larger than the ^. 

^0 tah'n, Inf. DL of &\ ; vide Lane's Ar. Diet. p. 9. c, a leading 
on, the same as (S&> pairawi. Indian Historians use this word as an 
ism i fa'il, *>>&lsir%, a leader, pi. ol#G tabindt leaders, officers ; vide 
A A. p. 191, l" 17; p. 193, 1. 1. ^l^G tdbin bdsM a superior 
commanding officer, p. 196, 1. 20. Thus also often in the Padishah- 

* Vullers has s. ^lx) a reference to &3jJ lotah ; but lotah is not a creeper ; 
it is a plant capable of standing without support. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 63 

&.fi tdrikh. Native lexicographists derive this word from rjy 
muarrakkj which is supposed to be corruption of the Pers. jj>j«U 
mdhrue, or jjjj^ mdh o riiz, an era, calendar; Germ. Zeitrechnung. 
Others derive it from the Arab. AfjJ irdkh, the wild cow (gaw i wahshi), 
an animal proverbial in the East for its stupidity. They then explain 
tdrikh as meaning the removal of stupidity, hence rendering certain, 
fixing anything. 

The custom of fixing the tdrikh of an event by a word, or sentence, 
or a micra', or a whole verse, is said to date from the sixth or seventh 
century of the Hijrah. Before this, meaningless words were used 
composed of the huruf i ahjad. Thus in the case of Abu Shut, the 
Nicab uccibyan (vide above, p. 7, No. 65) has the following verses — 

"Abu 'All Siiui was born in fcs^V' A. H. 373, finished his studies in 
La^>, or 391, and died in J,£>, or 427. Such tarikhs are no longer used. 
The modern tarikhs are either J^lk^ niutlaq, or &&£*3 tamiyah. The 
former kind extends over a whole micra' or verse, as j\ j&l^ 
^y LM fj* ^^-=r fc . The latter kind may be ^-^j^ khariji, in excess, 
when something is to be subtracted, or ^^U) ddkhili, when something 
is to be added. For example — (metre Mujtass) 

in which the words X\-£>j£\ oji give A. H. 1015 ; but as the maldik 
subtract one alif. we get A. H. 1014. The phrase o^x^S L-ftJl, or 
{•j&x&S aaa^^j \jj \ f ig explained by the authors of the Muct. and Bh. as 
referring to a custom of lovers, dervishes, mourners, &c, to cut the 
skin of the chest, the wound having the shape of an alif. 

^^jG |*li nam i tdrikhi, an additional name which parents give their 
children, in order to remind them of the year in which they were 
born — a very necessary thing in the East, where few people know 
their correct age. Thus, if a Muhammadan be born A.H. 1255, he 
may assume the name of ^^^ia/o Mazhar 'All, in addition to his own 
name, as the value of the letters when added will be found to 
be 1255. 

ji* tabar, an axe, a hatchet ; also a war axe. If the war axe has the 
shape of a pointed wedge, like the bill of a bird, it is called Uj^\) 
zdghnol, pr. a crow-beak. If the zaghnol has joined to it a common 

64 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

axe, the weapon is called JyMj^ tabar zdghnol. If the axe has an 
anvil-like piece of iron attached, it is called JU*^ tabar-takhrndqhom 
the T o^y a hammer. Under JjUlj in Vnllers, II., p. 10b, a 
read ** W eur«&*ZKc««, for ^ sagiUae bellicae, the Delhi edition of 

Bh. having wrongJHt"^ J# tir i sartiz > instead ° f ^^ T^' „ , < 
JUJ tafoirfZ, to hand over, to give in charge ; hence ; |^ teftte.Wflr 

a cash keeper. Akbar had for his household a & j\*ks*> ^f^ZcWr ^ 

hull who gave advances to the various >-; I ^ tatortH* • J«* 
The' latter furnished workmen, the people of the Harem, &c., with 

money for which they took receipts. The tahwilddr i hull stood under 
the J* jW]^ fcftwfoeM * WZ the Treasurer General. ^^ taJuu^U 
deposited, "handed over (money); hence a deposit. J*?** 4* fil* 
tahwili, anew elephant waiting to be W^ over to the officer in 
charge of a &^ ftafyafc, (elephants which have the same value), lne 
wor d dijJ pi. Jfcl* 5 , or o%^, means also a deposit ; a « transfer" 

of money. 



Page 5. 
In the name of the fourteenth dictionary read 

kx~2>. husaini. 

In 33., several MSS. read ^j*** , instead of 

Page 6. 

The author of the forty-first dictionary is often mentioned in Indian 
historians. He was, according to Badaoni, Qazi of Delhi. 

In the title of the fifty-third dictionary translate :-" The Dictionary 

of Muhammad ibn i Hindushah Munshi who wrote to the praise ( pU; ) 

of (the Amir) Ghias uddin Bashid." It would be against the idiom 

to translate-— "Who wrote under the name of Gh." This would be 

expressed by ^A v&>\ &** *** ■ Observe the final ^ in 

*x£> . The word *J&± in Persian, is followed by an abstract noun ; 

™u"say oib J>\± v uU he got the title of Khan; sjU v lkarf J\y^\ 

^4 jy> he was honored by the title of Malik ushshu'ara. But 

this is not the case with the participle ^h^° mukhdtab, which is 

followed by *> and the title itself ; you say ±& ^ ^&° he got 

the title of Khan; *A I^Jl ^ ^^°, &<*. The word f U ex P reSSeS 

often our alias; you say ^ J* J* r b c^Jv^ Khfinzainto, aZtat 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicograplnj. 65 

'All Quli Khan. Native Persian scholars in reading these words, draw 
the word pli to the preceding name, without the cJUo| • as, Khan- 
zainaiinani 'aliqnlikhan. But if the title be a word which cannot take 
the form of the macdar, kit i tab is constructed as mukliritab ; e . g ., 
iJj^J\<x^ ^Ua.^ *£ j\yj~», instead of c5 ^j^|J^uc ) which would 
be impossible. Thus also with the word u* 2 -^ ; you say, Arzii 
takhalluc, Sirajuddin Khan, lifU.^ i^\ ^\y* u^^ J>j;f . We should 
invert the order, according to our idiom, and say, Sirdjuddfn Khdn t 
poetically styled A'rzu ; or, in the above example, 'All Quit Khan, 
alias Khan zuman. But when the Persians put the takhalluc after the 
real name, they use the <£*iU| ; as f^^* 'Umar i Khayyam, 'Umar, 
poetically styled Khayydm. 

The author of the fifty-eighth dictionary, Shamsuddin, poetically 
Btyled Fakhri, belongs to Isfahan. 

After the sixtieth dictionary add 

C5~^l <j>^l jy*** ^Ay Ad., FJ., Sur. This is Firdausi's 
ustdd. The author of the second dictionary is the nephew of this 
Manrwr. It is remarkable that FJ. quotes this ancient dictionary as 
his authority for the forms <J&j\ and £j , with a c.- . 

Page 9. 

Line 5 from below, read printed, for lithographed. This edition of 
the Kashf, when obtainable, sells from fifteen to twenty rupees. 

Page 11. 

Line 5 ; in the second micra', read <^±y, hi'ide, for dy> bud. 

Page 12. 

The author of the Farhang i Jahangir, Mir Jamaluddin Husain, 
played a more important part during the reign of Jahangir. Accord- 
ing to the Akbarnamah of Abul Faszl, he entered Akbar's service 
during the twenty-fifth year of his reign, or about 1581. When Abul- 
Faszl wrote the Ain, the Mir was a Hazari, or commander of one 
thousand, not a nuhgadi, as the reading of the first note on p. 226 of 
my Ain appears to be more correct than the reading of the text. 

The excellent work, entitled tyo\j\ylc madsir ulumard* contains 
the following biographical notice — 


Vide Morley's Catalogue, p. 104. The MS. No. 77 of our Society, to judge 
;from the corrections, looks like an autograph. Besides it is almost free from 
; mistakes. It contains 574 leaves. The other MS. of our library, No. 131, in 
'much inferior. 

66 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

^^ »u^* t&~^ j*~*> j^hf&w &$ ^^ ^ ^V' r* 1 ^ 

^iy>«w ^l iyl*J>f l3 *V * **f ^ <s>)j* % rW J u ^i 
* ajf j* d 1 ^ ^!>* u ^ b ^ y^ Ar *-*** cA Af >- l^^:' 

j! !^ »A*ly ^3' ^> <** ^ u 3 <*' G *> 4^ * **-J ^ ^ 

3! jg^ u&JU «**•&* • o^yf^J djb ^U j jjfij c***j*j i£))j*Jt* 
* *AJ y-U </^V-' j> C5^V3' J» • V* ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

sub ,y j^>o »«m/ ^ 31 ^'>^ ^^ ;/o Jy ^ / ° r ^ s Jj|^ tf ^' 

* c^iU u-UaUj d^^ii o-A^ v lbsJ ^jU JU^ j * ^ ^Ojl^ ^ 

^.^3oyij aS-a t^ft u^ ta;^-^ 1 ^^ ^ ** t^^°-r^>^ 

^u^j ^ w-^y lsW 1 ^ 3 *& &° ^ ^ J r'^ 1 1 - ^ d 1 ^^ 

B4*f j ,>— -i-rf lyyi . *i»i>tf ^ jy,3 ji^ gj^j 4^ ^ L^ 

* The following words are verbally taken from the Iqbalnamah, ed. 
Bibl. Ind., p. 87. 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 67 

^axJjJaUJi ^.Jkaar J .^ (3 ' • v -'**?j)' ^^J <***• *♦■* ^J j .a£x/o ;LwJ ^* 

" Mir Jamaluddin Anju, of Anju, belongs to the Sayyids of Shiraz, 
who trace their descent to Qasiin arrasi ibn i Hasan ibn i Ibrahim i 
Tabatiba i Husaini. Mir Shah Mahmud and Mir Shah Abu Turab, 
two later members of this renowned family, were appointed during the 
reign of Shah Talimasp i (Jafawi, at the request of the Chief Justice of 
Persia, Mir Shamsuddin i Asadullah of Sinister, the first as Shaikh- 
ulislam of Persia, and the second as Qazi-lquzat. Mir Jamaluddin is 
one of their cousins. He went to the Dekhan, the Kings of which 
had frequently intermarried with the Anjiis.* Afterwards he entered 
Akbar's service, and, in the thirtieth year, was appointed a commander 
of six hundred. In the fortieth year of Akbar's reign, he was promoted 
to the rank of a Hazari. It is said that in the end of Akbar's reign he 
was a commander of three thousand.f When in the forty-fifth year of 
the emperor's reign, the fort of Asir had been conquered, 'Adil Shah, king 
of Bijapur, wished to enter into a matrimonial alliance with Akbar, 
and offered his daughter to Prince Danyal. To settle matters, Akbar 
despatched the Mir to the Dekhan, who, in A. H. 1013, after making, 
near Pattan, the necessary preparations for the marriage feast, handed 
over the bride to Prince Danyal. After this he repaired to Agra,$ in 
order to lay the tribute and the presents before the emperor, the best 
of all which up to that time had come from the Dekhan." 

" As the Mir had always been a particular friend of Prince Salim 
(Jahangir), he was promoted after the prince's accession to the post 
of a Chahar Hazari, and obtained the privilege of the naqqarah and 
the flag.§ When Prince Khusrau (Salim's son) rebelled, the Mir re- 
ceived the order, to effect an understanding by offering Khusrau 

* So also Firishtah. 

f If this is correct, it must have been after Abalfazl's death. 

j Accompanied by the historian Firishtah. 

§ To sound the naqqarah, and to have a flag carried before oneself, was a 
distinction only given to great amirs. The aurang, chatr, saiban and kaukabah 
are reserved to kings. Vide AA. p. 45. 

68 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

the kingdom, which Mirza Muhammad Hakim (Akbar's brother who 
had held Kabul) had governed. The Prince unfortunately did not 
agree. When he was subsequently made prisoner, and brought before 
the emperor, Hasan Beg of Badakhshan, Khusrau's principal agent, 
impudently said to Jahangir, that it was not he alone who had favoured 
Khusrau, but that all the amirs present were implicated ; Mir Jamal- 
uddm, the emperor's ambassador, had only the day before asked him 
(Hasan Beg), to promise him an appointment as Panjhazari. The 
Mir got pale and confused, when the Khan i A'zam* fearlessly advised 
the emperor, not to listen to such absurdities ; Hasan Beg knew very 
well, that he would have to suffer death, and tried therefore to involve 
others ; he himself (the Khan i A'zam) was the chief conspirator, and 
ready as such to undergo any punishment." 

" This satisfied the emperor ; he consoled the Mir, and appointed 
him afterwards Governor of Bahar. In the eleventh year of Jahangir's 
reign (A. D. 1616), he received the title of 'Aszaduddaulah.f On 
this occasion the Mir presented to the emperor a dagger, inlaid with 
precious stones, the making of which he had himself superintended, 
whilst at Bijapur. At the top of the handle he had a yellow yacrut 
fixed, perfectly pure, of the shape of half an e Sg) and had it surrounded 
by yaqiits, as approved of by Europeans, and old and clear emeralds, so 
as to make it more conspicuous. The value was estimated at fifty 
thousand rupees." 

" After this he lived for some time at Baraitch, where he held lands 
granted to him by the emperor. He repaired once more to the capital, 
where he died of a natural death." 

" The Mir was a man distinguished for his talents. The Dictionary, 
entitled Farliang i Jahdngiri, which is everywhere highly valued, and 
referred to as the best authority, was compiled by him. The author 
has indeed shewn a most admirable carefulness in his critical investiga- 
tions, and the correctness of the vowels." 

" Of his two sons, the elder, Mir Aminuddin had been with his father 
in the Dekhan, and was married to a daughter of ' Abdurrahim, Akbar's 
Commander-in-Chief; he was promoted to a higher post, when, at an 
early age, he died ; the younger, Mir Husamuddin Murtasza Khan, 
has been mentioned before." 

* Vide AA. p. 223, No. 21. 

t Tide Toozuk i Jahangiri, ed. by Sayyid Ahmad, Allygurli, 1864, p. 175. 

1808.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 69 

The Tuzuhi Jaluingiri gives the following additional particular : — * 

9^J^mJ J Is I <*i,/0j 8:>j-~j »*J)£ k£**l$| ^Jm\i g^j y *_j^X L. jJt j 

" Mir 'Aszaduddaulah having now (A. D. 1621) become very old ; and 
bent from old age, he is no longer fit for employment in the household, 
the army, or the administration of a jagir. I excuse him therefore of 
all further trouble, and give hereby the order, to pay him out of my 
treasury the monthly sum of four thousand rupees cash, payable at 
Agra, Lahore, or any other place, where he likes to reside, so that ho 
may be happy and comfortable, always praying for the welfare of my 

The highest rank which the Mir attained, was a brevet Panj-hazari 
(oli &j\y>J$) } with an actual command (and salary) of a Bihhazir 
o pancadi.f 

Towards the end of his life, he seems to have revised his dictionary. 
As late as 1628, he presented a copy of it at the eighteenth 
anniversary of Jahangir's accession. The writer of the latter part of 
the Tuzuk says : — 

Jl \j CjI — *' £i*^ j &j^l«» iSijr^ V-J^ 9 8<H*»* jll~J ■■^■xsz' (j.-sr-'f 

The word ^ac 3 ! I have heard generally pronounced Anju. I think 
Ivjii is the correct pronunciation, as jsr»| appears to be the same as 
jsM\ and jsH\ , a word thoroughly investigated by Qaatremere, 
Histoire des Mongols, p. 130. From a remark in the Waccaf, it 
appears that a part of Shiraz was called js*i\ inju. This seems to be 
the meaning of the word *^sr>| injuyah, in the first line of the extract 
from the Maasir ulumara. 

* Sayyid Ahmad s edition, p. 327, med. Major Price's translation of the 
luzuk i Jahangiri mentions Mir Jamaluddin on several places; but the 
imperfect MS. used by him, renders his translation useless. Major Price's 
MS., to judge from the translation, resembles the bad MS. of our Society, 
No. 1339 ( (j^l^ «i,l*i|j ). 

f Sayyid Ahmad' s T. i. J., p. 156, I. 3. 

% Sayyid Ahmad's T. i. J., p. 359, 1. 7. 

70 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

As it is then settled that Mir Jamaluddin is a Shirazi,* we can 
understand, why he has given so many words belonging to the dialect 
of Shirfz, a few of which may be found in the B. and Vullers. 

Page 22. 

Line 21. For U* read ^Lu ; and 1. 2 from below, read Aid ul 

Ghafur, for 'Abdul Ghafdr. 

Page 24. 
Line 7 from below, read abai,/or abai. 

According to Tadzkirah by Sarkhush (last chapter), 'Abdurrashid 
discovered that the following verse of the Qoran (Bar. iv. 62)- 

pfroyto Jj\j dy°J\ L^' J ^ ] -^ M 
contains the tarikh of Aurangzeb's accession. 

To page 27. 
Sirajuddin in the preface to the ^ ^ gives a list of some of 
the books written by him — 

3. t*ir* ^' Uji ^ 

4 jytfi, LSI** <Mj ^Lr- 

7>^ j &i^ APfy j*P^ M* 

8. j h m ^^ tAr^J l&* V-^ 

9. j a*** ^!^* 3 u >3r- #>**• 

11. j*»j uil e* 3 ;* * iUi ^" >ff *£**** 

12. ^ j>* f hji ^*^° dy ^^ 

13. sysio^Uiy vL>^>> i3^ r^-^ 

# Mirza Nausha calls him ^^iA . 

1868.] Contributions to Persian Lexicography. 71 

15. j *S\j>j jj*^ *-A*j>> [&&" (SV(\ 

1(5. t^JacL j i&Lebj ^ oJLfli 

To this long list, we have to add the works mentioned on pp. 25 to 
27 ; the ^yJl^i^s^ majma* unnafdis, a tadzkirah of Persian poets, 
alphabetically arranged according to the takhalluc ;* and the &ud\ jd\j'-> 
nawddir ialfdz, a dictionary of those Hindi words whose equivalents 
are rarely met with in Arabic and Persian. 

Page 30. 

Line 21, read fifteen years' labour, for fifteen years, labour. 

Page 32. 

Line 4. Read 17, for 27. 

Page 39. 

Line 15. I do not know, whether Jannatdstdni, or Jannatdshi/dni, 
or both, be correct. In some historical books both terms are used _pro- 
miscue, in many dshydni, in others dstdni. In the MS. of the Maasir- 
ulumara, mentioned in the note of p. 65, dshyani has every where been 
carefully coirected to dstdni. Even in Akbar's laqab, I have found 
dstdni, for dshydni. There is no doubt that dshydni conveys a better 
meaning, than dstdni. Line 5 from below, read of Akbar's mother, for 
of one of Akbar's ivives. 

Line 3 from below, read teacher, for pupil. The pious are attracted 
by God. 

Page 37. 

To the Indian pronunciations mentioned in *., add — ui^lis)^ 
ghazi uddfn, for cjhdziddin ; u^^jl^vi Diddrbahhsh, for (jS^jt^^ 
JDddarbahhsh ; *^"^^ baghichah, for B-sp"^ bdgchah. The Indian pro- 
nunciation olsr*"* 5 , for*', is said to be Chagatai. 

* The MS. of our Society, No. 129, goes only to the letter — he; nor do I 
know, whether Arzu completed the work. I may mention that this MS., 
to judge from a marginal remark which the binder has half cut away, is 
written by Sayyid Ghulam 'Ali of Belgram, Arzu's nephew. He was himself a 
poet, and £rzu has mentioned him under his takhalluc A'zdd. 

From this book, it also appears that the Surmah i Sulaimdni, the twenty- 
fourth dictionary of p. 5, was compiled by the poet (j>jo>j| £3 Taqi Auhadi 

of Icfahan, the well-known author of a Tadzkirah. He came to India during 
the reign of Jahangir (1605 to 1627), and must not be confounded with the 
poet Taqi, of Shustar, one of Akbar's nobles ; vide A. A. p. 230, No. 352. The 
concluding chapter of the Mir-dt ul 'A'lam gives a few of their verses. 

72 Contributions to Persian Lexicography. [No. 1, 

Page 44. 
Line 2, Ye&dfollotvs, for ollows. 
Line 11, read o^Lr? buri?iish, for c^iri yurinish. 

Page 45. 
Line 20, read ^T dbraJi, for ^. 

Page 50. 
Line 19, remove the asterisk after the word koh. 

Page 53. 
Line 5, read <jwjj--*> sozish, for Jyj^ sorish. 

lUpf In conclusion I may mention that this paper is an extract of 
a larger work written by me, entitled " Contributions to Persian 
Lexicography." About six years ago, Major Lees asked me to compile 
a Persian Dictionary. A part of it has been completed. But as the 
costs of the undertaking appeared too great, in proportion to the assis- 
tance which the Government of India then granted, the work was not 
proceeded with, though a specimen sheet had been issued. 

Since then I have been comparing the Persian Dictionaries written 
by natives, and correcting various lexicographical MSS. in my posses- 
sion. I trust in a short time to have sufficient leisure, to see the whole 
of my " Contributions" through the press, though I should prefer the 
compilation of a Persian Dictionary itself, if the Government or a 
learned Society were inclined to defray the printing charges. 

H. Bl. 

1868.] Description of a Hindu Temple converted into a Mosque. 73 

Description of a Hindu Temple converted into a Mosque at Gaga- 
nes'var, Zild Medinipur. — By W. Herschel, Esq., B. G. 8. 
[Received 21st December, 1867-3 
This is another fine specimen of the stone "buildings to he found 
in the South-western parts of Medinipur. I visited it in 1866. The 
plan of the building is an oblong enclosure. Outside, nothing is to be 
seen but a flat wall, about 15 feet high, of clean cut massive laterite 
stones, with no other ornament than a square beading of the same style 
as that described for Chandrarekha Garh at page 183 of the Journal. 
(Vol. XXXV. pt. i.) The long side is about 312 feet, and the other 252 
feet, outside. There is no opening anywhere in the wall except at the 
one narrow solid gate-way, so that the place looks queer and forbid- 
ding. Perhaps for this reason it is called a Garh by the people, and 
possibly enough it was so used, when occasion required, as a defence 
against Mahrattas. But the plan of the building is that of an ordinary 
Mandir, in the centre of a large courtyard surrounded by a high solid 
wall, on the inner side of which, the whole way round, is a row 
of serais like cloisters. The wood cut below shews one such serai. 

From each of the squat square piers an arch (so to call it, though it 
is only laminated as in the sketch) springs across the cloister to the 

74 Description of a Hindoo temple converted into a Mosque. [No. 1, 

outer wall; so that each serai is formed of three such doorways 
as in the sketch, and the flat wall for the fourth side. The perspec- 
tive view down the cloister in the inside, shewing some twenty of 
these arches is very impressive, owing to the massiveuess of the 
work. Bach opening is about 10 feet high. A very few of the 
ornamental pillars are rounded, and the (apparent but not real) key- 
stone in each serai has a lotus with a pendant pistil. These are the 
only curved lines in the building. All the rest is severely straight. 
The South-western corner of the enclosure is a good deal ruined, 
shewing the huge stones to have been held together in some parts 
with iron clamps. At the Western side a white stone is let into the 
wall, hearing a Uriya inscription, which I could not decipher or get 
deciphered at the time, though it is legible enough where not defaced 
The villagers declare it was purposely defaced by a certain officer of 
Government, who has, however, denied the charge on enquiry, the 
week and month are legible, but unfortunately the year has been 
defaced. The villagers can give no conception as to the date, which 
must he inferred from the stones. 

In the centre stood one of the ordinary tall many fluted Hindu 
temples, consisting only of a spire over the Ling, and a small room m 
front of it. The sketch given of the temple at Chandrarekha (Ante 
Vol XXXV pt I p. 185,) would have suited this one also. The temple, 
except the foundations, has been entirely destroyed by the « Moghals" 
as the villagers call the Muhammedans here. It has gone to make he 
platform of the Mosque which now stands at the Western end of the 
oblong Where the Ling used to stand, a well has been sunk by a 
pious or treasure-seeking Brahmin, who gave out that the Ling had 
retired there. He failed to recover it, and carved instead two com- 
mon idols on two slabs of stone, which lie in one of the cloisters, 
receiving very precarious worship from the people. 

The Mosque itself is built of new small stones. There is nothmg 
noteworthy about it except the unusual smallness of the entrances, 
generally so handsome in Muhammadan buildings. Though in the 
form of a pointed arch, they are only cut out of the wall, as it were 
Inside, however, is a good specimen of a true arch, crowning an almost 
omplete laminated arch. The sketch of it, given below, is perhaps 
th inspection. The little entrance at the end (as well as another 



1868.] Description of a Hindu Temple converted into a Mosque. 75 

like it) has, instead of seven or eight stones in arch, only one cut 
like a key-stone. But as the entrance is cut through solid masonry 
and is small, there was no need of any key-stone,andit has sunk down 
for want of pressure on its sides. I note this, because it is difficult 
to guess why the key- stone was put there at all, unless it was to give 
the appearance of an arch. The dome is only a weak rubble and mortar 
thing, which is falling in. There was once a village of 300 houses of 
Muhammadans near Gaganes'var. Nothing is left of them but the 
mounds of the village and this mosque, and some Persian words in 
the Zemindari vocabulary. The Zemindar has no records of them in 
his papers. I do not suppose the original building is more than three 
or four hundred years old. In the inscription it is called a " bera," 
and its name among the villagers is " the Karambera." 

Note by the Editor.— The inscription alluded to above is in the Uriya 
language and character, but seven out of eight lines of it being defaced 
by the strokes of a hatchet or some other blunt iron instrument, the 

76 Description of a Hindoo temple converted into a Mosque. 

purport of it cannot be fully made out. The first line alone is legible ; 
it begins by stating that, " in the invincible reign of the auspicious 
hero and Maharaja S'ri Pratapakapales'vara Deva, on Wednesday the 
22nd of Vaisakha, in the year - (?) the building of the enclosure of 
S'ri Gaganes'vara."— (S'riVira S'ri' Pratdpa-kapdlesvara Deva Malid- 
rdjanlcaru vijaya rdje samasta anka S'ri ha mesa 22n. budhavdw S'ri 
Gaganes'vura Devanku vedd gatJiand).—The name of the king in its 
integrity does not occur in Prinsep's Tables ; the first part Pratapa is 
common enough, and was assumed by two of the Stiryavansi kings, 
but neither of them had Kapales'vara (lord of skulls) for the second 
part. That word, however, is a name of Mahadeva, and one of the 
most common names of that divinity is Rudra, and if this circum- 
stance would warrant the assumption of the two words being used 
synonymously, the name would be that of the unfortunate 
Prataparudra, who reigned from 1503 to 1524, and left thirty-two 
sons, all to be murdered by his minister Govinda Deo. The date of the 
enclosure, according to this conjecture, would be the first quarter of 

the sixteenth century. 

R. M. 




No. II.— 1868. 

On the History of the Burma Race. — By Colonel Sir Arthur Phayre, 

K. C. S. I., C. B., Bengal Staff Corps. 

[Received 25th July, 1868.] 

In the thirty-second volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, 
for the year 1864, the present writer, following the Maha-radza- 
weng, traced the history of the Burma race from the earliest time, 
down to the arrival of the two sons of the king of Tagiing at the 
site of the present town of Prome. The national chronicles from that 
time proceed with the history of the monarchy established at Tha- 
re-khet-ta-ra to the east of Prome. It is proposed in the present 
paper to condense into a brief narrative the principal events of that 
monarchy, and of the succeeding dynasties of Burman kings, which 
reigned at Pagan on the Irrawaddy river, about one hundred and 
eighty miles above Prome. 

The elder of the sons of the king of Tagung, named Mahatham- 
bawa, was married to his cousin Bhedarf, daughter of the hermit, 
who lived in a cave or cell, near a small stream which runs -into the 
Irrawaddy river below the town of Prome. The king of the Pyii 
tribe, named Tap-bii-la, who with his people dwelt in the land around 
Prome, had been exposed to attacks by tribes coming from Southern 
Arakan. He had either been killed or taken prisoner. His queen 
still ruled. But the Kan-ran tribe from Arakan attacked her also. 

74 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

The Pyd repelled the attack. The Kan-ran fled and returned to or 
then established themselves at, Than-dwai, (Sandoway), and in the 
seven hill districts lying along the eastern side of the Arakau 
mountain range in that neighbourhood. The queen oi the Pyd then 
established herself at the Thagga lake. After a time she rescued 
the sovereignty of her people to Mahathambawa. She was of the 
true Sakya race, descended from Md-dd-tseit-ta, son of Kan Radzagy., 
who, as before related, had been made by his father king over the 
tribes Pyd, Kanran, aud Thek or Sak. Mahathambawa made the 
Pyu queen his second wife. This was in the year 60 of religion. 
The Pyd queen gave birth to a daughter, aud soon after died Maha- 
thambawa died in the year of religion 66, aged twenty-six years. 
At the time of his death Queen Bhedari was pregnant with the son to 
whom she afterwards gave birth, and through whom the royal race 
was continued. He was called Bwot-ta-bdng. 

Mahathambawa was succeeded, by bis brother Tsu-la-tham-bawa. 
Bhedari became his queen also. He reigned thirty-five years and 
died in the year 101 of religion. 

Bwot-ta-bung now became king. The time had come when the 
predictions of Gaudama were to be fulfilled. The city of Tha-re- 
khet-ta-ra was, with the help of the heavenly beings termed Nat, 
built on an extensive plain, to the eastward of the present town of 
Prome This was in the year 101 of religion. This king had great 
power and authority. He married two wives ; first, his half sister 
born to his father by the queen of the Pyd people, and named 
Tsanda-de-wi; and second, Bbe-tsan-di, the daughter of the king of 
the Na-g& or dragons. His reign is described as glorious, and he 
built many pagodas. A cave and a well of water, are still shown by 
the people of Prome, as those of the great and good king Bwot-ta- 
' bdno- He ruled over many countries adjoining his native kingdom. 
BuUie was guilty of one act of injustice which diminished his power 
and shortened his days. A poor woman, who sold bread, bestowed 
fivepaioflandontheEahans of a monastery. The king, wishing 
to possess the land, confiscated it. His good fortune at once 
abandoned him. His celestial weapons no longer had any power and 
his glory declined. He then restored the land. But the evil result 
of his sin could not be shaken off. His tributary kings withheld 

1868.] On the History of Ihe Burma Race. 75 

their tribute. He went himself to demand it, throughout all Dzain- 
bu-di-pa or the continent of India. But misfortune followed him. 
The sea dragons were offended, and carried his ship to their own 
regions. In other words his ship foundered at sea. This happened 
after a reign of seventy years when he was one hundred and five 
years old. " Reflecting," observes the writer of the Maha-radzii- 
weng, " on the story of king Dwot-ta-bung, the lords of great 
" countries should remember, that it is not proper to take so much 
" as a single fruit, or a single flower, of those things which pertain 
" to the three precious jewels." 

Dwot-ta-bung was succeeded by his son Dwot-ta-ran in the year 
171 of religion. He reigned twenty-two years. 

No particular event is related of the succeeding king.s until Thi-ri- 
rit came to the throne in the year of religion 424. He had a deep 
regard for religion, and the people during his reign were happy. 
But w T ith him the race of Dwot-ta-bung came to an end, and an- 
other dynasty succeeded. 

The story is thus told. A certain man of that country placed his 
young son with a Rahan at a monastery, where he became a Tha- ma- 
ne or probationer for the higher degrees of the order. The Rahan 
liked him and taught him the Bf-da-gat and Be-deng. The Rahan 
had a cock who, when he crowed, seemed to say, " Whoso eats my 
head will be king hereafter." The Rahan, hearing this, called the 
youth and told him to prepare the cock for food. The probationer 
did so, but in the preparation the head accidentally touched the hinder 
parts of the bird. Thinking this rendered it unclean for the Rahan, 
he ate it himself. The Rahan asked him where the head was, and 
the probationer told him. The Rahan thought, " Now we shall see 
if the animal's crowing comes true." He had the young man edu- 
cated in every branch of knowledge, and then entrusted to the care 
of a nobleman. At length he was introduced into the palace, and 
the king retained him there. The king, having no son of his own, 
adopted the young man, and created him crown-prince. Eventually 
he succeeded to the throne, and reigned fifty-one years. This king 
was called Nga-ta-ba, because the cock in crowing seemed to utter 
those words ; and also because he was of another lineage and not of 
the existing royal race. No explanation is given in the history re- 

76 On f^ History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

gavding tlie cause of this change of dynasty, nor is any hint given 
as to the lineage of Nga-ta-ba. _ 

He was succeeded by his son. The descendants of this king are 
represented as filling the throne until the year of religion 638. The 
last king of this race was Thupignya, who came to the throne in the 
year of religion 627, or A. D. 84. He is described as a good king, 
and devoted to religion. Having a quarrel with the Kan-ran king 
whose territory lay in the southern part of the country now called 
Arakan, he collected an army, and marched against him. The country 
was subdued, and the king found there a golden image of Gaudama 
ei-hty-eight cubits high. On account of this image he remained there 
for three years. His nobles entreated him to return. He ordered a 
great raft to be made in order to bring the golden image by sea 
round the high cape called Na-ga-rit* to his own country. But his 
nobles thinking this could not be accomplished, consulted together to 
evade the king's order. They determined to melt down the large 
golden image, but to appease the king's anger, they made twenty- 
eight smaller images which they presented to him, and kept the rest 
of the gold for themselves. The king then returned to Tha-re-khet- 
ta-ra When the people of the country brought the gold of the holy 
image into daily use, the seven excellent Nats who had presided over 
the building of the city were offended, and the whole country became 
confused and distracted with robbery and violence. There was at 
that time a saying abroad that a man named Nga-tsa-kan, (which 
means in the Burmese language a corn-sieve) would destroy the 
country. One day a sudden gust of wind carried away the corn-sieve of 
a woman, who followed it crying aloud, « My corn-sieve, my corn- 
sieve " (Nga-tsa-kan, Nga-tsa-kan.) The people, much alarmed, sup- 
posed that Nga-tsa-kan had really come. They separated into three 
hostile divisions, and the king died at the same time after a reign of 

eleven years. 

The three divisions of the people were Pyu or Byu, Kam-ran or 
Kan-ran, and Mran-ma. The last is the present national name for 

* Na ™ rit or Na-ga-nhit is the name of a well-known high bluff of land on 
«. nn^of Burma The word implies, the place where the *aga or sea dragon 
the coast of Bmma ine ^ora y , * Dwot-ta-bung was borne to the 

t k L 8 l?L sea b d— The adjoining' coast is, even in these days, the 

P /fluent wre^fe The native name is preserved in Cape Negrais, a 

™£&W^»** been handed down by the old Portuguese voyagers. 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Bace. 77 

the whole people, which is first mentioned in the Maha-radza-weng at 
this time. The Pyu and Kan-ran peoples fought. The chiefs agreed 
to settle their quarrel in a way already known in the history of their 
race, that is, by the building of a pagoda. In this peaceable contest, 
the Pyu tribe was victorious, and the Kan-ran people retired. The 
Pyu tribe then fought among themselves. One portion then joined 
with the Kya-barg tribe, supposed to have been settled on the west 
of the Irrawaddy, near to what is now the country of the Yau tribe, 
and also with a portion of the Thek tribe. One division established 
themselves in the hilly district to the south-east of Prome called 
Taung-ngyo. After three years, they were there attacked by the 
Takings and crossed the Irrawaddy river to Padaung. Being attack- 
ed there by the Kan-ran tribe, they went north to Men-don. After 
this they moved to the east of the Irrawaddy, and settled under king 
Tha-mug-da-rit at Yun-hlwot-guen. A period of thirteen years had 
been occupied in the migrations since the destruction of Tha-re-khet- 
ta-ra. King Tha-mug-da-rit is called a nephew of king Thupignya. 
The country where he settled was afterwards called Air-mad-da-na 
also Tam-pa-di-pa ; and the city Pouk-kan or Pu-gan. King Tha- 
mug-da-rit established nineteen villages, on the land of which the 
city was to be built. 

The historian of the Maha-radza-weng then narrates at great length 
the ancient legends concerning the country of Pugan, so as to connect 
the kings of the ancient royal race of Tagung, on the upper Irra- 
waddy, with the kings of the great city which was now to arrive. 
The scene opens as follows : — - 

• l When the lord Gau-cla-ma was still on the earth, he went about 
" from country to country in Mits-tsi-ma-de-tha. Standing on the 
" top of the Tan-kyi* hill, and looking he saw on the top of a pouk 
" tree, which grew on a steep bank, a white heron and a black crow. 
" In a fork of the tree, lay a great lizard having seven tongues. 
11 At the foot of the tree a frog crouched on the ground. Seeing 
" these the lord smiled. His younger brother the lord A'nanda 
" asked respectfully, why he smiled. The lord replied, ' Beloved 

* This is the name of a peak on the range of hills on the bank of the Irra- 
waddy river opposite to Pugan. The name Pugan or Pouk-gan is said to be 
derived from the Pouk tree. (Butea frondosa.) 

a ( 

1! < 

78 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

« « Ananda, after I shall have attained Neib-ban 651 years, then in 
" ' this place a great country will arise. At the top of a pouk tree, 
« « a white heron and a black crow perching, the meaning is, that in 
« ' that country the performance of charitable and religious duties will 
« « abound ; and irreligious deeds will also abound. As to the hzard 
<■ < with seven tongues, the people of that country, without rice fields 
- or plantations, but supporting themselves by commerce, will use false 
« ■ words, and truth will gradually decline. The meaning of he little 
"'frog at the root of the tree is, that he who first establishes that 
country, (king Tha-mig-da-rit,) in his time great birds great 
boars, great tigers, and flying monsters will be kings or leaders. 
- They will be destroyed by a powerful king.' Such was the 
« divine prediction. The chief who struck down those enemies was 
" be who became king, and is known as Pyu Tsauti." 

The history of Pyu Tsauti, who afterwards became king of Pugan, 
is then related. The reader's attention is called to the emigration of 
one of the Tha-ki princes of K.ip-pi-la-wot, named Da-za Badza, and 
his arrival on the Irrawaddy as before narrated in the early part of 
the Maha-radza-weng. This king built the city of upper Pugan, after 
having married Na-ga-tshein of the ancient Tha-ki race. Though 
their kingdom was overthrown by invaders, yet the line of kings 
descended from them was not destroyed. In the seventeenth genera- 
tion Tha-do Maha-radza of this race was king. His son was Maha- 
thambawa from whom descended the kings of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra as 
has already been described. But he had another son from whom 
descended Thado A-deits-tsa, who lived about the time that the city 
of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra was destroyed. The country of Tagilng was at 
that time deeply disturbed, and A-deits-tsa, driven from his throne, 
remained concealed near Ma-le, a place on the Irrawaddy about eighty 
miles above Ava. He supported himself by cultivation. In his 
garden was a well, in which dwelt a Na-ga or dragon which was 
worshipped by the country people. The queen of A-deits-tsa gave 
birth to a son. He was named Tsau-ti. The Naga loved him so, 
that he and the Naga queen watched over the child. At seven years 
of age he was placed under a hermit, who instructed him in litera- 
ture, science, and religion. As the hermit predicted that he would 
become a king, his name was changed to Meng-ti, and he was taught 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 71) 

kingly knowledge. When sixteen years of age, as the divine predic- 
tion had to be accomplished, he asked leave from his father and 
mother to go to Pugan, then lately established, and they gave him 
permission. He went there and lived in the house of an old Pyii 
man and his wife. They having no children, loved him as their own 
son. Hence he was called Pyu-tsau-ti. At that time the country 
was infested with great tigers, birds, and flying creatures, which 
devoured the people. A monster bird required a young maiden to 
be supplied to him daily, and on the seventh day, seven maidens. 
The king of the country could not withstand those monsters. The 
young prince, confident in his own strength, destroyed them all. King 
Tha-mug-da-rit, who for twelve years had been oppressed by these 
creatures, was exceedingly rejoiced, and went to see the young man. 
The lineage of the prince was then learned. The king gave him his 
daughter in marriage and appointed him crown-prince. 

The historian here enters on a long dissertation as to the line of 
princes descended from the son, as if feeling that doubt might exist 
as to the true descent of Tsau-ti, and therefore of the present royal 
family of Burma. He recounts the stories given in former histories 
of the birth of Tsau-ti from a she-dragon and the Nat of the sun. 
The she dragon, it was said in these fabulous tales, produced an egg, 
from which came forth Tsau-ti. " But," observes the historian " this 
" is impossible, for in such case the son would either have been a 
11 Nat like his father, or a dragon like his mother ; whereas all agree 
" that he was a man. It is evident therefore that the story has 
" arisen from his father's name A-deits-tsa which means sun ; and 
11 from the dragon queen having watched over him when he was an 
" infant. But truly all kings from Ma-ha Thama-da to Gau-da-ma, 
u were by descent of the race of the sun. And so it has continued 
" to the present time." Having settled this point of the prince's 
descent, the historian justifies his rejection of previous legends in the 
following words : " Wise men have said, an old tree if bad, although 
" old, must be cast aside. That such has happened before, is evident 
" from the history of Pugan itself. For, during thirty generations of 
" kings in that city, the doctrines of the heretical A-ri sect were 
* ( believed in, until the time of that sagacious king A-nan-ra-hta to 
" be hereafter described, who listening to the instruction of the great 

30 On the History of the Burma Race, [No. 2, 

« teacher Sheng A-ra-han, the erroneous doctrines of the A-ri sect 
« were renounced. Those A-ris, in order to propagate such doctrines 
« as they pleased among the people, used to make a book according 
« to their desire, and put it in the hollow of a thakhwot tree, and 
« when the bark which grows rapidly, had closed over it, they would 
" pretend a dream, and persuade the king to go to search for a book 
" in the tree, which being found, both king and people believed what 
« was false. So the story of a prince born from the egg of a dragon, 
" whether old or not old, appeared to readers as if ancient and true, 
« but nevertheless must be rejected. What has now been advanced 
" is more credible, and more in accordance with the ancient records of 
" Pngan ; therefore it should be made permanent." 

This dissertation on the lineage of Pyu Tsauti, or Pyu Mengti, is 
a fair specimen of explanations given in the history followed by the 
present writer, for occasional deviations from previous stories m the 
Burmese chronicles. The present version of the fable, is no doubt 
more acceptable to the supposed descendants of Pyu Mengti, than the 
legend of his birth from a dragon's egg. 

Pyu Mengti became crown-prince at sixteen years of age. King 
Tha-mug-da-rit died after a reign of forty-five years. A hermit, for 
some reason not explained, was raised to the throne. He reigned for 
fifteen years, and is called Kathe Kyung. Pyu Mengti then became 
king in the year 89 of the last era established at Prome. His power 
and glory were great. His dominion extended to the upper course 
of the Irrawaddy. The Chinese having invaded the province of 
Kau-tham-bi, which lies to the eastward of Bhaman, the king with 
a vast army repelled them. Near his capital, he built a pagoda where 
he had killed the monster bird. He also built many other religious 
buildings, and caused books of laws to be compiled for the benefit of 
his people. He died after a reign of seventy-five years, aged one 

hundred and ten. 

In the history of the Pugan kingdom after the death of Pyii 
Mengti, it is related that the city was much enlarged by his descend- 
ant Theng-lay-gyung, and was called Thi-ri-pits-tsa-ya, probably 
from the site of the palace having been changed. In the reign of the 
next king Kyaung-du-rit, who came to the throne in the year 931 
of religion, (A. D. 388), it is related that the important event of the 

1 8(38.] On the History of the Burma Race. 81 

introduction of the complete Buddhist scriptures, Bi-da-gat, into 
Burma, occurred. This event has probably been materially antedated, 
as indeed appears from what is stated subsequently in the his- 
tory of the reign of A-nan-ra-hta more than six hundred years 
Liter. But in the history it is related how at this time, the 
entire Bi-da-gat was brought to Tha-htun, then the chief city of 
the Talaing kingdom, by the great teacher Bud-da-gau-tha. The 
story of this great teacher appears to have been taken from the 
Mahawanso of Ceylon, for older Burmese accounts generally represent- 
ed Bud-da-gau-tha as an inhabitant of Tha-htun. The event is thus 
narrated. " About this time it is recorded in the great lladza-weng, 
that the celebrated teacher, the lord Bud-da-gau-tha, went from the 
country of Tha-htun to Ceylon to bring the books of the Bi-da-gat. 
In the new Badza-weng, it is said that he crossed from Mits-tsi-ma- 
de-tha ; but the case is really thus : For more than nine hundred 
years after the establishment of religion,* the disciples of Yau-na-ka- 
maha-dham-ma-rak-khi-ta, and of Thau-na and U't-ta-ra, repeated by 
heart the three great divisions of the Bi-da-gat. There were as yet 
no letters in Dzam-bu-di-pa. At that time a young Brahman was 
living near the Baudi tree. He was learned in medicine and mathe- 
matics. Wandering about in Dzam-bu-di-pa, disputing the doctrines 
of others, he came to a monastery, and in the vicinity began to recite 
in a soft voice. The great teacher Sheng Re-wa-ta hearing, said : 
■ This man is wise, it will be proper to discuss with him.' He there- 
fore called out, ' Who is there braying like an ass ?' The young man 
replied, ' You understand then the braying of asses ?' and then to his 
questions Sheng Revvata gave suitable replies. But the young 
Brahman knew nothing of the divine law. He therefore became a 
Kalian to study the three great books of the Bi-da-gat. From that 
time, he became as celebrated as a Phra, and was named Bud-da-gau- 
tha. He wished to study commentaries on the Bi-da-gat. The 
Sheng Re-wa-ta, knowing this, said : ' In Dzam-bu-di-pa there is only 
the Pali, there is not the commentary ; teachers with various gifts of 
mind are scarce ; but in Ceylon the commentaries are pure. The 

* The assertion in the text must mean that until after the year 900 of 
religion, there were no Scriptures in Burma or Suvanabhumi, that is, Tha-htun. 
The term Dzam-bu-di-pa, which is generally applied to India only) is here 
applied by a bold license to those two countries. 


82 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

Pali divine revelations as repeated in the three great councils, were 
carried to Ceylon by the lord Ma-hin-da. Going there where the 
commentaries exist in the Singalese language, learn it and translate 
them into Magadan Saying this, he sent him, as is written in the 
book Tsu-la-weng." 

The history then gives in detail several versions of the story of the 
sacred books being procured in Ceylon by Bud-da-gau-tha, and 
brought to the Indo-Chinese nations. The great teacher is represent- 
ed as the religious benefactor or missionary to the Burmese, Takings, 
Arakanese, Shans, Siamese and Cochin Chinese. But he was led to 
Tha-htun by a miraculous direction at the last moment. The history 
proceeds thus : " Lo! the lord Bud-da-gau-tha, after having obtained 
permission from king Maha-na-ma, by presenting him with a white ele- 
phant, brought away the book Wi-thu-di-mag, the three great divisions 
of the' Bidagat, and the commentaries. But when he was on his way 
to Dzam-bu-di-pa, a Thagya came and warned him, saying, There is 
no place in Mits-tsi-ma-de-tha where religion can be established ; the 
places where it is to be firmly established are situated on the south- 
east side of Mits-tsi-ma-de-tha ; they are nine hundred yuzanas in cir- 
cumference ; they lie on the outskirts, and are known as Tha-re- 
khet-ta-ra, The-ri-pits-tsa-ra, Ba-ma-ngya and other countries. Reli- 
gion shall be established in them for full five thousand years. The 
books should be conveyed thither. The great teacher accordingly 
came to Tha-htun in the country of Ramangya, then called Thu-dam- 
ma-wa-ti, and also Thu-wan-na-bhum-mi." 

The historian states that this event occurred in the year 946 of 
religion, or A. D. 403. " Thus," he concludes, " in order to set forth 
distinctly the account of the arrival in the Burma country of the 
scriptures, the root and foundation of religion, which had been omit- 
ted, in the great and the middle Radza-weng, I have extracted the 
narrative thereof from the religious books." 

King Kyung-du-rit died after a reign of twenty -five years. No 
particular event is recorded until the reign of Thaik-taing. He 
changed the site of the city from Thi-ri-pits-tsa-ya to Tha-ma-hti and 
called it Tam-pa-wa-ti. The change of the position of the capital 
city to the distance only of a few miles, is still a common practice 
with Burmese kings. It is prompted sometimes by superstition 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 83 

motives, and sometimes by mere caprice. In the instances mentioned 
of change of the capital Pu-gan, it is probable that the king's palace 
was rebuilt, and only a portion of the population required to remove. 
In modern times when the capital was changed from Ama-ra-pii-ra 
to Man-da-le, a distance of six miles, the whole population, numbering 
one hundred thousand souls was forced to accompany the court to the 
new capital. 

From this time a considerable interval elapsed without any event 
which can be mentioned as materially bearing on the national history. 
Several usurpers are recorded as having gained the throne by artifice 
or violence. The most remarkable of these was Thenga-ra-dza, 
called also Pup-pa Tsau Kalian. He is said to have been the teacher 
to the queen of Htwon-khyit. On the death of that king, he married 
the queen and seized the throne. Being a learned man, he reformed 
the calendar. He ascended the throne in the year 535 of the era 
established by A-de-tya king of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra. He reigned 
twenty-seven years, and in the last year of his reign, which would 
have been 562 of that era, he established a new one. Having a deep 
respect for the ancient royal race, he declared prince Shwe-un-thi the 
son of his predecessor, heir to the throne. That prince married 
Thenga Radzas daughter and succeeded his father-in-law. * 

In the reign of Pyin-bya who ascended the throne in the year of 

religion 1385, the site of the city, or rather probably of the palace, 

was again changed to a position called more especially Pu-gan. This 

* The existing Burmese era commences from this time. The Burmese year 
begins when the sun is supposed to enter the first sign of the zodiac, now 
about the 13th or 14th of April. The Burmese year 1230, commenced in 
April 1868. It would therefore appear that the existing era commenced when 
the sun entered the sign Aries, A. D. 639. The Burmese chronology has been 
thus adjusted with the year of Gautama's Neibban, called in the Maha-radza- 
weng the year of religion. The first king of the dynasty, of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra, 
named Ma-ha-tham-ba-wa is stated to have become king in the year 60 of 
religion = 483 B. C. The number of years of the reigns of all the kin°-s of 
Tha-re-khet-ta-ra and of Pugan, from that time to the end of the rei^n of 
Thenga Radza, as given in the history, and including an interre°-num of 
thirteen years, amount to 1120. This would therefore place the close ofTheno-a- 
radza's reign in the year 1180 of religion or 637 A. D. The Burmese ordinary 
year contains only 354 days. Every third year there is an intercalary month 
of thirty days. But the calendar is occasionally interfered with arbitrarily 
by order of the king, to adjust the reckoning of time with some supposed 
necessity, which depends upon superstitious prejudices. There is an apparent 
difference of two years between the time at which the present era is said to 
have been established, and that which is shown from the number of years or 
date which corresponds with 1868 A. D. namely 1230. 

g4 On the History of the Bwhna Race. [No. 2 

probably is the locality now shown to travellers as the site of the 
palace. The enclosure wall can still be traced by a line of earth 
mixed with brick. The magnificent temples built some centuries 
later, still exist entire, but of the palace, which no doubt was built of 
wood, not a vestige remains. This king also built the city of Tung- 
gweng to the south and called it Ra-ma-wa-ti. 

° After this the history frequently refers to the heretical religion 
which existed, of which the A-ri teachers were the priests. The false 
worship which was practiced is strongly denounced, apparently to 
enhance the merit of the revival of pure Buddhism under A-nan-ra-hta 
about four hundred years later. But before that king appears, the his- 
torian considers it necessary to make it clear, that he was of the true 
royal race, an object carefully kept in view throughout the history 
with reference to each king, from whom the present royal family 
claim descent. It is recorded that the thirty-fotirth king of Pugan, 
named Tan-net was deposed by an obscure youth called Nga-khwe. 
It is admitted that Nga-khwe was of obscure origin. He had been 
sold as a slave ; but his descent is traced from a younger brother of 
Thein-tsusan the twenty-sixth king of Pugan. He entered the 
service of king Tan-net as a groom. He soon rose in the king's 
favour and confidence. At length he acquired much influence, and 
entered into a conspiracy against the king, whom he murdered. He 
then seized the throne. He reigned nine years and was succeeded by 
his son Them-kho. A curious story is told of this king having been 
accidentally killed while hunting in the forest. The king, having 
been separated from his followers, and being hungry, entered the 
plantation of a hill man and plucked a cucumber. The hill man, not 
knowing the king, struck him with a spade, and killed him. The 
story is thus continued : " The groom of king Theimkho having 
come up and seeing the body of his master, asked the hill man, ' Why 
have you struck him to death V ' The hill man replied, < Your master 
plucked and ate my cucumbers, and shall I not strike him ?' The 
groom said craftily, ' He who kills a king always becomes king him- 
self.' The hill man answered, ' I don't wish to be a king. This year 
I am & king of cucumbers, which hang on the stalks in my plantation 
like sucking puppies.' The groom said, < You shall have your cucum- 
bers and enjoy also the pleasure of reigning as a king. The hap- 

1868.] On the History of (he Burma Race. 85 

piness of a king is excellent and exalted. He has good food and fine 
clothes. He lias gold, silver, elephants, horses, buffaloes, cows, goats, 
pigs, and rice in abundance.' The hill man, being thus persuaded, 
followed the groom. The groom secretly led the hill man into the 
palace, and told the whole story to the chief queen. She praised the 
groom for his discretion. The queen also, lest the country should 
become disturbed, gave out that the king was ill, and prevented all 
coming in and going out of the palace. The hill man was instructed, 
bathed, and perfumed. One of the queens of inferior rank being dis- 
respectful to him, the stone image at the gate of the palace, rushed 
in, and smote her to death. Seeing this all in the palace was fright- 
ened, as if they were in danger of being eaten up. The chief queen 
on the sixth day caused it to be proclaimed throughout the city, that 
the next day the king would appear, and all ministers, nobles, and 
officers were required to attend. Early next morning all went into 
the palace. When the gate of the inner palace was opened, all joining 
their hands bowed down their heads. But one of them insolently 
said, c Alas ! this is not our master, our lady, the queen, has not con- 
sulted us in this matter.' Suddenly one of the stone images at the 
gate of the palace, rushed in and smote him to death. Then all the 
ministers, nobles, and officers, and the whole country feared as if they 
were to be devoured. When the hill man became king he was very 
powerful. He took the title of Tsau Rahan. He made a delight- 
ful garden at his former cucumber plantation. The image of a great 
dragon w T as placed there. This image was worshipped ; for 
dragons being more powerful, and more excellent than men, great 
benefit may be derived from the worship of them. Moreover, as there 
were hollow temples in the countries of Tha-htun and Tha-re-khet- 
ta-ra, the king, after consulting the false Ari teachers, built five hollow 
temples. In each temple was placed an image, resembling neither 
Nat nor Phra. To these morning and evening, food and spirits were 
offered, and so they were propitiated and worshipped. At the time 
when the omniscient and excellent Phra was still existing, the religi- 
ous doctrine which was first established by Pun-na-hte in the Mram- 
m£ country ; in Tagiing, in Thare-khet-ta-ra, in A-ri-mad-da-na and 
in The-ri-pits-tsa-ra ; the true doctrines of religion were maintained 
during the reigns of many successive kings. Afterwards when the city 

80 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

of Tampawati was built, from the time of king Thaik-taing, the 
strength of religion gradually declined ; for the books of the Bi-da- 
gat being not yet, the king Tsau Rahan and the whole country 
believed the false doctrines of the great Ari teachers. The king 
Tsau Rahan indeed should have come to great destruction for killing 
a king, while he was yet a hill man cultivating a plantation ; but on 
accouut of the great merit acquired by the good works he had done 
in former existences, he obtained the rank of a king. Thus, in the 
divine law of the Phra, it is written, ' They who have acquired the 
destiny which adheres to merit, succeed though they strive not ; they 
who have not acquired merit, fail though they strive much.' There 
are numerous examples of the truth of this. As for the king Tsau 
Rahan, when the predestined successor, king Kyiing Phyii arrived, 
Tsau Rahan stood at the entrance of the palace and cried ' Who will 
be king while T am here ?' But at that moment the merit of 
his former good works was exhausted ; the stone image at the gate 
of the palace pushed him so that he fell headlong and died." 

He was succeeded by Kwon-tshau-kyiing-phyu. As this king 
was the father of A-nan-ra-hta, the great hero of the modern Burmese 
people, his descent and early history are carefully narrated. It has 
already been mentioned, that king Tannet was dethroned by a youth 
named, Nga Khwe. Kwon-tshau-kyoung-phyu was said to be a son 
of king Tannet, born after the death of his father. An usurper gener- 
ally retained in his harem, the queens of his predecessor ; so to pre- 
vent the suspicion of Kyoung-phyu being a son of Nga Khwe, it is 
stated that the chief queen of Tannet being pregnant, refused to 
remain in the palace after her husband's death, but fled secretly and 
hid herself at a place called Kyiing-phyii. In the Maha-radza-weng 
the story is thus related : " When Nga Khwe killed king Tannet, 
and took possession of the palace, the queen, who was pregnant, fear- 
ing that she would be seized by Nga Khwe. escaped from the palace 
and lived at a place called Kyung-phyii. This place was also called 
the dragon's road, or golden road which leads to the abode of dragons. 
There king Kyung-phyii was born. When he was a child, he one 
day went to play with the children of the place, and the children 
reviled him by calling him a fatherless boy, on this he complained to 
his mother. His mother replied, ' My dear son, your father was not 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Face. 87 

an on 

Unary man, he was king of this country. The present king 
killed him and deprived him of the kingdom. You were then in the 
womb, and I, fearing that I would be taken possession of by him, 
escaped and hid myself at this place, where you were born.' Kyiing- 
phyu on hearing this, made a vow, saying, ' May I succeed to the place 
of my royal father.' He then went to the city, and waited upon the 
reigning king. The king bestowed upon him the right to gather betel 
leaves* in the village or township of Let-htup. There the future 
king quietly supported and comforted his mother. Daily when he 
went out early on his occupation, his mother packed up for him his 
daily food. He used to open this bundle and eat his food beneath a 
tsring-gyan tree. Before eating any of his food, a handful of it was 
daily laid at the root of the tree in honour of the guardian Nat. The 
Nat thus pondered, ' This young man daily presents to me the first 
portion of his meal, what will happen to him hereafter ?' He saw 
that the young man before long would become a king. He therefore 
appeared to Kwon-tshau and said, ' You have presented to me daily 
the first portion of your food ; if you wish to be a great man, adhere 
to the worship of the Phra, and observe the five religious duties, 
always tell the truth, and repeat the ten a-nu-tha-ti two thousand 
times every day. Henceforth he habitually observed these instruc- 
tions. Considering this event it is proper to remember that religion 
was not altogether extinguished at Pugan. From that time the 
1 Thagya and all the Nats who support religion, assisted Kwon Tshau 
; and it began to be noised abroad that a Meng-lung, (embryo-king) 
: would appear at Pugan. As he was expected to appear upon a cer- 
tain day, all the people went in a body on that day to the hill called 
Tu-ywen-diing, to meet him. The Kwon-tshau resolved also to 
collect the betel leaves early in the morning, and go to see the Meng- 
lung. He therefore begged his mother to pack up his food earlier 
than usual. His mother did accordingly. He took the packet and 
went to Let-htup village before daylight, and having collected the 
betel leaves quickly, he made his way to Pugan to see the Meng- 
lung. A Thagya, in the disguise of an old man riding on horseback, 
came and said to the Kwon-tshau, ' Young man, I have business here' 
bine^t^ - d K ^* ^ ^ ^ his birth, co,J 

88 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

will you be pleased to take this horse to Pagan ?' Kwon-tshau re- 
plied, < Grandfather, I am in a hurry to arrive there to see the Meng- 
lung, therefore I shall not be able to take your horse with me.' The 
old man said ' Young man, would you not reach there sooner on horse 
back than by walking ? Take this jewelled crown and put it on your 
head ; put these ruby rings on your fingers ; hold the sword and 
spear in your hands ; if I should be long in coming, go on until you 
come to the king's plain.' Then Kwon-tshau, after having put the 
rings on his fingers, wearing the jewelled crown on his head, and 
holding the Thi-la-wan-tha sword and the A-rein-da-ma spear in his 
hands, all given by the Tha-gya, rode swiftly to see the Meng-lung 
at Pugan. The nobles, the ministers and the people, on seeing the 
Kwon-tshau come riding towards them, in the dress and jewels given 
by the Tha-gya, in which he shone brightly as the rising sun, fell down 
and prostrated themselves before him. Then Kwon-tshau thought 
within himself ' I am the Meng-lung/ and remembering what the 
Nat of tsdng-gyan tree had said, he rode at once to the palace. King 
Tsau Rahan stood at the entrance, and said, < Who will dare to enter 
while I am here ?' But the stone image at the gate pushed him 
down, and he fell headlong and died. Tsau Rahan had married three 
sisters The eldest was raised to the rank of the southern queen. 
The second was called the middle, and the third the northern queen. 
At the time of king Tsau Rahan's death, Kyi-tso who was afterwards 
king, had been lor nine months in the womb of the southern queen. 
Tsuk-ka-te, who also became king afterwards, had been then six 
months in the womb of the middle queen. When Kwon-tshau be- 
came king, he took these queens as his own. Anan-ra-hta was 
brought forth by the northern queen. When Kyi-tso and Tsuk- 
ka-te were of age, they built a very fine monastery and invited 
the king Kwon-tshau to join in consecrating it. Kwon-tshau, 
without any suspicion of danger, went according to their invita- 
tion. Then Kyi-tso and Tsuk-ka-te seized the king, and forced him 
to become a Rahan. They spread a report that the king, out of 
regard to his future welfare had voluntarily taken the vows of a 
Rahan. Thus king Kwon-tshau Kydng-phyu after a reign of 
twenty-two years was deposed in the eightieth year of his age." It is 
stated that he lived to the age of one hundred and fifteen years, 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 89 

The prince Kye-tso then succeeded to the throne. He was passion- 
ately fond of hunting. Once he came to a spot where a hunter was 
hid in the forest, watching the drinking-place of a deer. The hunter, 
seeing the jangal move, shot an arrow, which pierced the king, so that 
he died. 

He was succeeded by his brother Tsuk-ka-te. At this time the 
dethroned king Kwutshan Kyungphya was in his monastery, and 
his queen with her son A-nau-ra-hta-tsau supported him. Tsuk-ka- 
te deeply insulted A-nau-ra-hta, who then begged from his father the 
horse, regalia, and arms, formerly given to him by the Thagya. 
Having received these, A-nau-ra-hta, raised an army, and attacked his 
elder brother (cousin). They fought together singly ; Tsuk-ka-te, 
being thrust through with a spear, fled on horseback towards the 
river, where he died. The place is to this day called Myin-ka-pa, 
or " horse-swerving place." The mother of A-nau-ra-hta, weeping 
for her sister's son, built pagodas in memory of his death and her own 

A-nau-ra-hta, after the death of his brother, (cousin), went to his 
father at the monastery, and besought him to take the throne once 
more. But Kyungphya refused on account of his great age, and 
A-nau-ra-hta then took possession of the palace, and was consecrated 
king. This, according to the history, was in the year 379 of the exist- 
ing Burmese era, answering to 1017 A. D. But 372 appears to be 
the correct date, derived from the Maha-Radza-Weng itself. 

It is the glory of A-nau-ra-hta that he restored the ancient power 
of the Burmese monarchy, and effected a thorough reformation of 
religion and of morals among the priesthood. The events of his 
reign are recorded with much minuteness. At first he was deeply 
troubled in conscience from having killed his elder brother. But he 
was comforted in a dream by the king of the Tha-gyas, who advised him 
" to build pagodas, monasteries, and travellers' rest-houses, and to 
devote a portion of the merit of such good works to his elder brother • 
besides that, wells, tanks, embankments, canals, and rice-field water 
channels should be constructed for the good of the people, and the 
merit be given to the elder brother." The king obeyed these direc- 
tions, and so expiated the sin of which he had been guilty. 

A-nau-ra-hta, being desirous of renewing the connection of the 

90 On the History of the Burma Bace. [No. 2, 

royal family of Burma with the kings of India, now sent a nobleman 
to demand in marriage a daughter of the king of Wethali. This 
kingdom is represented still nourishing as a Buddhist country. The 
king of Wethali gave his daughter, who was brought through Arakan 
across the mountains. But on the way the nobleman was faithless to 
his charge ; and on arrival at the capital city, he represented to the 
king that the princess was only an adopted, and not a real, daughter of 
the king of Wethali. A-nau-ra-hta, therefore, did not bring her into 
the clue" building of the palace, but placed her, first, in the western 
house, and afterwards in the village of Pa-reim-ma, where she lived. 
Nevertheless, she was pregnant by A-nau-ra-hta; and when her time 
was near, an earthquake shook the whole land. The astrologers were 
consulted, and they replied that he who would hereafter succeed to the 
throne, was then in the womb of a woman towards the north. The 
king, fearing evil consequences, had all the pregnant women towards 
the north sought out and put to death. But the Indian princess was 
concealed by the care and devotion of a young Naga, or dragon youth, 
and her life was thus saved. The astrologers afterwards said the child 
had been born. The king then caused six thousand sucking children 
to be killed. But the Naga youth preserved the son of the Wethali 
princess. After this the astrologers said the child had reached the 
age of a cowherd. The king, caused five thousand boys of that age to 
be killed, but the son of the princess remained undiscovered. His 
mother then put him into a monastery, and he became a Rahan. The 
astrologers informed the king that his destined successor had become 
a monk. The king, anxious to discover him, by the advice of the 
astrologers, invited all the Rahans to a feast. The astrologers said 
that he might be discovered by a shining circle, the mark of a true 
prince, inside his mouth. The king, therefore, himself gave water to 
drink to each Kalian from a vessel with a long spout. By this device 
he saw the shining circle in the mouth of the young man, son of the 
Indian princess. Convinced by this mark that he was of pure royal 
race the king caused him to leave the monastery he had entered, and 
acknowledged him as his own son. He then received the name of 
Kyan-tsit-tha, or Kyan-yit-tha. Many fanciful etymologies for this 
name are given in the history. The first name, which is that most 
generally given means " the child with the true mark." The second 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 91 

is interpreted " the child that remained" after the others had been 
killed. This son afterwards ascended the throne, and the remaining 
kings of Pu-gan were descended from him. 

The Maha-Radza-Weng next proceeds with the subject of the re- 
form of religion. The chapter which treats of this important event, 
opens by describing the necessity which existed for reform, justifies 
the movement, and gives a clear narrative of the means by which it 
was effected. The chapter opens in the following words : — 

" In the reign of king A-nau-ra-hta, Tsau the city was called 
Pii-ga-ra-ma. All his predecessors had received the doctrines of the 
thirty great A-ris, and their sixty thousand disciples, who lived at a 
place called Tha-ma-htf, and were firm in the profession of a wrong 
faith. These A-ri Rahans set aside the doctrines of Buddha, and 
established their own. They made a scripture to suit their own 
desire, and persuaded the people to follow it. The law they preached 
was such as ' Whosoever shall commit murder, he is freed from his sin 
by repeating a prayer or invocation ; whosoever shall kill his parents, 
by repeating a prayer, he is freed from the punishment due to the five 
greatest sins,' and so on, teaching people falsehood and wrong, as if 
they were truth and right. Moreover, when the sons and daughters 
of the king, or of nobles, ministers, rich persons, or others, were about 
to be married, the bride was always sent to those teachers on the nigt 
before ; this was called presentation of the virgin flower. In the 
morning when she came out from them, she was married. If a bride 
was married without the virgin flower having been presented to the 
teachers, heavy punishment had to be borne, for . breaking a long 
established custom. When king A-nau-ra-hta saw and heard of these 
shameful doings, being filled with excellent virtue, and knowing that 
the precepts of these teachers were false ; being uneasy in mind, and 
feeling great alarm, he began to long for the true law. At that time 
the lord A-ra-han, called also Dham-ma-da-thi, arrived at Pu-gan 
from the country of Tha-htun, called likewise Dham-ma-wa-ti. The 
history of the lord A-ra-han is as follows:— The holy Ra-han-das, 
seeing that religion had not yet enlightened the countries of Thu-na- 
pa-ranta and Tam -pa-di-pa, went to Tha-gya Meng, and prevailed on 
him to persuade one who would be able to establish religion there to 
do so. Tha-gya Meng, having entreated one of the Nats in the Ta- 

92 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

wa-dein-tha-man-sius, he consulted and was conceived in the womb 
of a Brah-mani. When he was born, he was taken care of by a Ra- 
han-da named Thi -la-bud- di. When he was of age he became a Ra- 
han, and was taught the Bi-da-gat. On attaining the state of a 
Ra-han-da, he was famous throughout Dzam-bu-di-pa, by the name of 
A-ra-han. Because religion was not yet established, this Rahan 
came to the city of Pu-ga-ra-ma. On arriving, he stopped in a grove, 
not very far from the border of the city. Tha-gya Meng caused one 
of the hunters of the country, who was out ranging the forest for 
game, to see the lord A-ra-han. The hunter, seeing a man with a 
grave and noble countenance, began to think ' this is an excellent and 
no ordinary man. I will conduct him to the city, and present him to 
the king.' So the lord A-ra-han gathered up the eight priestly 
requisites, and followed him to the presence of the king." 

At the interview which follows, the great teacher discourses elo- 
quently on the doctrines, the moral teaching, and the perfections of 
Buddha. A-nau-ra-hta at once is converted, and so sincerely well dis- 
posed that " his heart became as the cleanest and softest cotton 
dipped in the purest oil." His mind is rilled and saturated by the all- 
subduing grace of the doctrine. The lord A-ra-han also gives to the 
king a succinct narrative of the life of Gautama. He relates how 
he died and went to Neib-ban ; how the relics of his body were 
taken by different kings ; and long after were obtained by Thi-ri- 
dham-ma Thau-ka. He adds that one being a tooth is worshipped in 
G-an-da-la-nt, a country of China. That the complete scripture, Bi-da- 
gat, has been brought from Ceylon to Tha-htun. 

The king then declared his conversion to the doctrines of the 
lord A-ra-han, and the heretical doctrines of the A-ri teachers were 
cast aside. The whole of the people threw away their evil teaching, 
and embraced the good law. The A-ri teachers and their sixty 
thousand disciples were forced to become laymen. Many Ra-hans 
came from Tha-htun, and the lord A-ra-han ordained as Ra-hans and 
Pin-zens, those of the country who sincerely embraced the true faith. 
About this time it is related that two foreigners, brothers, natives 
of India, arrived at Tha-htun, being floated ashore on a piece of wreck. 
They are represented as magicians ; but having offended the king of 
Tha-htun, one of them was put to death by him. The other fled to 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 93 

Pu-gan. There he married, and had two sons, named Shwe-byin-gyi 
and Shwe-byin-nge. They were taken into the king's service, and 
became very useful to him. It appears that at this time communica- 
tion between southern India and the coast of Pegu had become frequent. 

By the preaching of the lord Ara-han, king A-nau-ra-hta learnt that, 
in order to enjoy the full benefit of religion, it was requisite that the 
great scriptures, the Bi-da-gat, should be obtained ; and also a true 
relic of the Phra. The whole of the Bi-da-gat was to be had at Tha- 
htun, and even relics, which the kings had worshipped for many 
generations. A-nau-ra-hta therefore sent to Ma-nu-ha, the king of 
that country, a man of high rank and ability, to ask politely for a 
complete copy of the Bi-da-gat. The king of Tha-htun answered 
haughtily that he would give nothing. A-nau-ra-hta then was very 
wroth ; and collecting a large army, advanced by land and water against 
Tha-htun. There were four generals, of whom the king's son Kyan- 
tsit-tha was one. Notwithstanding his large army and his great 
generals, the king was foiled in his attempt to take Tha-htun. His 
astrologers informed him that the obstacles arose from the enchant- 
ments of powerful magicians and evil spirits. The king, by means of 
counter-enchantments and contrivances, devised by the Indian who 
had fled to him from Tha-htun, overcame the enchantments, and the 
city was then taken. King Ma-nu-ha, his whole family, and court, 
were captured and brought before A-nau-ra-hta. There were found 
the holy relics preserved in a jewelled casket, which had been 
worshipped from ancient times by the kings. These and thirty com- 
plete copies of the Bi-da-gat were brought to the king, laden upon 
thirty-two white elephants. These all with painters, builders, and 
artificers of every description, and the soldiers, were carried away to 
Pu-gan. At the same time the Ra-lmns, learned in the Bi-da-gat, 
were respectfully invited to accompany the king. At Pu-ga-ra-ma 
he allotted separate places to the soldiers and the various artificers to 
live in. The holy relics were put into a shrine studded with rubies, 
which was placed at the head of the royal couch. The books of the 
Bi-da-gat were deposited in a building beneath a lofty spire, adorned 
with jewels, where the Ra-hans studied them. King Ma-nu-ha was 
placed with his followers at Myin-ka-ba. 

After this A-nau-ra-hta, being a man of great piety, desired to 

94 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

possess the holy tooth relic which was in the province of Can-da-la-rit 
in China. He therefore marched with a vast army, accompanied by 
Kyan-tsit tha and Shwe-by-in-gyi and Shwe-by-in-nge. The em- 
peror of China shut himself up in his city, and not being aware of 
the greatness of A-nau-ra-hta, took no notice of him. At length by 
means of an artifice accomplished by Shwe-by-m-gye and Shwe-by-in- 
nge, and by the boldness of Kyan-tsit-tha the emperor became alarmed. 
The two sovereigns had a friendly meeting. The king, however, fail- 
ed to procure the holy tooth relic. He brought away, however, an 
emerald studded image, which had been sanctified by contact with the 
holy relic ; and in a divine communication from Tha-gya Meng, was 
informed that he might have a forehead bone relic which king Dwot- 
ta-bung had formerly brought to Tha-ye-khet-ta-ra from the country 
of the Kam-ram. A-nau-ra-hta then returned, taking with him the 
emerald image. While passing through Shan, a Chinese province of 
Mau, he married Tsau-mwun-hla, the daughter of the prince of the 
province. This marriage and the subsequent adventures of the prin- 
cess, have been made the subject of one of the most popular dramas 

in Burma. 

After this the king went to Tha-re-khet-ta-ra, and pulled down the 
pagoda in which king Dwot-ta-bung had enshrined the forehead 
bone relic. In the histories of Arakan, it is said, he brought this relic 
from that country;* but that is not true. It had indeed originally 
been brought from thence by king Dwot-ta-bung. A-nau-ra-hta, 
fearing that the city of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra might fall into the hands of 
enemies, destroyed it. When he arrived at Pu-gan, he built the 
Shwe-zi-gun pagoda for the holy relic to repose. But although 

* In the history of Arakan which I have consulted, it is stated that ^A-nau- 
ra-hta invaded that country to carry away a celebrated brazen image of Gau 
da-ma which was in the temple of Maha-mu-m. He did not succeed in doing 
so The Arakanese history represents this first invasion as occurring ; m the 
vear 994 A D., but records that the same king invaded Arakan twenty -fom 
fears laterfwhen the Arakanese king was killed. *%^^*™?% 
to Burmese history, did not succeed to the throne until the year 1017 A. D or 
1010 AD.! more correctly reckoned, the two statements cannot be reconciled. 
Pint the date of A nau-ra-hta's succession varies in different copies of the Maha- 
Efdztwen". In the appendix to Crawfurd's embassy to the Court of Ava 
that autho^ives a list of the kings of Burma from manuscripts procured by 
hti in the Country. The accession to the throne of A-nau-ra-hta is stated to 
W 997 A D. This agrees better with the dates in the Arakanese history 
Considering that the father of A-nau ra-hta was still alive when the son ascended 
the tbronef there may have been doubts as to the proper date. 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 95 

heavenly voices proclaimed the king's righteousness, yet the holy relic 
ascended to the sky. By the advice of the lord Ara-han, the king 
consoled himself by worshipping the jewelled basket in which the 
holy relic had been carried. He then thought of the famous tooth 
relic in Ceylon, and sent a ship with four discreet messengers to ask 
the king of that country for it. A miraculous emanation from the 
tooth was the reward of this pious zeal, and this was borne away with 
great honour by the four messengers. The king proceeded to the 
seaport to receive it, and brought it with a grand procession to 
Pu-gan, where it was deposited in a suitable building at the gate of 
the palace.* After this king Ma-nn-ha and his whole family were 
degraded to the lowest depth of infamy, by being presented as pagoda 
slaves to the Shwe-zi-giin pagoda. About this time Kyan-tsit-tha 
deeply offended the king, and fled. The king despatched after him 
some of his Indian swift-running footmen, but they could not take 
him. Kyan-tsit-tha crossed the Irawadi river to the western bank 
and took refuge at a monastery, where he remained concealed. The 
king now made a progress through the western portion of his domi- 
nions as far as Bengal. That his descendants might have a memorial 
of his greatness, he set up stone images ; and having built pagodas, 
returned to his own city. As the reign of A-nau-ra-hta draws to a 
close, the historian recapitulates the many pagodas and monasteries 
which he had built; the tanks, canals, and water-dams he had 
constructed ; the rice-land he had redeemed from jangal ; his great 
armies and the extent of his kingdom. But the protecting influence 
of his good works was at length exhausted. In going to China he 
had offended the guardian Nat of a tree, wiio then became his enemy. 
As long as the influence of the king's good works remained, the Nat 
could do nothing against him. But that being now exhausted, the 
Nat sought to take revenge. Changed into a wild buffalo, he met the 
king near one of the gates of the city, and gored him to death. A- 
nau-ra-hta reigned for forty-two years. 

He was succeeded by Tsau-lu, his son born of his chief queen 
The governor of Pegu, Nga-Ra-man-kan, rebelled. In the disturb- 

* It is curious that a few years ago the present king of Burma deputed 
messengers to Ceylon to procure it, where it was popularly stated the tooth 
relic was deposited. They returned with a model of it, which has been placed 
in a building within the palace yard. 

96 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

ances which followed, Tsau-lu was killed. Kyan-tsit-tha then defeat- 
ed the rebel, and took the throne in the year 426 of the existing 
Burmese era. He is also called Hti-hlaing-sheng. 

On the accession of Kyan-tsit-tha to the throne, a not very intelli- 
gible story is told of an intention to marry his daughter to the son of 
the king of Pa-teik-ka-ra, a name here given to some part of Bengal. 
The marriage was eventually disallowed, it is stated, by the advice of 
the nobles, " lest the country should become kula or foreign." Not- 
withstanding this the princess is represented as with child by the 
kula prince, though doubt is afterwards thrown upon this fact, and 
she gave birth to a son, who afterwards succeeded to the throne, under 
the name of A-lung-tsi-thu. But the kula prince committed suicide, 
and the princess was married to Tsau-gwon, the son of king Tsau-lu. 
So highly did Kyan-tsit-tha regard his grandson that, while he 
was yet a child, he underwent the ceremony of bi-the-ka, or consecra- 
tion as a king, and received the name of Thi-ri-dze-ya-thu-ra, Kyan- 
tsit-tha either enlarged or completed, the Shwe-zi-giin pagoda built by 

his father. 

Once there came to Pu-gan eight Ka-han-das from the Gan-da-ma- 
da-na mountain. They presented a model of the Nan-da-mu-la cave 
which is in that mountain. And the king determined to build one 
like it. This was done, and it was called the Nan-da-Phra. The 
king also built many pagodas at various places near the city. He 
died after a reign of twenty-eight years. 

His grandson now ascended the throne. Though he received a name 
at the time of consecration from his grandfather, yet the title of 
Alung-tsi-thu, referring to the great drum of the palace having at his 
birth sounded without the agency of man, has been retained for him 
in history. Soon after the commencement of his reign, he built the 
Shwe-ku temple now to be seen at Pu-gan. This king travelled 
throughout the whole extent of his dominions. He went into Arakan 
and the adjoining country of Bengal, where he visited the stone images 
set up by his great grandfather A-nau-ra-hta. It is said also that he 
visited Ceylon. He regulated the weights and measures throughout 
the kingdom. During the reign of Kyan-tsit-tha, the heir to the king 
of Arakan had been expelled from his kingdom by a rebel. He came 
and resided at Pu-gan and there a son was born to him named Let-ga- 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 97 

meng-nan. Alimg-tsi-thu yielded to his entreaties and gave him an 
army, said to consist of one hundred thousand Pyiis, and one hundred 
thousand Takings. After one repulse the army was successful. The 
usurper who occupied the throne of Arakan, Meng Ba-di, was slain, and 
Let-ya-meng-nan was restored to the throne of his ancestors.* This 

* In the history of Arakan this event is stated to have occurred in the year 
465. The present Maha Ra-dza-Weng appears to consider the year 480 as the 
correct time. A Burmese stone inscription which was discovered at Buddha 
Gaya and of which a facsimile is given in the 20th volume of the Asiatic Re- 
searches, confirms the fact related in the Arakanese and Burmese histories, of 
the restoration of Let-ya-meng-nan (called Pyu-ta-thein-meng) to his coun- 
try by the king of Pu-gan. But there is a strange uncertainty as to the dates 
recorded in the inscription. General Cunningham has some remarks on this 
question in his Archaeological survey report, dated 3rd June, 1862. I have not 
seen the facsimile taken by General Cunningham, my present remarks therefore 
apply to that published in the 20th volume of the Researches. The two dates 
in lines 11 and 12 of the inscription, have been read by Prinsep and Cunning* 
ham as 667 and 668. Colonel Burney, who first translated the inscription, 
agreed with the Burmese literati in reading them 467 and 468. The latter no 
doubt were induced to do so, lest their national history should be impugned. 
Regarding the second date, there can, I think, be no doubt. It must be read as 
660, not as 668. It will be found that a 4, a 6, an 8, and also a cipher, fortu- 
nately occur elsewhere in the inscription. In the second line is a 4 rudely 
engraved, but the same in form as the modern figure. The Burmese literati, 
who gave the copy of the inscription in the modern character, have omitted' 
the figure, and given the number four in writing. A 6 occurs in the eleventh 
line of the original, meaning the sixth day of the week. In the translation 
this has been rendered Friday. The figure 4 in the second line is utterly un- 
like either of the figures in the second date, which I read as 660. The two 
first figures are very like the undoubted 6 in the eleventh line. The last figure 
is similar to the undoubted cipher in the eleventh line, being the record of & the 
10th day of the month. So much for the second date. In the first date there 
has apparently been some error on the part of the engraver. The first figure 
in that date is really a 4 reversed. It has not the least resemblance to & a 6. 
The second figure is a rude 6, with an adjunct, large and clumsy, instead of the 
small stroke added to the 6, which stands for Friday, so that it almost looks 
like an additional figure between the 6 and 7. The last figure is undoubtedly 7. 
I therefore read this date as 467. The first figure as it stands is not a 4.' 
Turn the paper upside down and it is 4. The engraver only could account for 
this vagary. The question now is, how can the dates 467 and 660, thus placed 
together in the inscription, be reconciled with the object for which the inscrip- 
tion was written ? The Burmese language, especially as it was written five or 
six hundred years ago, is very elliptical, and it is frequently necessary to 
guess at the meaning attempted to be conveyed. In the translation of the 
inscription in the Researches, the idea is conveyed that the temple of Buddha 
Gaya was rebuilt in 467 or say 667, and that the religious ceremonies, ap- 
parently of consecration, followed in the next year. Certainly at first sight the 
inscription appears to mean this. But it is not necessarily so. And if the second 
date is 660 and not 668, it cannot be so. I take the inscription then to jump 
over long periods cf time. It first recounts how the temple had been built by 
Asoka. It was destroyed and repaired more than once at long intervals of 
time. Then came the latest work of the kind, and it was rebuilt under the 
immediate assistance of the king of Arakan, Pya-ta-thein-meng, called also 
Let-ya-meng nan. This rebuilding occurred in the year, Burmese era, 467. 
This quite corresponds with the date of Let-ya-meng-nan being restored to his 


gg On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

king built the temples still to be seen at, Pu-gan called Shwe-kd, 
and Tha-pinyo, He kept up intercourse with a king in the eastern 
part of Bengal, called in the Burmese history, Pa-teik-ka-ra. He is 
said to have married a daughter of this king. Alung-tsi-thu, when 
he became old, was much troubled by the disobedience of his sons. 
His oldest son Meng Sheng Tsau retired from the city, and settled 
near where the city of A-ma-ra-pii-ra was afterwards built. There he 
formed the lake called Aung-peng-lay. He wished, his second son 
Na-ra-thii to succeed him. The king was now a hundred and one years 
old, and had reigned seventy-five years. This son, desirous of hasten- 
ing his death, had him carried from the palace to the Shwe-M temple, 
where he was smothered under a heap of cloth. 

Na-ra-thu at once took possession of the palace. But his elder 
brother marched rapidly towards the city. Na-ra-thu cunningly con- 
cealed his intentions, and induced the chief, or bishop, of the Buddhist 
monks, to send a message of peace and welcome to Meng Sheng Tsau. 
The prince, being unsuspicious, came down the river with one boat 
and a few attendants. He was met by his brother at the landing- 
throne (See History of Arakan, in Journal, Asiatic Society, Vol. XIII. p. 39). 
The inscription appears mainly concerned in recounting the religious ceremonies 
and worship offered to the temple on a special occasion. And this event 
occurred in the year 660. In the latter year, we must conclude that the in- 
scription was written. This supposition appears to me to reconcile the incon- 
sistency of the dates hitherto as read. The second date being' undoubt- 
edly 660, the first cannot be 667, as it (the first in the inscription) gives the 
rebuilding of the temple for that year, and the consecration or other religious 
ceremony would be subsequent to that. The difficulty is removed if we read 
the first date as 467 for which it has been shown there are good reasons. 11 the 
inscription means that the worship offered in 660 was a sort of consecration of 
the building, there is certainly no reason apparent why one hundred and 
ninety-three years were allowed to elapse before this was done. But it may 
be that there being a special and solomn worship in 660 a record was then 
made re^ardin^ the offerings and the previous repeated building of the temple. 
The inscription has been written by an Arakanese, and this might have been 
done by the king of Arakan in 660 (A. D. 1298) more probably than by the 
kino- of Pu-o'an, as the latter kingdom had at that time fallen into great contu- 
sion in consequence of the Chinese invasion. In the histories of Burma and 
- \rakan dates have no doubt, in some instances, been tampered with. But 
there is no reason to suppose that this has been done to the extent of nearly 
two hundred years. The first time that Burma is mentioned by an European 
is I believe, near the close of the 13th century by Marco Polo The war made 
bv Kublai Khan on Burma is by him stated to have occurred in 12/2. lhis 
only differs by twelve years from the date given in the Burmese history. On 
the whole as the hrst date in the inscription has only the last figures, 67, 
clearly defined, and the second date is clearly 660, the aoove attempt at expla- 
nation appears to be the most probable solution of the difficulty. 

1868.] On the Bistort/ of the Burma Race. 99 

place, and escorted to the palace with honour. At once he was conse- 
crated king, hut that night was poisoned. Na-ra-thii then became 
king without opposition. He pursued a course of crime and cruelty. 
He put to death many of his father's favourites. The whole of the 
people, in the palace, the city, and the country, were alarmed and 
distressed. He commenced building a magnificent temple called 
Dha-ma-yan-gyi ; but it was with difficulty that workmen could be 
procured, for all fled from fear, and the work proceeded slowly. 
This king, with his own hand, killed the daughter of the king of Pa- 
teik-ka-ra (Bengal) who had remained after the death of his father. 
This led to an extraordinary event. Her father, on hearing of the 
murder of his daughter, disguised eight brave men as Brahmans, who 
were sworn to execute their master's revenge. They arrived at Pu-gan, 
and were introduced into the palace under pretence of blessing the 
king. There they killed him with a sword. After which they killed 
each other or committed suicide, so that all eight died. This king is, 
on account of the manner of his death, called " Ku-la-kya-ineng," that 
is " the king killed or dethroned by foreigners." It is stated that at 
the time of his death, the temple Dha-ma-yan-gyi was unfinished. 

He was succeeded by his son Meng-ri-na-ra-thein-kha. He appoint- 
ed his younger brother to the office of Ein-she-meng or " lord of the 
eastern house," a title equivalent to that of crown-prince. This is the 
first time the title is mentioned in the history. After some time, the 
king, under pretence of a war having broken out on the northern 
frontier, despatched his brother to that quarter in command of an army. 
He then took possession of his brother's wife. The crown-prince 
found that there was no war, and when he discovered the wrong that 
had been done him, he returned to the city and put his brother to 
death. He then succeeded to the throne under the title of Na-ra-ba- 

He is represented as a good king. He visited all parts of his king- 
dom. He built, at Pu-gan, the temples called Grau-dau-pal-leng and 
Tsii-la-ma-ni ; and one, a Tha-ma-hti not far from the city, called 
Dham-ma-ra-dzi-ka. This king had constant communication with 
Ceylon. Four Rahans from Ceylon settled at Pu-gan and introduced 
some new philosophical doctrines. The king is highly praised for his 
piety and attention to the affairs of his country. He died after a 

IQO On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

reign of thirty -seven years, and was succeeded by his son Dze-ya-thein- 
kha, in the year 1204, A. D. 

Dze-ya-thein-kha had a quiet reign. He was chiefly occupied with 
religious buildings. He finished the Gau-dau-pal-leng temple com- 
menced by his father, and built the Bau-di temple with some others, 
which are now less known. 

His son Kya-tswa called also Dham-ma-ra-dza was pre-eminent in 
learning. He gave his whole time to the study of religion and 
philosophy, and left the affairs of the kingdom to his son U-za-na. 
As a work of merit, he formed a lake by damming up a mountain- 
stream, where all kinds of water-fowl enjoyed themselves, and which 
also watered rice-lands. He was learned and pious, but the religious 
zeal, and the art which, during two hundred years had existed, and 
through which the noble temples still to be seen at Pu-gan, had been 
built, now had passed away. This king only commenced a pagoda, 
not now to be traced, which he did not live to complete. He died 
from an accidental wound after a reign of sixteen years. 

His son U-za-na succeeded. This king had been accustomed as a 
young prince to hunt wild elephants in the forests of Pegu. He went 
there again to follow this sport, and was killed by a wild elephant, 
having reigned five years. 

This king left two sons, Thi-ha-thu and Meng-khwe-khye. The 
former had been appointed heir to the throne, but a powerful noble 
formed a conspiracy, and he was set aside. The younger son Meng- 
khwe-khye then succeeded with the title of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te. There 
was a rebellion in the province of Mut-ta-ma (Martaban) head- 
ed by the Governor Nga-Shwe-lay ; but it was suppressed. This 
kin^ lived in greater luxury than any of his predecessors. He com- 
menced building a pagoda called Men-ga-la dze-cli. But there was a 
prophecy which said « The pagoda is finished and the country ruined. 
The king therefore paused and for six years did nothing to the pagoda. 
But he afterwards thought this fear of consequences inconsistent with 
piety and discreditable to his fame as a king, he therefore finished the 
pagoda in the year 636 or A. D. 1274. In the relic chamber were 
deposited golden images of the disciples of Gau-da-ma ; golden models 
of the holy places ; golden images of the fifty-one kings of Pu-gan, 
and images of the king, his wives and children, and of the nobles of 
the country. Holy relics were also deposited. 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 101 

In the year 643, answering to A. D. 1281, the Takings rebelled. 
They killed the Governor of Martaban named A-leim-ma, and Wa-ri- 
rii made himself king. The same year the Emperor of China sent am- 
bassadors to demand gold and silver vessels as tribute, saying that 
king A-nau-ra-hta had presented such tokens of homage. The 
ambassadors were insolent in their conduct, and the king, against 
the remonstrance of his ministers, had them put to death. The Em- 
peror of China now assembled an army to punish this outrage. The 
king appointed two brothers named A-nan-da-pits-tsin and Kan- 
da-pits-tsin to command his army. They marched to the city of 
Nga-tshaung-gyan, which appears to have been near the Ba-mau or 
Ta-ping river. This city they fortified, and then for three months 
resisted the invaders at the passage of the Ba-mau river. But they 
were overpowered by numbers, and forced to retreat. The Ta-ruk 
army then crossed the river, and Nga-tshaung-gyan was destroyed. 
The two generals then retreated and built two stockades on the east 
side of the Marie hill. There a fierce battle was fought. But A-nau- 
da-pits-tsin was killed, and the Ta-ruk army being superior in num- 
bers, the Burmese were again defeated. In the meantime Na-ra-thi- 
ha-pa-te had abandoned the city of Pu-gan with his whole court, and 
had gone down the river Irrawaddy to Bassein. The army arriving 
at the city and finding no one, followed in the same direction. The 
Ta-ruk army pursued to the city, and then further south as far as 
Ta-ruk-mau, but the way being long and food scarce for a large army, 
they returned. The flight of the king is stated to have occurred in 
the year 1284. and he is called " Ta-ruk-pye-meng" or the king who 
fled from the Ta-ruk. After five months he sets out on his return up 
the Irrawaddy. The historian records the excessive luxury in which 
the king lived, even amidst the desolation of his country. He went 
on until he reached Prome. There his son Thi-ha-thu was Governor. 
This prince forced his father to swallow poison. 

This king left several sons by different mothers. Three of them 
U-za-na, Kyau-tswa, and Thi-ha-thii now disputed the throne. Finally 
Kyau-tswa, who was Governor of Dalla in Pegu, succeeded, and became 
king in the year 648 or A. D. 1286. The Burmese empire had now 
almost fallen to pieces. The several nations who had formerly been 
tributary are enumerated, and it is added they now became indepen- 

102 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

dent. It is well to enter these here to show the extent of territory 
claimed, as having at one time formed part of the Empire of Pu-gan. 
First come Ra-khaing and other countries and tribes to the westward. 
Of the three Talaing divisions, Pegu was taken by the Governor with 
the title of Ta-ra-bya ; Martaban was taken by Wa-ri-ru. The 
countries of Yo-da-ya, Ta-neng-tha-ri, Thouk-ka-te, Pi-tha-louk, 
La-gwon-thi-ma-akyau-maing-tsan, Leng-zeng, La-waik, Ywon or 
Zim-me ; Gun, Guen or Kyaing-htun, Lu or Kaing-run, also on 
the east of the Than-lwing river Maing-mau, Tse-khweng, Ho-tha, 
La-tha, Mo-na, Tsanda, Mo-wun, Kaing-ma, Maing-myin ; all became 
independent. The Tsaulon Shans on the west of the Thanlwing 
river and of the three Talaing divisions the city of Bassein, still 
remained to the "Burmese country. At this time there were, in the 
kingdom, three brothers who were great favourites with the king. 
They were the sons of a Shan Chief who had fled from his country 
while it was disturbed, and had settled at Myin-tsaing during the 
reign of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te. Their names were A-then-kha-ra, Ra- 
dza-then-gyan, and Thi-ho-thii. The eldest received the district of 
Myin-tsaing, the second that of Nek-kha-rd, and the third that of 
Peng-lay. They exercised great authority. The chief Queen, being 
offended that she was never consulted by the king, entered into a 
conspiracy with the three brothers to dethrone Kyau-tswa. They had 
built a fine monastery at Myin-tsaing, and the Queen persuaded the 
king to go to the consecration of it. When there the three brothers 
seized him and forced him to become a monk. This occurred in the 
year 660, being A. D. 1298. 

After this, the Queen returned to Pu-gan. The three brothers 
guarded the late king at Myin-tsaing, and ruled like kings. At Pu- 
gan, the eldest son of Kyau-tswa, named Tsau-nhit w 7 as allowed to live 
in the palace ; his younger brother Meng-sheng-tsau was made Governor 
of the district of Tha-ret. In some histories it is said that Tsau-nhit 
was merely permitted to live at Pu-gan, and that Thi-ha-thu the 
youngest of the Shan brothers ruled there. These brothers were allied 
to the royal family by the marriage of their sister to Prince Thi-ha- 
thu, son of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te who had forced his father to take poison. 
Their sister's daughter by that Prince was now married to Meng- 
sheng-tsau and they lived at the city of Tha-ret. 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 103 

The Pu-gan dynasty ends with the deposition of Kyau-tswa. The 
three Shan brothers exercised what power remained to the kingdom. 
Their authority was gradually consolidated, and about sixty years 
later, the city of Ava was founded. There or in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, the capital of the Burmese monarchy has been established 
up to the present time. 

It has been shown in a former paper, that after the conversion of 
the rude Turanian tribes, dwelling in the country of the upper Irra- 
Avaddy to Buddhism, they assumed the national name of Mran-ma. Tn 
later times other cognate tribes have been absorbed in that nationality. 
Probably the most remarkable instance of this assimilation, is that of 
the Tabling or Mwun people, which, in about a century, has become 
nearly lost in name and language, amidst the Mran-ma in their own 
country of Pegu. In the early time of the Mran-ma people, a 
monarchy was established, having the capital city at Tagttng or old 
Pu-gan. It was afterwards overthrown by an invasion of tribes who 
came from the east or north-east. The conquered people or portions 
of them, retired down the Irrawaddy, and established themselves in 
the country near to the present town of Prome. There kindred tribes 
already existed ; the Pyii or Byii being on the east bank of the river, 
and the Kam-ran or Kan-ran being in the hilly country to the west, and 
in the southern part of the country now called Ra-khaing or Arakan. 
A city was now built to the east of the present town of Prome and 
received the name of Tha-re-khet-ta-ra. The remains of this city still 
exist, and the positions of the walls and gates are shown by the pea- 
sants of the neighbourhood. Some ancient pagodas, built of stone are 
also to be seen. The city is now generally called Ra-the-myo, or 
city of the hermit, from the legend of the hermit recorded in the 
Maha-ra-dza-Weng. The name Tha-re-khet-ta-ra appears to be the 
Burmese form of the Pali, Thi-ri-khet-ta-ra, the latter word being 
the same as Kshatriya and referring to the supposed Indian descent 
of the hermit and of Dwot-ta-biing the founder of the city. It 
has already been shown in a former paper, that the Burmese royal 
family, claim to be descended from the race to which Gau-da-ma 
belonged, that is, the Sakya tribe included in the Kshatriya division 

104 On tie History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

of the peoples in Gangetic India. The whole term then would 
mean City of the noble Kshatriya. This city founded, according 
to Burmese history, in the fifth century before Christ, continued 
the seat of government of the Burmese monarchy for 537 years. 
During this period we are not informed as to events in the upper 
Irrawaddy, where it is probable the tribes coming from the eastward 
continued to maintain themselves. The monarchy at Tha-re-khet-ta- 
ra is represented as being transmitted in the same family with only 
one break. This defect also is supposed to have been remedied in 
after times by the appearance of a true descendant of the ancient royal 
race. The dynasty established near Prome is represented, consistently 
with Buddhist tenets, as being finally brought to an end, by the 
mysterious but inevitable influence of an act of impiety. The sin 
which produced this result, was the act of devoting a portion of the 
gold of a holy image to secular objects ; and though the king was not 
personally involved therein, yet he and his country were thereby 
doomed to destruction. A legend relates how dark rumours of coming 
wars and tumults, prevailed among the people ; and from the general 
dread and distrust which existed, a trifling occurrence was the imme- 
diate occasion of a civil war. The several tribes which still existed 
separately, though subject to one king, fought with each other. A 
portion of the Pyii tribe retired to the north, and finally settled at the 
place called new Pu-gan, on the east bank of the Irrawaddy river. 
This is about one hundred and seventy miles north of Prome. Here 
a new dynasty was established, which is held to be the true royal race 
of Burma ; while Prome appears at this time to have been subdued 
and occupied for some time, by the Taking people coming from the 
south. But on this point the Burmese narrative is not clear. It 
does not appear what extent of territory belonged to the monarchy of 
Tha-re-khet-ta-ra. It is, however, probable that it did not extend on 
the south farther than a ridge of hills called A-kauk-taung, about forty 
miles below Prome. On the north, it may have reached to Mye-de, fifty 
miles distant ; while east and west it did not extend beyond the hills 
which bound the valley of the Irrawaddy. During the time this kingdom 
lasted, it is probable that the tribes coming from the northeast, who 
had overthrown the Buddhist kingdom established in the upper Irra- 
waddy, gradually mingled with the earlier inhabitants. After the 

1808. ] On the Hidory of the Burma Race. 105 

establishment of the monarchy at new Pu-gan, the upper country in 
time became subject to that kingdom. The large influence which the 
Pyii tribe had in the formation of that monarchy is evident from the 
legend of the third king called Pyu-meng-ti, who, the historian is 
anxious to show, was not a Pyii by race, but a descendant of the an- 
cient kings of Tagiing. An interval of more than two hundred years 
occurs before any event of consequence is recorded. The arrival of 
the celebrated teacher Bud-da-gau-tha, bearing the Buddhist scriptures 
from Ceylon, is an event which is justly regarded of the highest 
importance to the Indo-Chinese nations. It may be accepted as an 
historical fact that he came to Tha-htun, which is situated a few miles 
north of Martaban, and which was then the capital city of one of the 
Talaing states. In most histories of Burma, it is stated that he was 
a native of Tha-htun, hut this claim now seems to be abandoned. 
The year given for his arrival, A. D. 403, has no doubt been fixed, 
after consulting the Mahawanso of Ceylon, but still is scarcely consis- 
tent with it, as he was in Ceylon during the reign of Maha Nama, 
who began to reign in A. D. 410. The Burmese Maha-radza-weng 
assumes that the whole of the Buddhist scriptures were at this time 
brought to Pu-gan. This is not credible. The intercourse between 
the Burmese and Takings at this time appears to have been but small, 
and as has been seen, the history subsequently relates the arrival of 
the scriptures, and the reform of religion, as being brought about in 
the reign of A-nau-ra-hta, or about six hundred years afterwards. At 
the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. it is probable 
that Buddhism in Burma was in a very corrupt state. Originally 
established in the country of the upper Irrawaddy by missionaries from 
Gangetic India, the religion had been overwhelmed by the irruption 
of tribes from the eastward ; the Burmese people in the central Irra- 
waddy country appear to have remained isolated for some centuries. 
In the year 638, A. D., during the reign of Then-ga Ra-dza there is 
evidence of intercourse with India, as a new era was then adopted, 
which is in use to the present time. In the Maha-ra-dza-weng there 
is a frequent confusion of dates. The writers have attempted to 
reconcile dates on stone inscriptions recording the dedication of tem- 
ples and monasteries with those derived from other sources. The 
consequence is, that in many cases, it is evident that the dates for 

106 On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

some events have been made to fit into, what was supposed to be, an 
absolute necessity. But on the whole, there appears to have been an 
honesty of purpose, and a painstaking care in the writers of the Bur- 
mese national history, which is highly creditable to them. 

In Bobinson's history of Assam, we are informed, on the authority 
of Pemberton, that the Shans, about the year 80 of the Christian era, 
established the kingdom of Pong, of which Mo-gaung was the capital. 
This city is on a feeder of the Irrawaddy, about eighty miles north 
from Ba-mau. It was not until seven hundred years later, that they 
extended their territory, eastward to the country around Ba-mau; 
and westward to Munnipur and Assam. In the latter country they 
are called Ahom. It was the decline of this kingdom which enabled 
A-nau-ra-hta to re-assert the rights of the Burmese people to the 
territory of the upper Irrawaddy, in the eleventh century ; and it has 
remained, with a few intervals, under the Burmese kings ever since. 

In the early part of the eleventh century of the Christian era, the 
great hero of the later Burmese history, A-nau-ra-hta, ascended the 
throne. That this king conquered Tha-htun and procured the Buddhist 
scriptures from thence cannot be doubted. His reform of religion is 
minutely and graphically described. He had intercourse with India 
and China. He appears to have established and maintained the in- 
fluence of his government in the upper Irrawaddy. In the reigns of 
his immediate successors, and during a period of little more than one 
hundred and fifty years, were built the magnificent temples which still 
remain uninjured at Pu-gan. They show a grandeur of design seen 
nowhere else from the Indus to the Cambodia river, and have rather 
the appearance of gothic Cathedrals than of Buddhist temples. It is 
remarkable that the most elaborate of these, in internal sculptured de- 
coration, if not in general design, was the first erected. It is that 
called A-nan-da, which was built by Kyan-tsit-tha supposed son of 
A-nau-ra-hta, who ascended the throne in the year 1064, A. D. 
Nearly the last of these great temples, called Dham-ma-yan-gyi, was 
built by king Na-ra-thu amidst general discontent at his tyranny and 
extortion, which were exercised apparently to provide funds for the 
building. It was unfinished at his death, and from its present ap- 
pearance was probably never completed. The intercourse which at 
this period existed between Pu-gan and the countries of India and 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 107 

Ceylon will no doubt account for the beautiful work in the architec- 
tural details of these buildings. But the designs for them appear 
not to have been derived from Indian examples, and the fervent 
revival of Buddhism may, for a short period, have called forth a talent 
which derived its existence from enthusiasm for religion. The close 
connection of Burma with India at this period is, in other respects, 
worthy of notice. King A-nau-ra-hta is represented as having 
married a daughter of the king of We-tha-li ; the ancient kingdom 
of We-tha-li situated to the north of Patna, could scarcely be in 
existence at this time, and the statement may be taken to mean that 
A-nau-ra-hta did marry the daughter of some Buddhist Raja. A 
strange mystery is at first thrown over the paternity of Kyan-tsit-tha, 
who was the son of this Indian princess; and still stranger is 
the doubt as to the paternity of Kyan-tsft-tha's grandson and successor 
A-lung-tsi-thii. His mother was the daughter of Kyan-tsit-tha, 
and it.seems to be implied in the history that his father was an Indian 
prince, son of the king of Pa-teik-ka-ra. This prince came to 
Pu-gan and committed suicide there, after which Kyau-tsit-tha's 
daughter was married to a son of Kyan-tsit-tha's half brother Tsau-lii. 
It is by no means clear what name is represented by Pa-teik-ka-ra. 
The Burmese make sad havoc of all Indian names, except those 
which they have received through the ancient Pali. The only name 
which I can discover, as likely to have been meant, is Vikrampur, 
which was near Dacca, and was for some time the capital of Eastern 
Bengal, before the Mahomedan conquest, which commenced in 1203. 
Up to the close of the eleventh century of the Christian era, 
or even later, it is not improbable that the kings of Bengal were 
still Buddhist ; and unless this part of the Burmese history is pure 
invention, that must have been the case. But perhaps the strangest 
story, illustrating the connection at this time between the two 
countries, is that told of the revenge taken by the king of Pa-teik- 
ka-ra for the murder of his daughter by king Na-ra-thu. This 
story can scarcely have been invented. It is not one tending to 
exalt the glory of the royal race, an object very clear to Burmese 
historians. The name given to this king also " Kula-kya-meng," 
or the king killed by foreigners, is that by which he is now 
commonly called. Another undoubted instance of the connection 

I 08 On the Bistort/ of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

of the kings of Burma with Bengal, is the rebuilding of the 
temple at Buddha Gaya under the orders of A-lmig-tsi-thu at 
the beginning of the twelfth century. 

In the reign of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te occurred the invasion, by the 
Mogul or the Tartar army under the orders of the Emperor Kablai 
Khan, which is mentioned in the travels of Marco Polo. As 
far as I know, this is the first mention of Burma, at least in modern 
times, by any European author. It will be well therefore briefly to 
compare his account of the invasion of the Moguls with what is 
stated in the Burmese history. In the edition of the great traveller 
by Hugh Murray, what relates to Burma is contained in chapters 
49, 50, and 51. From the first of these, it appears that in the 
year 1272, the great Khan sent an army of Tartars in the province 
of Caraian or Karazan, which is understood to be northern Yunan. 
The king of Mien or Burma, thinking he was going to be attacked, 
assembled a large army, advanced to the city of Vociain, and took 
post in a plain at the distance of three days' journey. There a 
great battle was fought, in which the Burmese were defeated. 
Afterwards the Tartar Khan conquered the country of Mien. 
Chapter 50 describes the route from Caraian into Burma, which 
may be either that leading down the Bamau river to the Irrawaddy, 
or that leading nearly direct south to Thein-ni. Both are followed 
by caravans at the present day, and no doubt were formerly. But 
the route taken by the army of invasion was that leading down to 
Ba-mau. Chapter 51 refers to the capture of the city of Mien 
or Pu-gan by the Tartar army. This, as related by Marco, may 
either result from an immediate march on the capital, after the 
battle described in Chapter 50, or may possibly refer in part to 
the proceedings of a subsequent expedition. 

I think it must be admitted that the Burmese account, as regards 
the localities of the campaign, is more likely to be correct than 
Marco's, who wrote his narrative long after the transactions referred 
to, and perhaps without even notes to assist his memory ; considering 
that his general correctness is marvellous. The city of Vociam is 
generally understood to refer to Yung-chang, called by the Burmese 
Wun-shen, which lies about a day and a half's journey east of the 
Salwin river. Now the Burmese would scarcely be so imprudent, 

1868.] On the History of the Burma Race. 109 

when they stood on the defensive, as to advance so far as that city 
away from their resources. And their own account in the national 
history is quite inconsistent with such a theory. In short, what 
they relate, is just what a prudent general would do in similar 
circumstances. That is the pass into Burma likely to be taken by 
the enemy was, that formed by the course of the Ta-ping or Bamau 
river through the mountains. The Burmese army defended that 
pass, and had a fortified post called Nga-tshaung-gyan a little in 
their rear. For three months they resisted the Tartar army, but 
being overpowered by numbers, were forced to retreat, and abandon 
the fortified post. They then took post at the Male hill, nearly 
two hundred miles further south where they built two stockades. 
Here a decisive battle was fought, in which the Burmese acknow- 
ledge they were entirely defeated, and the Ta-ruk army marched 
on to the capital Pu-gan, about one hundred and fifty miles distant. 
Now, from this narrative, it is evident that there was fighting in 
the hilly country bordering on Vociam, but some six or seven 
ordinary days' journey from it ; and that the great battle took place 
at least some ten or twelve days' journey farther still. How is this 
to be reconciled with Marco Polo's battle near the city of Vociam ? 
In the first place, Marco speaks of the kingdom of Vociam, and it 
appears from the Burmese history, that after the war, the Chinese 
added to their territory several of the frontier districts which 
remained under the direct government of the Tartar governor of 
Yung-chang. So that Marco appears to attribute to the kingdom 
of Vociam a greater extent of territory to the west, than it possessed 
before the war. And as he states, the Khan " added the lands 
of Mien to his dominions," he perhaps used the term kingdom 
of Vociam, as extending down to the Irrawaddy river. But 
Marco's is a somewhat disjointed narrative, and in the 51st Chapter, 
appears to raise up a subsequent expedition with the capture of 
Pu-gan in the reign of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te. His words are as 
follows : — " When the great Khan conquered that city, he desired 
"all the players and buffoons, of whom there were a great 
" number in his court, to go and achieve the conquest, offering 
" them a captain and some warlike aid. The jesters willingly 
" undertook the affair, and setting out with the proffered assistance, 

HO On the History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

« subdued this province of Mien. " Now this story is quite incon- 
sistent with what Marco tells us in the 49th Chapter of the hard 
fought battle the Tartars had with the Burmese in the kingdom 
of Yociam in the year 1272. That surely could not have led the 
Khan to anticipate in future a feeble resistance from such a people. 
Can this statement be explained from the Burmese history? I 
think it may be. The Burmese virtually acknowledge that, after 
the capture of their capital, the kingdom became dependant on the 
Tartar Khan. The king called contemptuously " Ta-ruk-pye-ming," 
having been murdered, his son Kyau-tswa was deposed, and three 
Shan chiefs governed the country from Myin-tsaing, a city about 
thirty miles south of Ava, where the Shan brothers had established 
themselves. This is represented as being the state of affairs in the 
year 1298, (1291 by the revised dates), or fourteen years after the 
capital had been taken by the Tartars. Then the deposed king 
Kyau-tswa complained to the Khan, apparently acknowledging 
himself to be a tributary king. A Tartar army came into Burma 
to restore king Kyau-tswa. The Shan brothers made no resistance, 
but conciliated the Tartar general with rich presents, and disposed 
of Kyau-tswa's claim by putting him to death. This plan was 
adopted by the advice of "players and buffoons," who possibly 
may have come with the Tartar army. The Burmese history 
states that the Shan brothers were advised to consult tumblers and 
rope-dancers. The Burmese are very fond of consulting the fates, 
by listening to undesigned warnings by children or persons of low 
estate. In accordance with this idea, the tumblers and rope-dancers— 
who may be accepted as equivalent to the players and buffoons of 
Marco— were summoned to exhibit a performance. They sang a 
song in which occurred the words :— ■" There can be no dispute, 
if there is no disputant." This was accepted as a guide to action ; 
Kyau-tswa was killed, and his head delivered to the Tartar 
general,— together with arguments in the shape of presents — to 
show that no disputant to the existing government remained. 
The Tartar general then agreed to withdraw his army after having 
employed it in the unexplained work of digging a canal, which 
is shewn near Myin-tsaing to this day. The occasion for this second 
appearance of a Ta-ruk or Tartar army is certainly consistent with 

1868.] On the History of tie Burma Race. Ill 

the whole narrative as given in the Burmese history, and it may be, 
that the quaint story of the tumblers' advice being followed in 
an affair of such importance, gave rise to the distorted gossip which 
Marco has repeated at second or third hand. It is evident that 
Marco was not aware or had forgotten that a revolution had been 
accomplished in Burma since Pu-gan had been taken in the first 
instance ; that the king had been deposed, and that consistently with 
the traditions of the race, a new dynasty now gradually rising, had 
abandoned the ancient capital, the fortune of which had passed 
away, and had settled in another city, where the interview with 
the general of the second Tartar invasion, took place. Hence the 
"city of Mien," of the first invasion is represented by Marco 
as the « city of Mien" of the second also. In short, in chapter 
51, events at Pu-gan and events at Myin-tsaing, which occurred 
fourteen years apart, are mixed up together. 

In regard to dates, Marco Polo represents the first war as occurring 
in 1272. The Burmese represent the quarrel as arising in 1281 and 
Pu-gan as being taken in 1284. The Burmese dates, as now given, 
are not to be depended on within ten or twelve years, for there has 
no doubt, been a general readjustment of dates throughout the 
Maha-ra-dza-weng. And I have found a positive error of seven 
years from elates contained in their own history. The taking of 
Pu-gan will therefore be correctly 1277. But I am satisfied that 
for many years previous to 1281, there had been no quarrel with 
the Ta-ruks or Chinese. There is no trace of such an event in 
the Burmese history since the time of A-nau-ra-hta, about two 
hundred and fifty years before. Had any dispute occurred with 
China, especially during or about the year 1272, it would surely 
have been mentioned in the Burmese annals. But about that time, 
the king of Burma was occupied with the affairs of the southern 
portion of his country. His predecessors, for some generations, had 
been occupied more with the countries to the westward than with 
those to the east. And this leads to a question which has caused 
difficulty in the title which Marco has given to the king of Burma 
—namely king of Mien and Bangala. It is the latter word that 
requires explanation. We have already seen, that there was an 
undoubted connection of Burma with Bengal and other parts of 

1I2 On tlie History of the Burma Race. [No. 2, 

India, commencing in move modem time,, with the great revival 
of Buddhism under A-nau-ra-hta iu the early part of the eleventh 
century of the Christian era. Marriages were contracted between 
the royal family of Burma, and the family of some Raja, apparently 
a Buddhist, in Bengal. The strange tale of the assassination of 
king Nara-thu by Indians sent from Bengal, has been related 
From all these circumstances, and from the conquests attributed 
to A-nau-ra-hta, it is very probable that after the conquest of 
Bengal by the Mahomedans in the thirteenth century, the kings 
of Burma would assume the title of kings of Bengal. It is 
nowhere expressly stated in the Burmese history, but the course 
of events renders this very probable. We know that this claim 
to Bengal was asserted by the king of Burma in long after yeais 
In tbe journal of the Marquis of Hastings, under the date o 
September 6th, 1818, is the following passage :_« The lung of 
"Burma favoured us early this year with the obliging reqiusiti n 
« that we should cede to him Moorshedahad and the provinces to the 
•' east of it which, he deigned to say, were all natural dependencies of 
"kis throne." And at the time of the disputes on the frontier of 
Arakan in 1823-24, which led to the war of the two following years, 
L governor of Arakan made a similar demand. We may, there ore, 
e sonably conclude that at the close of the thirteenth century 
of the Christian era, the kings of Pu-gan called themselves kings 

of Burma and Bengala. 

In order that tbe reader may have a distinct view of the seveial 
dynasties of the Burmese monarchy as recorded in the Maha-ra- 
dl-weng, I have drawn out a table of them from the earliest time 

Tlieli/of kings who are said to have ***»?*£. 
upper Pu-gan, before tbe establishment of the kingdom of Tha.- 
khet-tara, I have not considered it necessary to give in detail. But 
the named each king, and the length of bis reign, commencing 
W itk Ma-ha-tham-ba-wa, in the year 483 B. C, has been carefully 
copied from the Burmese history. In regard to dates, there are 
Jen in the Maha-radza-weng various local eras. To avoid con- 
fusion these have been omitted, until the existing era commencing 
U1039 A. D. is reached. The era of Gaudama's death, commenc- 
ing with 543 B. C. which is in use in Burma and all the adjoining 


On the History of the Burma Race. 


Buddhist countries, has been followed in arranging the chronology, 
and the corresponding years B. C. and A. D. have occasionally been 
inserted. I have found a difference of seven years between the reckon- 
ing of the existing era in the Maha Eadza Weng, and what is 
deduced from adding up the number of years of each reign. Thus 
A-nau-ra-hta is said to ascend the throne in the Burmese year 379. 
But I make out the year to be 372 — to A. D. 1010, and have 
therefore so entered it in the list. This correction would make 
the capture of Pu-gan by the Tartar army, occur in the year 1277, 
A. D., instead of 1284, A. IX, as stated in the text. 

In the paper on the history of the Burma race in note at page 
27, Vol. XXII. it is stated that Buddhist missionaries probably first 
went to Burma in the year 234 of religion, or twelve years before 
Alexander crossed the Indus. There is an error in the last state- 
ment. The year 234 of Gaudama's death, corresponds with the 
year 309, B. C. being seventeen years after Alexander had crossed 
the Indus. 

No. 1. — List of the kings of Burma as 
Badzd We ii (j. 

Names of kings. | 

entered in the Alalia 

Explanatory Be marks. 

Abhi Iladza. 

Da-za Iladza. 

This king who came from Kap-pi-ta- wot, and his 
thirty-two successors reigned at Tagung or 
Thenga-tha-rahta. No date is given for the 
commencement of the dynasty. The last king 
named Bhein-na-ka was driven from his couutry 
by an invasion of tribes from the east. His 
queen Na-ga-tshein settled at Ma-le above Ava. 

This king is represented as coming from Kap-pi- 
la-wot to settle in the country of the Upper 
Irrawaddy. He married the queen Na-ga- 
tshein. They and their descendants reign at 
Mauriza, Theng-dwe, Upper Pu gan, and Pin- 
k tsa-ta-yung. Seventeen kings of this race reign- 
ed. The last was Tha-do-Ma-ha Badza. It 
was the two sons of this king who are repre- 
sented as being set afloat on the Irrawaddy, 
and floating down to Prome, near to which 
place, Tha-re-khet-ta-ra's dynasty commenced to 
reign, in the year 60 of the Buddhist religion, 
or B. C. 483. 



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1868.] The Poems of Chand Barday. 119 

The Poems of Chand Barday. — By F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A. 
Oxon, B. C. S. 

In the cold weather of 1867, I addressed a brief note to the Asiatic 
Society, in course of which I suggested the desirability of taking 
some steps towards the publication of the ancient Hindi poems 
ascribed to Chand Barday. The matter was taken up by Mr. Long 
and others, and an application made to Government for the loan of the 
MS. preserved in the Agra College Library. The result was, that in last 
June, I was formally requested by the Secretary to the Government 
of the N. W. P. to examine the poem, and write a report upon its 
value in an antiquarian or general point of view. The MS. was 
duly forwarded to me through the Director of Public Instruction, and 
I had made some slight progressjui it when a misunderstanding occurred 
(which has since been fully explained) in consequence of which I 
abandoned the task, and returned the MS. But before doing so, I had 
put myself in communication with Babu Siva Prasad, the well-known 
Inspector of Schools, who was kind enough to borrow for me another 
MS. from the Library of the Maharaja of Benares. I had imagined that 
this would be useful for purposes of collation ; but on inspection found 
it to be an entirely different poem, and bearing a different name, though 
written professedly by the same author and treating of the same 
events. The Agra poem, entitled Prithiraj ras, occupies 1598 folio 
pages, and is divided into 68 cantos, corresponding apparently with 
the MS. consulted by Col. Tod. It has all the dignity and propor- 
tions of an Epic poem, commencing, with an elaborate introduction, 
and proceeding through a succession of incidents to a grand catastro- 
phe, viz. the capture of Delhi and the establishment of the Muham- 
madan dynasty. The Benares poem, entitled the Prithiraj -ray asa, 
occupies only 786 octavo pages, plunges at once in medias res, 
terminates abruptly, and is altogether much less ornate in character. 
Though it bears the same name as the MS. described in the 
Proceedings of the Society for July last, it does not appear to 
correspond with it in any other respect, judging at least from the 
table of contents, and may be another part of the same work. As 
copies of the poem are exceedingly scarce, and no two seem to agree, 

120 The Poems of Ghand Bar day. [No 2 

I think it desirable to place on record a brief notice of each. Accor- 
dingly I propose to do so for the copy that I have examined by, 1st. 
giving a summary of the contents ; 2dly, attempting a translation of 
one canto ; and 3rdly, making a transcript of some verses of the 
original text. 

This plan of procedure will indicate the general scope of the work, 
the interest of the narrative, and the character of the language ; which 
are the three points most to be considered. I should be glad to see 
the same scheme pursued with all other copies that may be brought 
to light. 

The Benares MS. of the Prithiraj-rayasa is dated Sambat 1900. It is 
well written, but has received numerous marginal corrections, and stands 
in need of many more, being full of clerical errors. It consists of two 
books entitled I. Mahobe ka samay, and II. Kanauj ka samay. I am 
uncertain how the word samay is here to be translated ; the ordinary 
meaning time does not seem very appropriate. Sir H. Elliot was 
evidently in the same difficulty, as appears from a note of his which 
I shall quote later. The second book has no subordinate sections ; 
the first is divided into 38 cantos. I give the titles as they stand 
in the original, thinking this the most satisfactory plan, since their 
brevity makes them often obscure and capable of alternative interpre- 

1. Raja Chandra-brahma utpatti. 

2. Manurpur Bhandav jagya. 

3. Raja Parmal Alhan sambodha. 

4. Mallakhan mantrain. 

5. Mantra subhat pratijna. 

6. Mallakhan jucldh. 

7. Kanauj pur Alhan svapna. 

8. Jaganayak Kanauj pur. 

9. Jam an juddh Kabiljer. 

10. Alhan Grangaju darsan. 

11. Alhan Jay-chand milap. 

12. Gajar juddh. 

13. Jaganak Alhan sambad. 

14. Alhan Jaychand sambad. 

15. Brahma barat Batesvi darsan. 

1868.] The Poems of Chand Barclay. 121 

16. Belabyah. 

17. Alhan Kanaujte Maliobeko gaman. 

18. G-andhau Alhan juddli tatlia Mahilko Gliorinko dand karna. 

19. Kalysnr pi'ija Alhan sapna. 

20. Alha Mahobe nist Lakhan Talhan saint. 
• 21. Rup Brahma. 

22. Prithiraj Parmal do kos antar apna mantrain. 

23. Paninko bida Kalinjarko kaian. 

24. Raja Parmal Kalinjar gaman. 

25. Talhan vadha. 

26. Lakhan Talhan vadha. 

27. Alhan Arahma sambad. 

28. Udal Sanjam Ray jnddh. 

29. Udal-kanh sangrani. 
80. Udal vadha. 

31. Raja Parmal srap. 

32. Alhabardan. 

33. Chanhan Chandel scna. 

34. Jaganak Devapur gaman. 

35. Brahmajit Kumar vadha. 

36. Goraklmath darsan. 

37. Alha jogarth Goraklmath sang Kalinjar gaman. 

38. Chand bhavishya varnana. 

Sir H. Elliot, in his Bibliographical Index, has a note apropos to 
Rashid-u-din's mention of Kajraha, which may be here quoted as 
bearing on Cantos I and II. " Kajraha. Its real name is Kajrai, on 
the banks of the Ken, between the Chatterpur and Panna, said to have 
been founded by the great parent of the Chandel race. The ruined 
temples of Kajrai are of great antiquity and interest. They are 
described in the Mahoba Sama, and there said to have been built by 
Hamoti, upon the occasion of her having held a Banda jag, or 
penitential sacrifice. She had committed a little faux pas with the 
moon in human shape, and, as a self-imposed punishment for her 
indiscretion, held a Banda jag, a part of which ceremony consists in 
sculpturing indecent representations on the walls of temples, and 
holding up ones own foibles to the disgust and ridicule of the world. 
Hamoti was the daughter of Hemraj, spiritual adviser to Indraji, 

122 The Poems of Chand Barday. [No. 2, 

Gaharwar Raja of Benares." It is strange to find a scholar like Sir 
H. Elliot guilty of so many inaccuracies in one short paragraph : for 
Sama read Samay, for Hamoti, Hemavati, for JBanda, Bhandav, from 
the root bhand, to divide, and for Indraji, Indrajit. The legend of 
Hemavati's amour with the moon is related at full length in the first 
canto of the Prithiraj rayasa, which I now proceed to translate. 
Here the river Ken, or Cane as it stands in our barbarous maps, 
appears in its original form as Karnavati, and the city of Kajrai is 
called Kharjinpur or Khajjurpur. 

Translation of Canto I of the Prithirdj-rdyasa (Benares MS.) 
I reverence the gracious feet of Ganesh, Ganga and Gauri by whose 
slightest favour, highest wisdom is attained. Getting unutterable 
lore, I sing the glory of Raghupati ; after Ganesh and Girija, not 
unmindful of the great bard Valmiki. Valmiki composed the Kamayana; 
Vyasa uttered the Mahabharat ; their works are renowned throughout 
the world ; the Mahabharat has spread through the universe. Men 
reckon the Mahabharat at 100,000 verses ; the poet Chand, in as many, 
celebrates the fame of the Chauhans. The king, a second Duryodhan, 
with his hundred knights inaugurating an era ; in a second Mahabharat 
the poet Chand records his achievements. With the Tomar king were 
four godlike sages, lights of the world, lights of the court, endued 
with the sin-destroying splendours of Hari and Vyasa ; four lights 
born in the world, of pure and boundless wisdom, Vyasa the son of 
Parasar incarnate in four portions. 

With the foes of hares and deer (i. e. clitds) with the kings of the 
feathered tribe (i. e. hawks) and innumerable dogs, Anangapala set out 
towards the north to hunt. On the bank of the mountain stream he 
espied a dense forest, abode of the king of beasts; thither the 
monarch turned. Spells, charms and prayers, even the chase itself, 
are forgotten : such a marvel met the king's gaze in the forest. A 
ram of vast strength, that would dash through a thousand armies, 
was fighting with eight tigers, and scattered them all. A hind, 
conceiving strange fury in her breast, wildly butting the eight tigers 
on the ground, rushed on to the attack and, leaving her young, tore up 
the ground with her antlers. The king, astonished at the sight, 
called for Vyasa : " How can a ram fight a tiger ? tell me, noblest of 
Brahmans. A ram has but little might, yet now consider it well, he 

1868.] The Poems of Chand Barclay. 123 

has fought for a whole watch and come off victorious." " Standing 
on Seshanaga's head the ram was strong ; what are eight tigers ? he 
could vanquish a thousand. (Part of the next couplet is obscure. I 
give it therefore in the original.) 

High or low, on whomsoever rests the favour of the king of the 
serpents, his power stands firm." Anangapala, having heard and 
considered the words of Vyasa, sent and summoned 2000 workmen, 
in his delight distributed rich presents, and, in an auspicious hour, 
commenced building a palace, mindful of Vyasa's words. The king 
demanded 100 sers of iron and had it hammered well, then the smiths 
were speedily summoned, who made a shaft five hands long. The 
king took the shaft, well hammered as it was and five hands long, and 
drove it in ; three fingers breadth of the point passed into Seshanaga's 
forehead. According to Vyasa's instructions, the king had had it well 
worked with the hammers, and had ordered a sharp point wherewith 
to pierce Seshanaga's head like a deer or a fish. Said Vyasa : "O 
king, the spike is in Seshanaga's head, now rule at ease with unpre- 
cedented sway." Said Vyasa ; " There will be a plot, O Tomar 
Raja, be prudent, and give an order that the shaft be not removed." 
" The advice is good ;" so saying he too went away home with Vyasa, 
for the fair Hemavati had come to meet him. The great sage 
Vyasa sings of the sacrificial preparations made by Janamenjaya : 
how can fate be annulled, says the poet Chand. Ramchandra, lord of 
the three worlds, was deceived by the golden deer : look again at 
Bali and the dwarf : Fate is a word of power. Seshanaga called to his 
younger brother Tachhak : " Exert yourself to get this spike out of 
my head. Hear, brother Tachhak, and attend ; an iron spike has 
been driven into my head, put in practice all the four stratagems of 
war, and rid me of this spike, my brother." Tachhak was pleased 
when he heard Seshanaga's wise and courteous speech : " the spike 
must come out to-day, think well of it and exert yourself." 
How Tachhak took leave of Seshanaga and disguised himself as a 


" Assume the dress of a Brahman with soft and plausible words, 
pretending that the events of yesterday are an absurdity, go before the 

124 The Poems of Gh and Bar day. [No. 2, 

Tomar king." Tachhak was glad when he heard the speech of the 
serpent king, and taking a book in his hand, and binding his hair in 
a knot, he assumed the guise of a Brahman. With a white dhoti, a 
garland on his breast, and sandals on his feet, started the serpent, 
repeating the four Vedas. With great composure repeating the Vedas, 
fountain of all wisdom, putting the people on one side, he came to the 
Tomar king. When Tachhak saw the Raja, raising his hands on high 
and still repeating the Veda, he gave him his blessing ; and the Raja 
being much gratified, saluted him lowly : " Ask whatever gift thy soul 
desires." Then said the Brahman : " If I may ask what I will, I 
have heard a wonderful story, concerning that, king, will I ask. 
Listen to me, wise monarch ; what wonderful fancy has come into 
your head ? come tell me plainly, and put an end to doubt." " Hear 
then, Brahman, in one word a marvellous story : a spike driven 
into the ground has entered Seshanaga's head." Said the Brahman, 
" This cannot be true." " Hear, Brahman, this is no doubt the 
Kali Jug, but Vyasa cannot speak false, greatest of astrologers, 
perfect in science." " The spike is no more in Seshanaga's head than 
it is in mine :" the Brahman pulled out his stake and threw it down. 
"If the spike is in Seshanaga's forehead, then cut off my head." 
When the king heard this, he had the shaft pulled up : the king saw 
blood flow, and at once drew his sword. Drawing the sword from its 
sheath, the king became violently enraged, but looking round could 
see no one : Tachhak had vanished into the earth. The Tomar's day 
set with the shaking of the shaft ; blood welled up like a fountain, and 
poured along the ground. Sun, moon and stars tottered ; an awful 
voice was heard. As Vyasa had predicted, Delhi met its fate. The 
serpent king, and the hope of the Tomar dynasty, flew away : then 
came Vyasa lamenting with loud voice : "0 King, once favoured of 
fortune, your word has been broken through craft." The king stood 
astounded. Then spoke Vyasa again : " Hear, king. Tachhak has 
craftily accomplished Seshanaga's deliverance, and has escaped. Jana- 
menjaya at the time of sacrifice directed his intention against his 
father's enemies, and recited charms by which they came and threw 
themselves into the fire. By the protection of the king of the gods, 
there escaped to the heavenly city this crafty one, this Tachhak, 
rescued by Indra and Brahma ; being born of Kasyapa, as all the 

1868.] TJie Poems of Chanel Barclay. 125 

world knows, what greater power this serpent lias, he inherits from 
Brahma." Then the Tomar Raja spoke and said: " This I did not 
know : now tell me what plan is best by which to remedy the evil 
that has been done." Then the Raja, cursing his folly, deeply 
grieving in heart, listened while Vyasa expounded to him the future. 
How Vyasa expounded the future to the Tomar Rdjci. 
" There shall be a tremendous war between the Chaulnms and 
Chandels ; blood shall flow in torrents, flooding the whole earth. 
Power will be exhausted in the conflict between the Chauhans and 
the Jlahtors, then the sovereignty shall pass to the Muhammadans." 
The Tomar Raja, clasping his hands, said : " excellent in wisdom, 
seeing that my rule is over, tell me what shall befal in the 
times to come after me." " The Dwapar age has passed ; the Kali 
Jug, as all know, has come upon the earth, and in the character of 
Duryodhan, the Chauhan takes birth. The Chauhan shall war 
with the Chandel, iron clashing against iron ; earth loses a fraction of 
the weight upon her head. With Prithiraj are a hundred heroes, 
men of valour, giants incarnate ; on the other side the gallant Chandel 
princes: then Valla and Salla take birth." " In what family shall 
Bills and Valla be born ?" asked the Raja. Answered Vyasa, the great 
sage : " glory of the Tomar line, great and righteous king, the 
prayer of earth was heard of old, when in the form of a cow, fair of 
hue, with gleaming hoofs and budding horns, she came before 
Brahma and cried : ' In the Satya Jug Hari, with his discus, had 
battle with and slew the great serpent Kali ; in the Treta Jug, Rama 
scattered the hosts of Kumbhakarna and Ravan ; in the Dwapar Jug 
was the war between the sons of Kuru and Pandu, when the son of 
Jadu took a whole mountain off my head : now in this era of Kali 
Jug remove a portion of my burden ? Brahma. The times are very 
evil ; the ocean of existence is illimitable ; hear, Chaturanan, and 
consider; remove the burden from my head.' As you desire the 
incarnation of Valla and Salla, in the Banaphar line Alha and Udal 
appear. Prithiraj the Chauhan marches upon Mahoba, and, breathing 
fury, rages against the enemy. Siva dances in exultation, with 
a garland on his breast ; while witches fill their urns from fathomless 
rivers of blood. Deep flow the streams of gore ; the Chandels fight 
gallantly ; no one turns his back ; it is a conflict of heroes." 

126 The Poems of Chanel Barclay. [No. 2, 

[The passage that here follows is rather obscure, and I do not quite 
see how some parts of it are to be rendered. Accordingly, as it 
enters into my plan to give a specimen of the original text, I take 
this for the purpose. It will be found at the end of the paper : I 
resume the translation from the point where the transcript breaks off.] 
Then the Raja in astonishment enquired of the noble sage : " How 
can Chhatris spring from Brahmans ? Tell me, Brahman, the two 
lines from the union of which these Chhatris were produced," said 
the great king Anangapala. Said Vyasa, when he heard the king's 
words, u Conceive no amazement in your mind : as God ordains, so 
events befall. Attend, Tomar king, while I declare the Gahar- 
war genealogy ; afterwards I will relate the origin of the Chandels. 
The Gaharwars were seated at Kashi ; their name and descent hear 
first, king ; then I will pass on to the Chandels. Karuchandra was 
the Gaharwar king of Kashi ; under his sway all the people dwelt in 
peace and content. A just man and righteous was king Chandra. 
His son was Bansinh, beautiful as Kamadeva ; the son of Bansinh 
was prince Jagannath ; he took fort Ratn by craft from the Asuras. 
His son Bansinh, with great powers, assaulted and took Sumarant. 
His son was the beneficent Surasinh, a monarch like Murari. Of 
him was born king Indrajit, to whom Vindhya Devi manifested 
herself. In this Baja's court were many Brahmans, amongst them 
the gracious Hemraj, to whom a daughter was born : who can describe 
her ? Born in the holy city of Kashi, she received the name of 
Hemavati, most lovely, in form a chitrani, of most amiable disposition. 
This charming Hemavati grew up in the reign of the Gaharwar king. 
In the summer season, when the sun's rays were at their hottest, the 
moon rose upon her view. The moon came and manifested himself 
to Hemavati ; the maiden trembled with sudden cold and blushed 
beneath his gaze. Bright shone the pendants in her ears and the 
jewels in her hair ; on her forehead a patch of sandal wood ; on her 
bosom a garland of flowers. The ear-rings glisten ; the flowers are 
pure white, bright is the gleam between her parted hair ; lovely her 
whole attire. As she loitered with her fair companions, the moon- 
beams toyed with her person. She knew not the dalliance. But 
deep was the curse which the damsel uttered. The moon stayed and 
cried, " Fair maid, be comforted ; curse me not, for thy son shall be a 

1808.] The Poems of Chanel Barclay. 127 

king ; his sway shall be universal ; no sickness shall touch his body. 
Hundreds and thousands of kings shall acknowledge his power. 
Pause, lady, and consider ; attend to ray words." So saying, the king 
of the stars was departing, but the damsel cried, " Stay, tell me by 
what means to remove the stain I have incurred." Answered the 
moon, " lady, be not distressed." Quick as a lightning flash she 
grasped her lover by the hand. 

An episode. The Rdjd asks Vydsa whether the damsel lived with 
her lover or was separated from him, and at what time this dalliance 
with the moon took place ; and Vydsa tells the king. 

The rishi relates how many years the damsel stayed in company 
with her lord, and at what season the meeting with the moon occurred. 
After sixteen years, through the curse of Indra, the lady became a 
widow. It was in the fiery month of Jeth, when it is pleasant to be 
bathing all day long, that the moon to gratify his passion, came down 
and embraced her ; the whole night was spent in sweet dalliance, yet 
such is the divine power, the maiden knew it not. As the ocean-born 
was leaving, she ran and seized him by the hand : " Is it thus you leave 
me ? mine has been the disgrace, be your's the curse." The Brah- 
man's daughter ran and seized the Brahman's king (i. e., the moon) 
crying " Who is this that has come, making me thus criminal ? 
Wretched that I am without a lord ; in one day wedded and widowed. 
The wild sea spreads wide before me ; there will I plunge : who will 
drag me again to the shore ? so the stain of sin shall be washed from 
my body. Of what avail to avert the inevitable have been my ablutions 
in Kartik and Magh ? Tell me quickly some remedy : I am not such 
a one as the wife of Gautama. " Then spoke the starry lord, the 
moon, lovely monarch of the night, and addressed the damsel : " 
lady, thy son, noble in mind and body, shall be born a hero on the 
bank of the Karnavati. Then proceed to Kharjinpur ; there give 
alms and offer sacrifices ; so a king shall reign at Mahoba, with many 
horses, many cows, many warrior knights ; with an army complete in 
all four departments, crushing the hosts of his enemies, truly a great 
king, whose sway shall be boundless. Then having acquired the 
philosopher's stone, transforming all things to pure gold, he shall 
erect statues and temples and excavate a spacious lake. Then after 
founding the fort of Kalinjar, he shall abandon the body, and attain 

128 The Poems of Chand Barday. [No. 2, 

heaven, leaving his body in Kalinjar, and by death acquiring nirvana." 
Said the damsel : " But I have been ravished : my son shall be born 
a king, but I shall be lost in hell. cruel, treacherous lord of night, 
I am sunk in an ocean of grief, speedily shall my curse fall upon thee : 
speak, wretch that thou art." Then said the ruler of night : " What 
was ordained has come to pass : fate cannot be annulled ; this even 
the gods admit. Sixteen sons shall be born to thee, great and 
munificent kings ; the Bhandav sacrifice shall be celebrated with 
liberal gifts." Then the monarch of the stars instructed her : " lady, 
obey my advice ; quickly leave this city and go to Kalinjar. And in 
Kalinjar tarry not many days, but remaining only a short time, 
proceed to the Karnavati." Then he bestowed on her a charm and 
comforted her, saying " Whenever thou shalt recite this, then I will 
be near thee. Brahma has declared that Hemavati's son shall be the 
greatest of Chhatriya kings ; his sway shall extend to the bounds of 
the ocean." So saying, the king of the stars vanished, while Hemavati 
pondered the spell. 

Leaving Kashi she came to Kalinjar, and there rested four months, 
bathing in the sacred stream, and invoking all the gods on behalf of 
her son. Then quitting Kalinjar, she came to a village, her fair body 
glistening bright as the moon. Towards day-break, on Monday the 
11th of the light fortnight of Baisakh, king Chandra-brahma was 
born. Joyous strains of mystic purport sounded in the air, and the 
happy gods from their chariots rained down flowers. The rivers 
flowed milk ; soft, cool and fragrant breathed the air, when Hemavati's 
son was born ; the whole world heard of it, The best of omens 
came to the daughter of Hemraj ; her left side throbbed : then 
appeared the lord of night. Brihaspati too arrived, midst the songs of 
the Kinnars : Hemavati fell at his feet : her lord thus addressed her. 
(The next four lines are obscure and I quote them in the original.) 

^TCT %?nn?t spr *r ^ vxrfrr -*?Tf% f^rsir 

The teacher of the gods wrote the horoscope, while the goddesses 
sang gladsome strains : then the son of Angira read it aloud. The 
divine orchestra played as he read ; flowers rained upon the earth ; the 

1868.] The Poems of Chand Barclay. 129 

apsaras danced for joy. " A son has been born in the line of the moon, 
who shall tread the path of the golden age ; his sway shall extend to 
the ocean, great poets shall sing his fame. Celebrating sacrifices, 
lavishing gifts, earth shall find in him a sovereign lord : Chandra- 
brahma has been born to the moon in the city of Khajinpur." 
When the sage had thus spoken, the gods all departed to their several 

Every day Chandra-brahma grew in beauty, Karaadeva incarnate. 
All the people of Khajinpur were astonished as they gazed upon his 
face : " This son of a widowed Brahman woman, has with ease slain 
a tiger." The boy was ten years old when he set for Kedar : there 
he spied an enormous tiger and slew it. As the strong tiger could 
not be seized, the king victoriously encountered it : the glorious son 
of the moon slew it with his sword twelve hands in length. The 
resolute prince left the king of that district and arrived at Khajinpur, 
where he related the encounter to Alhan. Queen Hemavati came 
and took him to her bosom, and recited the spell : the lord of night 
appeared. The moon kissed his son's face, having called his chariot 
near; then Chandra-brahma received from him the philosopher's 
stone. Mainaka danced for joy with her fair companions ; glad 
strains are heard. The happy Hemavati brings her due offerings of 
flowers, fruit and water ; all the gods unite to establish the throne of 
Chandra-brahma. With one accord exclaiming, l Long live the king' ; 
and repeating potent spells, they called the noble prince and instructed 
him in kingly polity, " Who can have enjoyment that associates 
with a man who is hump-backed, or lame, or who has black teeth, or 
who is a leper, or crooked, or deaf, or foolish, or very dull, or a sensual- 
ist, or a false friend, meanest of all men ? hear my advice, prince, let 
not such persons come near thee, nor do thou go near them. This is 
the purport of all the eighteen Puranas. Poets and sages and all the 
world declare, the society of such men brings no good. (The two next 
lines are obscure :) 

W3"^*s Tf^Ejr*r^rrprei *f*ri? 

Encourage ingenious poets, with them is excellent wisdom ; with 
them, prince, converse ; keep also about thee knights and warriors. 
Give not thy mind too much to the chase ; shed dignity on thy royal 

130 The Poems of Chand Bar day. [No 2, 

estate. Consider first virtue and the practices of religion ; be not a 
slave to the populace ; keep thine eyes ever wakeful and thoughtfully 
observe many countries. Conceal thy emotions both of love and hate, 
at the time acting a part. Whether affection or resentment have the 
upper hand, remember that time tames not . Be strenuous to restrain self- 
complacency, and speak reverently before the altar of battle." Having 
thus instructed him in kingly polity, the lord of wealth exclaimed : 
Reign over thousands, and hundreds of thousands, discarding all doubt 
and distrust. All lands exult, the heavenly choirs sing for joy at thy 
glory, Chandra-brahma, imperishable in the world." Staying a 
moment, the moon called to him his wife and son : " Know of a 
surety, lady, the words of Brahma cannot fail." So spoke the 
glorious lord of night. She rose and touching his feet, said, " my 
lord, hear this my vow, the name of Brahma shall never cease from 
the family." The son of ocean departed and calling the bounteous god 
of wealth sent him with the stone. The lady gave it to her son, 
telling him its virtues in full : there was singing amongst the gods in 
the heavenly city when the story was told to Chandra-brahma. 
According to the instructions, he took the stone and applied it ; and 
with the masses of gold thus produced proceeded to Kalinjar. 

When king Chandra-brahma had reached seventeen years of age, 
he bathed at Kalinjar and adored Nilkanth. There innumerable 
Brahmans came crowding to visit the king : none understood the 
mystery of his origin and body of purest gold. When he saw the 
Brahmans, he sent for a hundred millions of gold pieces and bestowed 
them himself a king upon the kings of earth ; it is beyond me to tell 
even the half of his munificence. With 30,000 heroes an invasion 
was made ; in little more than 12 hours he subdued both countries, 
Sihura and Grahor, and with an immense train of horses, cows and 
bulls returned to Kalinjar. The Gaharwar fled in terror, deserting 
Kashi : the godlike Chandra-brahma annexed every dominion. 

" Tell me, noble sage, what virtue there is in Kalinjar, that bathing 
there gives access to the heavenly city ?" He answered : In the Satya 
Jug called Mahatgiri, in the Treta Pingalday, in the Dwapar Swargrae 
in the Kali Jug, it receives the name of Kalinjar. Religious pilgrim- 
age may be made to many sacred places ; the virtues of a million 
are inherent in Mrigadhara. By beholding, touching and bathing in 

1868 -] Th* Poems of Chand Bar day. 131 

that sacred stream, man is purified permanently from sin and error. 
It possesses in a pre-eminent degree the virtue of many tiraths : he 
who worships there with pure intent, performs a most meritorious 

As the king reclined upon his couch of kusa grass, the gods came 
and blessed him : « Build a fort upon my holy mountain, then reign 
for twenty generations." When he heard the gracious words that 
proceeded from the mouth of the gods, he set heart, tongue and body 
to work at the foundation of the city. He had a fort built in four 
courts, with a splendid gate to each, with frowning towers of vast 
dimensions. Then he collected for the fort, stores of all eight metals, 
with guns and men to look after them, and placed the stores in order, 
hallowing the work with prayer. Then he cleared the ground from 
blocks of stone and dressed it, and set up an enormous figure of a 
lion : lastly gave alms in great profusion, for alms-giving brings with 
it a blessing. 

There still remain 14 stanzas to the end of the canto, but I think 
it unnecessary to translate them, since they are nothing but an 
enumeration of the grain, live-stock and other stores, including balls 
and powder for the guns above mentioned, which were stowed away 
in the fort. This mention of fire-arms is certainly curious : Sir H. 
Elliot in his Bibliographical Index quotes from the Kanauj-khand 
three passages of five or six lines each, in which the words dtish, 
zambur and top occur, and says " it appears to me evident that the 
passages where these are mentioned are spurious and interpolated, to 
accommodate the poem to the knowledge of subsequent ages." He 
adds, however, that the verses in other respects have anything but a 
modern ring, and the same may be said of the lines with which my 
translation concludes. 

I had expected to find a large intermixture of Persian words in 
these poems ; since some scholars who condemn the pedantic use of 
pure Hindi in modern composition, have defended their practice by 
the example of Chand, the father of vernacular literature. However, 
in the canto now translated, I have detected only eight foreign 
words ; viz. jahdn, the world ; zdhir, manifest : both occurring in 
one line ; sher, a lion ; sahm, fear, in a doubtful passage : and hdz, 
a hawk ; jwra, a hawk, Jcadd, size and khiydl, thought, all of which 

132 TJie Poems of Chanel Barclay. [No. 2, 

come close together at the end of the canto. Later on in the poem, 
Persian words may be rather more frequent. 

As for my translation, I have done my best to keep close to the 
original ; but a poem, like the Piithimj-rayasa, intended expressly for 
recitation, and composed in a ballad metre with many words thrown 
in more for sound than sense, scarcely admits of literal rendering. 
The narrative too is occasionally very abrupt in its transitions, 
briefly alluding to events which require to be known in detail before 
the ambiguous allusions can be interpreted ; while the language is of 
a most archaic type and the text exceedingly corrupt. The necessary 
result of all these circumstances is, that my rendering of several 
passages is little more than conjectural. 

The few lines to which I have been unable to attach any definite 
meaning, and which I have therefore reproduced in their original form, 
are probably more or less corrupt. I hope some scholar will exercise 
his ingenuity, and favour the Society with a translation both of them 
and of the longer continuous passage with which I now conclude this 

^ wc% w?t ^r ^r ^tsttt ^ ' 

Tit *TTT TpT W?*N *R 7K ^ l 
VTrT^T ^T cp? VTTT^^ T^ VPC f%*7 <tf? I 

-*rm w fH^r ^;re w? *r»T ^r <^Tf%w i 

1868.] The Poems of Chaud Barday. 133 

List of some of the more unusual words, Sanscrit, Prakrit and 
Provincial, occurring in the canto translated. 

Chhand, Prakrit, for sdvaka, the young of any animal. 

Uttamdng, Sanscrit compound, the head. 

Sandha, a palace, S. 

Chhanhani, for alcshauhini, an army. 

Viya, or biya, a particle of asseveration : see Varamchi's Prakrita 
Prakasa, ix. 3. 

Bddav, a Brahman, S. 

Pdnwari, sandals. 

NakJcat, putting on one side ? from nalclc, a S. root, given in the 
dictionaries without any authoritative reference for its meaning. 

A ghat) a crashing sound. 

Thd for turn : thdJco for tumhdrd. 

Bhd, for main, I. 

Bauran, for tumhdrd. 

Vatt, Prakrit, for vartd, original of modern bdt, a word. 

Puhumi, for prithivi, the earth. 

Sat, for s'at, 100. Shodas, 16, S. 

Pith-thai, for Prithi raj. 

Go, the earth, S. 

Kumudvant, epithet of the moon. 

Gulah, an ear-ring. 

Suhra-mds, the month Jeth, S. 

Bdmd, a woman, S. 

Chhonip, a king. 

Chhandna, for chhorna, to leave. 

Mddhav, the month Baisakh, S. 

Paydn, for pavan, wind. 

Bhindapdl, a kind of spear, S. 

Pdnivar, low, mean. 

AnJcdr, for ahamhdra, conceit. 

Divait, doubt, S. 

Ndh, for ndth, a lord. 

Bard, a bull. 

Gurj, for burj? a bastion. 

Jinddm, for jandrd ? a pitch-fork or rake. 

8'rag, for asn)", sangins. 

134 The Poems of Ghand Barclay [No. 2, 

Note on the Chandel Rajas of Mahoba. 
In the second canto of the poem the descent of Parmal the last 
Chandel king of Mahoba is traced up to Heniavati through 20 genera- 
tions, which was the number specified in the prophecy. The line 
stands as follows: 1. Hemavati and the moon god; 2. Chandra- 
brahma. He founds Kalinjar and Khajinpur with 85 temples and 
101 lakes : marries Chandravali ; settles at Mahoba ; 3. Bar-brahma : 
he builds Barigarh ; 4. Par-brahma ; 5. Bup-chandra-brahrna ; 6. 
Braj-brahma; 7. Rup-bel-brahma 8. Man-brahma ; 9. Jag-brahma ; 
10. Gyan-brahma ; 11. Snjan-brahma ; 12. Jay-satyan-brahma ; 13. 
Jag-jat-brahma ; 14. Kil-brahma ; 15. Suraj-brahma ; 16. Janrup- 
brahma; 17. Eahil-brahma. He invades Ceylon, founds Basin, 
marries Bajmati ; 18. Madan-brahma ; 19. Kirat-brahma ; 20. Par- 
mal. Being ashamed of his origin, he drops the affix Brahma and in 
consequence loses his raj. 

Mainpuri, October Ylth, 1868. 

Authors of Armenian Grammars, from the earliest stages of Arme- 
nian literature up to the present day.— By Johannes Avdall, 
Esq., M. A. S. 

[Received 30th July, 1868.] 
A brief sketch of the rise and progress of Armenian literature will, 
it is hoped, not be deemed altogether uninteresting. Agathangelus 
was the first who wrote a history of the life and exploits of the 
Armenian king Tiridates, towards the close of the third century of 
the Christian era. He was of Greek extraction, and well acquainted 
with the Armenian language. Before that period, it cannot be said 
that the Armenians had a literature of their own. Some popular and 
rural songs were extant, commemorative of heroes and heroic achieve- 
ments. At this period, there was no Armenian alphabet. Conse- 
quently the Armenians used the Greek, Peine vie and Syriac characters. 
The Armenian alphabet was invented in the beginning of the fourth 
century by the intelligence and efforts of St. Mesrop. Although 
some odd and uncouth letters were in existence, bearing the name of 

1868.] Authors of Armenian Grammars. 135 

their inventor Daniel, they were altogether incomplete, and all the 
vowels were wanting. The invention or perfection of the Arme- 
nian alphabet was soon followed by the establishment of schools, the 
formation of literary and scientific societies, the translation of the 
holy scriptures into Armenian from the original Greek and Syriac, 
and by the production of original works, such as history, biography, 
grammar, theology, geography, &c. During these days the Armenians 
generally used the grammar of Dionysius of Thrace, which was 
originally written in Greek and translated into Armenian by David, 
surnamed the invincible philosopher. The Armenian grammar lias 
only two numbers, singular and plural, but David attempted to 
introduce into it the dual number, in imitation of the Greek. The 
idiom of the Armenian language, however, did not admit of this 
extraordinary innovation. 

Subsequent to this, the grammar of Moses ^.lr r p„ IL the gramma- 
rian was prepared and introduced into all the Armenian schools, 
which was, in the course of a short time, generally studied, and 
became a popular class-book.. Moses Khorenensis [p^u ^^ 
is supposed by contemporary historians to be the author of this 

Gregorius Magistrate, who flourished in the eleventh century, 
compiled another grammar from those that were already extant. 
This was also introduced into the schools of that period. 

Johannes of Ezinka, of the thirteenth century, wrote a new 
grammar by the help of a dictionary compiled by Dr. Aristakes. In 
this new work, the author has compiled and mentioned all that was 
worthy of note and useful from the preceding grammars. Gregor 
Tathevensis ^pL^f, of the thirteenth century, produced a commen- 
tary on the grammar of Aristakes and his coadjutor George. 

Jacob of Ghrim Q^np. ?/ ^<%/i is the author of a grammar, in 
which he has taken a great deal of pains in dilating upon punctuation 
and accentuation. A grammar is also extant without date, supposed 
to be a compilation by the {j.^^^ Deacon Johannes. In like 
manner, another grammar is in existence, the authorship of which 
is ascribed to Priest Cachatur. The foregoing are the authors of 
Armenian grammars, who flourished n Armenia prior to the four- 

136 Authors of Armenian Grammars. [No. 2, 

teenth century. I shall now proceed to give a concise account of those 
who followed them in the subsequent centuries. 

Among Europeans, Franciscus Rivola of Milan, composed an 
Armenian and Latin grammar, which was printed in 1624. Being 
himself a foreigner, he seems to have taken a great deal of pains in 
preparing his book, which is not, however, without errors. 

Another grammar was compiled in Armenian and Latin by Clement 
Galanus, which was printed in Rome in 1645. It is more compre- 
hensive, and less abounds with inaccuracies than that of Rivola. A 
treatise on Logic is also appended to this work. 

Doctor Voscan (H-* ieW"* fri " published an abridgment of Arme- 
nian grammar in Amsterdam in 1666. 

An epitome of Armenian grammar, under the name of S'imon, 
native of Julpha, was printed in Constantinople in 1725. Johannes 
Jacob the Priest, surnamed ^^ Declension, wrote an Armenian 
grammar in Latin, for the use of European students, which was 
published in Rome in 1675. Cachatdr Vertabed of Erzerum, published 
an Armenian grammar in Aligornia in 1696. 

Johannes Vertabed of Julpha, compiled a short grammar; accom- 
panied by a treatise on Logic, which was printed in Amsterdam in 171 1. 
Johannes Joachim Schroder, a native of Holland, studied the 
Armenian language with unceasing application, and the greatest 
avidity by bishop Thomas of Gokhten and his nephew Lucas. He 
published an Armenian grammar with Latin exposition at Amsterdam 
in 1711, under the title of u>«*ffi-«a l> r <-/- Q^W " Thesaurus 
Linguae Armenecae Antiquae et Hodiernae," with a copious voca- 
bulary and entertaining Dialogues in modern Armenian. Being an 
excellent oriental scholar, he was competent to criticise the gram- 
matical works of his predecessors, and to note their inaccuracies and 

Jacobus Yillotte, from the Society of Jesus, published in 1714 at 
Rome, a Latin and Armenian Dictionary with an elementary grammar. 
He was, for several years, a Jesuit Missionary among the Armenians. 
The great bulk of his book is a proof of the vast amount of labour he 
has bestowed on its preparation and completion. 

Subsequently a more enlarged and improved grammar was published 
by Mechithar, the founder of the Mechitharistic Society in Venice in 
the year 1730. 

18G8.] Authors of Armenian Grammars. 137 

Deacon Balthasar published an Armenian grammar at Constanti- 
nople in 1736. 

Daring the close of the eighteenth century, when the cultivation of 
Armenian literature was appreciated far and wide, not only among 
the Armenians themselves, but also by several learned European 
orientalists, Father Michael Chamich's grammar was published in the 
year 1779, which was hailed with the greatest avidity and enthusiasm 
by the Armenian literati as the most complete work of its kind. It 
was introduced into all the schools, superseding the use of all the 
other grammars previously published. 

In 1815 another grammar appeared, by G-abriel Avietick, member 
of the Mechitharistic Society of Venice. Although its first part is 
written in the modern or vernacular Armenian, the another has taken 
a great deal of pains to throw more light on the ancient literature 
of Armenia by a careful reference to rare manuscripts of antiquity, 
which have been discovered, subsequent to the publication of Father 
Chamich's grammar. 

Jacob Shahan Cirbied published his Armenian grammar in Paris 
in the year 1823, under the title, " Grammaire de la lingue Arme- 
nienne." Its publication elicited a violent correspondence between 
the author and his critics. 

In 1826 Ter Arratoon Ter Mesrop published an Armenian gram- 
mar in Constantinople nearly in imitation of Chamich, for the use of 
Armenian schools of that city. 

Father Paschal Aucher, of the Mechitharistic Society of Venice 
published an Armenian and English grammar and vice versa, in Venice 
in 1819 and 1832, by the assistance of Lord Byron and of John 
Brand, Esq., A.M. of the University -of Cambridge, with copious 
selections from the best Armenian authors in chronological order. 
Doctor Michael Salanth, of the Armenian College of Moscow, published 
in 1827, a comprehensive grammar in two volumes. The publication 
of this work met with a most favorable reception from the Armenian 
literati of Russia. The author, however, is severely critical on the 
slight inaccuracies of Father Michael Chamich. 

In 1847, appeared another grammar, short, simple, plain and easy, 
from the pen of Mackertich Emin, Esq., formerly of Calcutta but 
now Principal of the Imperial College of Oriental Languages in Moscow. 

238 Authors 0/ Armenian Grammars. [No. 2, 

A brief Armenian and Latin grammar was published in Berlin 
in 1841 by that eminent orientalist and accomplished Armenian 
scholar, Jul. Henr. Petermann. It is accompanied with a copious 
glossary, which does no small credit both to the head and heart of the 
distinguished author. He is now in the Holy Land, as Prussian 
Consul General. His efforts, in search of scriptural antiquities and 
rare ancient Armenian manuscripts will, it is hoped, be crowned with 


In the year 1830, an Armenian grammar was published in Calcutta, 
with notes and copious English glossary, by the author of the present 
article, chiefly intended for youths educated in India. 

In the year 1844, appeared the Polyglott grammar, in Arabic, 
Persian, Turkish and Tartar languages, with copious critical and 
philological notes, Par Le P. Minas Medici. It is highly prized by 
orientalists and learned Societies of Europe. 

A full and comprehensive grammar was published in Venice in 
1852, by Doctor Arsen Comitas Bagratimi, the oldest and most 
eminent member of the Mechitharistic Society of Venice, abounding 
in philosophical commentaries and philological observations. It is 
more intended for the advanced student, than as a class-book for 
schools. The author was deservedly distinguished for the profundity 
of his erudition. He was one of the brightest luminaries that ever 
shone in the horizon of Armenian literature. He died in the year 1866, 
at the advanced age of 77 years, but his works will perpetuate his 
name to prosperity among his countrymen. 

Bev. A. Kurken, M. M., of the Mechitharistic Society of Venice 
published in 1853, an English and Armenian grammar, with copious 
examples from English authors. This work is considered very useful 
for beginners. In conclusion, I also think it necessary to add, that 
since the year 1840, up to the present day, a great variety of 
elementary grammars have been published by the indefatigable 
members of the Mechitharistic Societies of Venice and Vienna, in 
Armenian and French, Armenian and German, Armenian and Latin, 
Armenian and Italian, and Armenian and Bussian languages, which 
will greatly tend to facilitate the study of the Armenian language by 
European scholars. 





No. I.— 1868. 

Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, N. W. Himalaya; 
by P. Stoliczka, Esq., Ph. D. 

Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of India. 
[Received 18th July 1867.] 

When writing the preface to the third volume of the 'Birds of India/ 
Dr. Jerdon remarks that the publication of the two former volumes 
of the same work had already attracted great interest to Indian 
Ornithology. The very large amount of the most accurate statements 
as to specific distinctions, on the habits and on the geographical 
distribution afford indeed facilities of no ordinary kind, and they 
not only serve to direct other observations, but they are useful in 
most cases also as a guide to the record of any additional facts, which 
further inquiry may bring forward. Had it been possible to add 
illustrations of at least the more important types of each family, 
the student in India could scarcely have wished for a better Manual 
of Indian Ornithology. 

During my geological wanderings through the N. W. Himalaya, 
I have made various observations on Indian Zoology and Botany, 
specially with the object of collecting materials for a fauna and flora 
of Western Tibet. Only for a comparatively short time have I been 
enabled to pay any attention to the fauna of the Cis- Himalayan 


2 Ornithological Observations in the Sallej valley, [No. 1, 

regions. Thus, when staying last year for about six weeks in the 
neighbourhood of Chini, in the province of Kunawar, I compiled a 
few notes on some of the main features and relations, which present 
themselves between the flora and fauna of the more interior 
and higher ranges of the N. W. Himalaya and those of the 
temperate, continental portions of Europe, (Verhandlungen der zool. 
hot. Gesellschaft, Wien, 1866, p. 850). In my present communication 
I intend to deal with a more special subject and propose to bring 
More our readers a few observations on the Ornithology of the Sullej 


My remarks and enumeration of species will he restricted- so 
to say-to the Himalayan faeies of the avi-fauna, for the fauna of 
the so-called sub-tropical forests of the lower Himalayan hills scarcely 
differs from the Indian fauna in general. But it will be readily 
understood that, even within this limited area, I cannot pretend 
to give at present a complete list of all the ornithological treasures 
W hich actually are to be met with. A good many birds are merely 
occasional visitors to the valley, in their periodical wanderings to 
Tibet and Central Asia. Others, properly belonging to the Indian 
tropical fauna, appear almost accidentally without making any pro- 
longed stay in the valley. It is difficult to procure all the informa- 
tion required about such rare species, and I only can mention them, 
so far as they came under my notice, from reliable authorities or from 
personal observations. Of the general character of the avi-fauna, 
however, I trust to give at least an approximately correct idea. 

It was, as I have already stated, with a view to obtain some Tibetan 
and Central-Asiatic birds, which do not come in winter as low down 
as the Indian plains, that I undertook to employ shikarees during 
the winter-time in the interior of the hills. My expectations on 
this point have not been quite frustrated. I have not only received a 
tolerably correct account of the avi-fauna during the winter m tins 
portion of the valley, but I have been at the same time placed m 
possession of valuable materials, which enable me to make a few 
additions to this branch of the Indian fauna. 

It has been already* mentioned, that the exclusion of the birds 

* Ibis 1S66, II. p. 228, and elsewhere. 

1808.] N.W.Himalaya. 3 

of the more Northern regions of the N. W. Himalaya — as well as 
those of the eastern provinces of Bengal — from Dr. Jerdon 's work 
is greatly to be regretted. It is not strictly correct that the birds of 
Western Tibet* and Kashmir have been treated in this manner • 
for not only are most of these provinces situated to the South of 
the river Indus, and within the limits of our Indian empire, but 
the larger number of the birds, which inhabit these regions in 
summer, are, during the winter, visitors of Northern India proper ; 
or at least of the lower ranges of the Indian or Southern slopes 
of the Himalaya mountains. It is true that the birds of these 
provinces in some respects represent a distinct facies, as compared 
with the tropical character of the Indian fauna generally, but this is 
not sufficient ground for supposing that they are not birds of India. 
For if the validity of this opinion be admitted, the entire fauna of 
Northern Nepal and nearly of the whole of Sikkim must be excluded 
from the Indian fauna. 

On the contrary, the affinities and relations of the various facies in 
a fauna are entitled to the special care of naturalists, because these 
relations are of the highest importance for the study of the geographical 
distribution, not only of single species, but more properly of the 
character of the different zoological provinces of our globe. Besides 
this, the comparison of two or more neighbouring facies of tho 
fauna very often facilitates the knowledge of the species themselves in 
so far as they shew us, whether certain variations may be considered 
sufficient to warrant those distinctions, upon which we generally base 
our ' species.' 

In many cases the comparison of Indian birds with so called represen- 
tative species in Western Asia and Europe is still a great desideratum, 
although these comparisons may prove to be in favour of several 
identifications. I would, for instance, only call to mind our Tartar 
moena or rupestris, and the common T. auritus, Corvus tibetanus and 
C. corax, Turdus Euttoni and T. viscivorus, Pica hotanensis and 
P. candata, Regulus Hymalayanus and R. crislatus, and others. For 
my own part I believe many of these species to be respectively identical. 
To return to our present subject,— the avi-fauna of the Sutlej valley 

# Including Spiti and Lahul, which are British provinces. 

4 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1 5 

-it is perhaps necessary to remark, that the present records are prin- 
cipally based upon my own observations, which I had occasion to 
make during the summer-months-from May to October-m the 
greater portion of the valley— having also at the same time made 
a large collection of birds. The references to the fauna in the winter- 
months are, as already noticed, based upon materials which have been 
procured by my shikarees, and also upon information from a few friends. 
In cases where specimens of new or little known birds have been 
procured, short descriptions may not be out of place, except where the 
additional remarks have already been supplied, in which cases the 
respective references,— so far they have come to my knowledge— will 
be given. Being aware of the great difficulty, which exists in this 
country, of obtaining sufficiently reliable reference to literature in this 
branch of Zoology, and also materials for comparison, I have mostly 
avoided naming any new species, but in several instances I have given 
indications of such by giving short descriptions. These may pro- 
visionally serve for identification, or at least for comparison. Should 
further inquiries make some of my as yet deficient determinations 
more successful, I hope to be able to communicate the results subse- 
quently* I may, however, draw the attention of Ornithologists 
in India to a few interesting species : as, for instance, the Accipiter 
nisoides, B 1 y t h, whether it be a distinct species from Ace. gularis, 
S c h 1 e g e 1 ; to Oypselus pacificus, Lath, and the very similar 
Cyp. leucogenys, B 1 y t h ; to an apparently new species of Munia, 
several new forms of Phylloscopince, one or two new species of 
Accentor, a new Montifringilla, a Linota, a Fringillauda, a doubtfully 
young Hydrohata, and others. 

Before entering upon any details, it seems desirable to say a few words 
on the physical construction, and on the climatological conditions of the Sutlej 
valley; and as the fauna and flora of a country are in many respects 
connected with, or even dependent upon each other, a short reference to 
the main features of the vegetation of the valley may essentially aid in 
attaining this object. 

Through the valuable investigation ofMoorcroft, Strachey and other 
distinguished travellers it is pretty well known, that the Sutlej rises to the west 

* Having since visited the principal museums of Europe and having had opportunities of 
comparing a few of the doubtful species, I shall occasionally add a few notes, (Feb. 1868.) 

18(58.] Jfc W. Himalaya. 5 

of the Mansarowara lake, but its proper sources,— as likewise those of the 
Indus-have not as yet been traced with undoubted accuracy. The course of 
the river through the Chinese province Nari (or Googhi) is only imperfectly 
known, although some additional observations may bo expected from the 
brothers Schlagintweits' expedition. The information, which has up to 
this time been procured, shows that the climate of Nari does not materially differ 
from that of W. Tibet in general, it being characterized by an excessive dryness 
of the atmosphere at all times of the year, by great contrasts* during the 
summer in the diurnal and nocturnal temperatures, and by very severe coldf 
in winter. The wholo country is very rough in its configuration 5 the few 
level places being restricted to old river terraces or lake-basins, the elevation 
of which varies from 10 to 15,000 feet, while many of the neighbouring hills rise 
above 20,000 feet; 19,000 being about the mean of their elevation. The 
snow lino lies at about 19,000 feet. A very limited quantity of moisture is 
supplied from the Indian side through the Sutlej valley during the months of 
July and August, but its influence rapidly decreases in the more eastern parts 
of the province. The total fall of snow during the winter can, I think, rarely 
exceed two feet. The cultivation of cereals succeeds, only where water for 
irrigation can be abundantly supplied. The arboreal vegetation is restricted 
to a few apricot, poplar and willow trees, the first growing up to 11,000 feet, 
while the two others are occasionally found up to 13,000,- all of them 
however, generally only in the neighbourhood of villages. The same is the 
case with the Juniperus excclsa. Its geographical range appears to have 
formerly been much wider, and a very great care is at present bestowed 
upon this sacred tree of the Buddhists. Grassy plains afford ample pasturage 
for cattle, being a little more extensive towards the head of the valley, 
where several former lakes have, in consequence of the accumulation of debris 
from glacier streams and avalanches, and on account of the increase! of 
evaporation caused by the dryness of the atmosphere, either decreased in 
extent or altogether disappeared. 

The fauna has an essentially Tibetan character. The Kyang, Egyms hem- 
onus, is very plentifully met with in a wild state ; the Yak, Poephagus yrunniens, 
has become domesticated and is at present very rarely found wild to the 
south of the Indus; Ovis Atnmon, (Ms naJmra (barhel), Moschus moscMjcrus, 
and other Euminants are, however, still tolerably common. TJrsus tibetanus' 
Lynchus europeus, Vulpes montanus and ferilatus, Mustella erminea and others 
are also not rare. Of birds a large number of FringillidzE, Ruticillin^, 
Alaudid^e, Coevidj3 and others, mostly of a European type, are to be met with! 

^SiSSS^^^^^J^Ji h ° UrS ' *—*—* — ^at being 13 0° 
^te^l^^Z%^ md&t daytime Seld ° m ™<* higher thaa the freezing point of 

iSti^^issgst* to the devastation ° f arboreai ve * etation ' wwch is saM to have 

6 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

As to Reptiles and Fishes, I have not been able to procure any information, 
but I should think that they are not specifically very different from those of 

W. Tibet. 

The population as compared with the area, is very small, generally 
pursuing a nomade life. The people belong to the Caucasian race, not 
to the Malayan ; they generally live during the winter in small villages 
in the lower and less inhospitable portions of the valley, while in summer 
they wander with their flocks of sheep and cattle towards the head of the 
valley, to the higher places of pasture. Some of the tribes have no substantial 
buildings at all, and live all the year round in black tents (made of the hair 

of the yak). 

Proceeding westwards from the Kunawar frontier, near Shipki, we find 
that the Sutlej has forced its passage through the principal N. W. Himalayan 
chain, cutting its bed to a depth of several thousand feet. Former terraces 
and old gravel beds of the river [and also of its tributaries] are seen, 
three and four thousand feet above the present level, which descends from 
about 8,000 feet at Shipki-N. lat. 31°, 58'; E. long. 78°, 40'-to 3,000 
feet below Kotegurh-N. lat. 31° 24'; long. 77", 3S'.-Within this entire 
length (amounting to about 160 miles) from Shipki to Suni (N. of Simla) the 
Sutlej flows in a narrow channel between perpendicular cliffs of gneiss, the 
width of which seldom exceeds a few hundred feet. The Wangur and 
the Baspa rivers, both of which are situated within the branches of the 
central Himalayan chain are the only large tributaries* on the Indian slopes. 
They are well known to travellers in these parts of the hills as the 
finest retreats, where a delightful climate combines a beauty of vegetation 
and an Alpine grandeur of snow fields and glaciers, not easily to be found 
in other parts of the hills. The highest peaks in the central chain rise on an 
average somewhat above 22,000 feet, and the limit of snow lies in general at 
about 17,000 feet, increasing to about 18,500 on the Tibetan slopes. 

In the Sutlej valley itself, only the higher terraces, situated between 6 
and 9,000 feet, are generally sufficiently large to afford room for cultivation 
and settlement, the slopes of the mountains being mostly precipitous. 
The width of the valley is even at those higher elevations merely a few 
miles. On the whole, its physical conditions are not particularly favorable to 
agriculture, nor is there much room for a large population. The circumstance, 
however, that the river has cut its course right across the principal range 
of the N. W. Himalaya, (without making such a distant circuit, as is done by 
the Indus on one side and the Brahmaputra on the other) entitles the Sutlej 
valley to its fame as the principal highway to Central Asia. 

Indeed, following the course of the river from the plains at Eupoor up as 

* The largest tributary is the Spiti river : its valley lias in general rather a Tibetan climate 
and a corresponding fauna and flora. 

18 ^ 8 -] N. TV. Himalaya. 7 

far as Shalkhar, on the Spiti river, and then travelling a few marches through 
the present Chinese province ' Qto-tsM along another tributary, the Para river 
wo come upon the elevated plains of the Tibetan province Kupshu s cross the 
Turghoo-la (or Jaborscesa.pass,-only about 17,000 foot high) to the hot spring 
of Puga, and thus reach the upper Indus valley, without any such difficulties as 
snow beds, glaciers and avalanches &c, which usually are experienced in travers- 
mg high passes. The ascent of the Turghoo-la is, on the whole, scarcely two 
thousand feet, and the incline is so gradual, that even a cart-road, if required 
could bo made with little expense and no difficulty. It is, however, not my 
object here, to point out a new route to Central Asia, but it is necessary to 
draw attention to the great facilities, which, at the same time, this routo 
affords to the migration of birds, because these and other favorable oironms- 
tances must bo consulted, when an explanation of many of the peculiarities in 
the character of the avi-fauna of the valley has to be given. 

Viewing the general physical construction of °the valley within the 
central chain of tho N. W. Himalaya, the greatest peculiarity consists in its 
small width, while the neighbouring hills rise to a very considerable elevation, 
and thus exhibit very different conditions of climate within a compar- 
atrvcly small geographical area. These apparently anomalous conditions 
are best exemplified from the occurrence of a few characteristic Indian 
plants. Tims for instance, in some places, Euphorbia, Ficus relijiosa, 
Musa and other more or less tropical plants are found on the base of a 
1 lll ' Wlie ^ hlgher P° rti0US of A- same declivity are adorned with 
the finest cedar and pine forests and, above the limit of these trees with 
numerous glacial or Alpine plants, the summits being crowned with eternal 
snow and ice. 

It no doubt greatly depends upon the extent both of the arboreal vegetation 
and of tho brushwood, whether the slopes of the mountains at different 
elevations always shew equally marked distinctions in the fauna, as they 
do m the flora. But, when tho different climatal conditions are placed within 
such narrow geographical limits, it will easily be understood that their 
approximation is particularly favorable for the migration ef species, which 
in time become used to a somewhat different climate, if the respective are suitable to allow an easy passage. I shall subsequently 
note several instances, which appear to be the result of such a o-radual 
acclimatization. ° 

The province Kunawar, in which many of the ornithological observations 
here recorded were made, extends from Shipki to Wangtu bridge (N lat 31° 
27', ; E. long 78°, 3'). A large portion of this province is situated on the N 
eastern declivity of the central Himalayan range, and has much Tibetan admix-' 
tare m its fauna and flora. Travelling from the Chinese frontier -to the west we 
won see the Tibetan Caraycena and the Jwmperus squamosa replaced by tho 
larger Jump, cxcclsa, Finns cxcclsa and a few others ; fine specimens of apricot 

8 Ornithological Observations in the Suilej valley, [No. 1, 

and poplar-trees become abundant, and the first vineyards are to be observed 
in the neighbourhood of small cottages. Myricaria elegans, so common in the 
Spiti-and Para-valleys is hardly to be noticed anywhere. The first extensive 
forests of the Hymalayan Cedar, Cedrus deoclora, the eatable pine, Pvvus 
Germdiana, Abies excelsa and others, are met with to the west of Chini, which 
is one of the best known places in this portion of the hills, and lies almost in 
the middle of Kunawar. The village of Chini itself is situated at an elevation 
of about 9,000 feet on an old river terrace, several others of which exist here 
between heights of 7 and 10,000 feet, affording the only suitable places for 
cultivation. The population is, therefore, in this neighbourhood rather large. 
The extensive cultivation attracts at the same time several birds, which are 
not to be met with in any of the more eastern provinces. 

The regular formation of the Dhaoladhar - and the Baralatse - ranges,- 
which is so prominently marked in their N. Western and S. Eastern extensions 
is here much disturbed and interrupted. Both the chains divide numerously, 
bein- connected by different spurs or branches, which often exceed m 
elevation the main range. The climate is in some respects intermediate 
between that of India and that of Tibet. The mean temperature varies m 
summer (between May and September) from 45 to 80 degrees within 24 
hours- the solar heat amounting to about 100 and very seldom rising to 
120 de-rees In winter the thermometer stands lowest (below Zero at night 
time) in January and the first half of February ; the mean temperature of 
the winter-months being about 32°. Therein no particular regularity as to 
the fall of moisture in the rainy season. Occasional showers occur m the 
summer months, especially in June and July. The total fall of rain, especially 
including the heavy snow falls in February, does not probably much exceed 

six inches. 

The limit of vegetation almost corresponds with that of the snow line,, 
lyino- between 17 and 18,000 feet ; the limit of the growth of trees being 
very nearly 12,000 feet. We often find at this limit Betnla Bajpaltra, 
and in other places Finns excelsa, which ranges almost higher and ex- 
tends farther into the interior than either Pinus Gerardicma or Cedrus 
deodora. The eatable pine is, I think, peculiar to the Sutlej valley and the 
seeds are a favorite food of the rare Sitta leucosis. Fringillid^, like 
Metopomiou pusilla, Loxia Himalayana, Projpasser rlwdochrous, or Fregilus- 
Bymalayanus, are usually found at the limit of trees, where they generally 

also breed. 

Other less common species of trees in the neighbourhood of Chini are 
Picea Webbiana, Pinus SmitUana, AUes excelsa, Taxus baccata, two species 
of Acer, Alnus elongata, Fraxinus, Quercus or Ilex Src, all more or less recalling 
a European character of vegetation. In forests, as well as on the more 
open and grassy slopes of the hills, are also found a number of common European 
plants, for instance Ranunculus acris, Caltha palustris, Adonis aestivalis, 

1868.] JV. W. Himalaya. 9 

Taraxacum officinale, Convolvulus arvensis, Euphrasia officinalis, Epilobiiim 
roeewm and amgusUfoHvm, Polemowvum ccericleum, Thlaspi arvense and several 
others, characterising the flora as one of a temperate climate. The peculiar 
species of the avi-fauna of the province Kunawar are Qyornis ruficavda, Fregilus 
Himalayamus, Emberiza Stewarti, Metopomda pwsiZto, Silta leucopsis, Ruticilla 
ucapilla, Sylviparus modestus, Alsocomus Hodgsorwi, and many others 
which are during the summer very rarely, or almost never, to be observed 
to the west of the Wangtu bridge, or on elevations below 8,000 feet. On the 
other hand occur, in almost immediate association with the former, species like 
the purple-tailed lloneysucker, Aethopyg ■■, Dicrwrus /<< 

vrwis schisticeps, and others which are usually met with only lower 
down ; they appear to have been so far acclimatized, that they are found 
breeding even on these high elevations between 9 and 10,000 feet, still 
they are now comparatively rare birds. A large number are migratory, and in 
winter make room for others which arrive from Tibet and Central Asia; these 
latter species chiefly belong to the Fi;im,ii,i,ii) i:, Al Afninr. and CoRVTDJE, 
riiAsiAxNin.i;, PiciDuE, and a few Hai-tokks are not migratory, but they are 
numerically not so much represented as the others. 

The next province on the western frontier of Kunawar is Bissahir, adjacent to 
which are the hill states about Simla and the southern portions of Kulu. 
When wo proceed from the Wangtu bridge clown the valley, we already find 
ourselves on the southern declivities of the great barrier between the 
Tibetan and the Indian climate. The rainy season sots in here with full 
force towards the end of June, and lasts till the end of September. Tho 
vegetation on suitable localities and on moderate elevations is luxuriant 
especially at this time of the year ; it has much admixture of the Indian 
subtropical types and also a great number of plants identical with those of 
India in general. 

The fauna of these more western portions of tho Sutlej valley can be viewed 
under two somewhat different sections ; namely that of the greater elevations 
between 12,000 and about 6,000 feet, and that of the lesser elevation 4000 or 
5,000 down to about 1,000 feet. 

The former section includes some of the largest forests of tho Himalayan 
Cedar, especially in tho neighbourhood of Nachar, stretching on one side into the 
Wangur— and Baspa— valleys, and on the other, along the tops of the hills, 
to almost the immediate vicinity of Simla. About Gaora and Serahan,— 
between 7 and 9,000 feet— some of the finest specimens of the Ulmus H-ima* 
layensis, Pavia mdica, Juglans regia, mulberry and other trees occur, and 
besides a thick vegetation of low forests and brush-woods. There exists on 
these moderate elevations a particularly mild climate ; the supply of water is 
abundant during the whole year, and some of the places best adapted for 
cultivations of grain &c. are to be found here 5 the population is, therefore, 


10 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

larger than on either the higher or the lower elevations. The fauna on the 
whole much resembles that of Kunawar, though many of the southern species 
of birds, insects, &e., are here more abundantly found than they are met with 
in the eastern provinces. Specially common and characteristic for the climate 
of the summer months are Splwmocercus sphenwrus, Muscicapida supercillia/ris, 
Hemichelidon fuliginosus, Pomatorhinus erythrogmys, Troclialoptervn variegatum, 
Ahrornis xomtlioscUstos, Pyrrhula erythrocepMla, Pericrocotus brevirosfris, Gal- 
lophasis allocristatus, and many others. In winter several species of the 
paring RUTiciLLiNiE, accentorin,e and others are here more abundant than 
on the lower ranges. 

The Indian character of the flora and fauna becomes prevalent the more 
we proceed southward, and the more we descend to lesser elevations. At 
the Wangtu bridge, the base of the Sutlej valley is only about 5,000 feet 
above the sea-level ; at Eampoor (the principal town of Bissahir, east long. 77°, 
45' ; north lat. 31°, 26') scarcely 4,000 feet ; below Kotegurh about 3,000 feet ; 
and thus rapidly decreases until it is reduced in the vicinity of Belaspoor 
(long. 76°, 48' ; lat. 31°, 23) to almost 1,000 feet. The climate of these lower 
portions of the valley is in some respects peculiar, but on the whole much 
resembling that of Northern India, especially of the Punjab. 

There are several indications, that the valley has formerly been better 
populated, than it is at the present time. The reasons of the decrease of the 
population seem principally to rest in the change of the climate, which most 
probably was effected by the destruction of the arboreal vegetation. The 
characteristic tree of the lower elevations is the Pinus longifolia, but there can 
be little doubt that the Cedrus deodara was formerly much more common ; both 
these trees, and especially the latter, appear to have been at an early period very 
much reduced in number, and in consequence of this the influence of the periodi- 
cal rains and of the rapid changes of the weather soon became sensibly felt. The 
heavy showers have, after a lapse of a comparatively short time, washed away 
all the unprotected soil and left behind them bare rocks. Again, on account of 
the want of arboreal vegetation, the temperature in the shade during the summer 
often rises in the narrow parts of the valley to 90, and sometimes even above 
100 degrees, hot winds being in the months of May or June in the neighbour, 
hood of Eampoor not uncommon. We may justly say that there is a kind of 
interruption in the growth of the vegetation twice in a year, during the winter 
and partially also in the hot season. This is no doubt a great impediment to 
the cultivation of cereals as likewise of all other kind of plants and has, 
therefore indirectly a great influence upon the inhabitants of the country in 
general. We thus gradually come to the conclusion, that the devastation of 
the forests has, indeed, a great deal to do with the final depopulation of a hill- 
tountry, because the irregularities of the weather, its rapid changes and ex- 
tremes, when they once come into operation, are every year increasing, and 
soon create almost insurmountable difficulties to agricultural cultivation. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 11 

At no groat distance to tho West from Wangtu bridge we meet, at an 
elevation of about 6,000 feet, with the first noteworthy, sub-tropical plant, the 
Eupliorbia antiqua, and about one mile from Rampoor at a height of about 
5,000 feet we come across the first specimens of Ficus religiosa. On the same 
tree we meet with the first specimens of the familiar Mina, Acridotheres tristis, 
Temeneuchus pagodarum and other common Indian species of birds. Several 
flowering trees and bushes attract the Arachnechthra asiatica, Piprisoma agile, 
Sibia capistrata and others. In low brushwoods are found Pratincole* caprata 
and fcrrea, Otocompsa leucogenys, Munia Malabarica, Rcguloides trocltiloidcs 
and other familiar birds of the plains. Corvus splendcns and the noisy Milvus 
govinda bring tho traveller from tho last groves of pine-trees under the shade 
of a Ficus indica, or into a garden of Muste and orange trees. Such is the neigh- 
bourhood of Belaspoor, which already possesses all the characteristics of a true 
Indian flora and fauna and will, therefore, bo considered as the limit to which 
my observations on the Himalayan avi-fauna of the Sutlej valley will apply. 

Thus the country, from which the materials for the subsequent remarks have 
been obtained, extonds almost from the Tibetan frontier at Shipki to Belaspoor, 
a distance of about 180 miles measured along the course of the river Sutlej ; 
the direct line across the mountains being, however, only about 110 miles. 
The provinces situated in that portion of the N". W. Himalaya are Kunawar, 
Bissahir, the Southern portion of Kulu, and a few of the small hill states in the 
neighbourhood of Simla. This area lies between the 3 1st and 32nd degree of 
North latitude and very nearly between the 77th and 79th degree of east 
longitude. The elevations vary on an average from one thousand to about 
thirteen thousand feet, for scarcely any birds live in these parts of the valley 
for a great length of time above the latter limit, though further to east in Tibet 
the same are usually found at considerably higher elevation. With reference 
to the arboreal vegetation to which we have so often drawn attention and which 
forms such a prominent feature in the physical character of the country, we 
may in general state that the avi-fauna referred to in the following pages, 
characterizes the geographical range of the Himalayan Conifer trees, beginning 
at low elevations, — about Belaspoor, — with the Pinus longifolia and terminating, 
in the East of Kunawar, — with the Pinus Gerardiana and the Junipcrus excelsa. 
The arrangement followed in the enumeration of the families and species is 
that of Dr. JER DON'S BIRDS OF INDIA,' to the volumes and 
page of which reference is given in Roman and Arabic numbers, respectively. 

/. Fam. YULTTJR1DM. 

The vultures, usually feeding on the carcasses of different animals, 
which occasionally perish under the stress of the weather in crossing 
high passes on the N. W. Himalaya ranges, are the two following ; 

12 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

1. Gyps eulvtts, G m e I, (I. 8), which is the common European 

species, and 

2. Gyps indicus, S c o p., (I. 9), which is very rare in the interior 

of the hills. 

3. Neophron Ginginianus, Lath., (Ibis 1866. II. p. 233— 
Neoph. percnopterus apud J e r d o n, 1. 12) is often seen in summer on 
the lower ranges about Belaspoor and Suket, but is almost never to be 
observed further in the interior. 

4. Gypaetus barbatits, L i n, (I. 13) is common all through the 
Sutlej valley and through W. Tibet ; it generally retires in winter from 
the Northern parts of W. Tibet to the more Southern hills, but 
permanently resides about Chini. The Chukor, Oaccabis chukor, and 
other partridges are his favourite meal. It is, however, well known, 
that this bearded eagle often accepts any other refuse of bones and 
meat being very often seen near the houses of hill stations. 

When marching through Lahul in 1865, the people assured me that 
it very often carries off lambs and kids and is very bold at the time of 
breeding. The natives of Kulu, about Plash and the eastern districts, 
prize the meat very highly, which is not only eaten by the low 
class, the Kolies, but rather more by the higher class, the Kauits. 
They generally tie a chukor on a short string, and stick four or five 
sharpened spears in the ground crossing each other, so as partially at 
least to cover the bird and at the same time to radiate with their points 
in different directions. The eagle is watched from some distance and, 
as soon as it throws itself with its usual great force and velocity 
upon the prey, it is overpowered with large clubs before it can 
extricate the spears from its body. 

The Himalayan Gyp. barbatus is, as regards the deep yellow and 
reddish hue of its plumage, identical with the African variety, while the 
Alpine specimens,— which are becoming very rare— generally have a 
much paler plumage. 


5. Falco peregrinus, Gmel, (I. 21) is often seen in the spring 
about Kotegurh, but I have not observed it between May and the 
middle of September anywhere else in the Sutlej valley. 

A male specimen, shot near Kotegurh in March, has the lower 

!868.] N. W. Himalaya. 13 

plumage remarkably yellowish rusty, only slightly albescent on the 
throat, where the quills of the feathers are white, while those of the 
rest of the plumage are pale brown. 

6. Hypotriorchis subbuteo, L in., (I. 3?,). I found a pair of old 
birds near Chini in August 1866, but I could not ascertain whether 
they breed here, although it seems very probable. J e r d o n says that 
they do not breed in this country, referring of course to India proper. 

7. Hypotriorchis severus, Ho r sf., (I. 34) is not common in the 
forests about Kotcgurh and in Kulu, and during the summer seems 
to migrate further to North. 

8. Hypotriorchis Ciiiquera, Dau d., (I. 36) occasionally breeds 
near Belaspoor, where I found several young birds about the end 
of May, but I never met with a specimen in the interior of the hills. 

9. Tinunculus alaudarius, B t i s s., (I. 38) common all through 
the N. W. Himalayas, on the southern side as well as in W. Tibet. 
I found this common European hawk breeding near Chini in narrow 
crevices of rocks. The eggs are dirty white, mottled and irregularly 
spotted with reddish brown. The young birds vary extremely in colour 
of their plumage, but the old ones are in every way identical with 
those from Europe. 

10. Erythropus vespertinus, £;tt., (I. 40) rather rarely seen, 
and only in the lower hills. 

11. Astur palumbarius, L i n., (I. 45) occasionally appears near 
Kotcgurh in the spring, probably on its way to Central Asia, for I have 
not observed it during the summer months any where in the eastern 
parts of the Sutlej valley, not even in Kulu. 

12. Accipiter nisus,!, in., (I. 51) comparatively rare in the 
interior, but more common in the lower hills. 

13. Accipiter virgatus, Te m., (I. 52) is by far more common 
than the last, especially about Kotegurh, Rampoor, the Kulu valley, 
and also more westward towards Kashmir, but I have not seen it to 
the east of the forests of Nachar. 

14. Accipiter ? nisoidbs, Blyth, (an A. gularis, S c h e g e 1 f) 
1845, J. A. S. B. Vol. XV. p. 727. The following is a description 
of a full grown male,* an evidently freshly moulted specimen ; it was 

# Known by dissection. 

14 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

shot in the middle of August 1866 in a pine-forest at Rogi, about 6 
miles W. of Cliini. 

Above, dark brown, ashy on the rump and upper tailcoverts ; all 
the feathers on the head, especially in front, and on the sides of 
neck margined and tipped with pale rufous, the rest of the feathers 
above and on the scapulars being only tipped with darker rufous and 
terminating with very fine silvery hairs ; a narrow supercilium, and 
partially on the nape, white ; ear-coverts brown, rufescent at the lower 
base ; wings brown, the feathers with distant dusky bars on the inner 
webs' and pale rufous or ochrey about the middle ; the secondaries are 
tipped pale, the teitiaries more distinctly rufous and both also terminate 
with long silvery films ; tail ashy, each feather with four dusky bands, 
the outermost pair only on the inner web banded, all are tipped pale 
rufous, and on the extreme edges with a silvery grey colour, though 
these edges appear to be very soon worn off. 

Below, chin and throat white, each feather with a very short dusky 
mesial streak, the streaks being near the tips a little stronger than on 
the sides, where the white passes into fulvous; the rest of the 
plumage below is very closely banded with pale and rufous brown, 
each of the feathers having three broad bands of a light brown colour, 
being margined posteriorly and partially also anteriorly with a rufous 
brown ; the remainder of each feather is pure white. On the abdomen 
and thighcoverts the bands become very narrow, and the latter are 
internally much rufous ; the lower tail coverts are pure white, partially 
tipped with pale brown; tail below albescent, with cross bands 
distinctly conspicuous. The sides of the body are much rusty brown ; 
the inner wingcoverts whitish, barred with numerous, narrow cross- 
bars of blackish brown and pale ochry. 

Length of wing 8 inch. ; tail 5f inch. ; tarsus 2J inch. ; middle toe 
If; outer toe 1J., with a small claw ; inner toe 1J inch, inner claw alone 
nearly \ inch, and almost more than double the strength of the outer ; 
hind-toe nearly 1 inch, of which the claw is about the half in length. 
It is evident that these measurements are intermediate between 
those of Mr. Blyth's A. nisoides and the common A. nisus oi 

On comparing Mr. B 1 y t h 's originals in the Indian Museum I found, 
that one of the three originals is lost, the other two very much resem- 

18G8 ] N. W. Himalaya. ] 5 

ble in the upper dark brown colouring our specimen, and one of them 
has some of the tips of the scapulars and tertiaries distinctly tipped 
with rufous brown. The cross bars below are, however, ochreous yellow, 
only with a slight ferruginous tint on the sides of the breast, but 
not nearly to the extent as described in our specimen. This cannot 
be, however, of very great importance, for the same colour is very 
variable in A. nisus. The throat is white, and so far as the feathers 
are preserved, they present a few dark streaks about the middle, 
though on this point neither of the specimens is quite perfect and it 
is only to be regretted that such valuable originals were not better 
cared for. The measurements given by Mr. B 1 y t fa are, wing 7 J inch ; 
tail 8J inch. The two respective specimens in the Indian Museum 
have the wings 7} and 7f, and the tail 5} and 5j inches. Mr. B 1 y t h 
supposed the specimens to be females, but they could with as 
much reason be regarded as males. Still it cannot be questioned 
that the typical specimens referred to, are remarkably small as 
compared with usual specimens of A. nisus. I found this difference 
especially apparent after having a short time previously procured in 
the lower hills several specimens of the last species. The claws appear 
remarkably strong compared with the size of the bird, and the general 
deep brown colour is always very conspicuous, when compared with the 
ashy hue of A. nisus ; still I think it wants further proof, until the 
species is firmly established. 

Mr. Blyth in his Commentary (Ibis 1866, p. 239,) says, " Dr. 
J e r d o n writes word, that A. nuoides is not rare in the interior of the 
Himalaya," and it is not unlikely that Dr. Jer don observed it in 
the same portion of the hills, where my specimen was procured for 
lie visited the Sutlej valley in 1864. The species cannot be easily 
mistaken for A. virgatus, which is comparatively very common and 
much larger.* 

15. Aquila chrysaetos, L i n., (I. 55) is often seen about Kote- 
gurh, and further towards east. 

A few other eagles and buzzards are not very rare in different parts of 
the Sutlej valley; but I have not succeeded in procuring specimens of 
either of them. The only species, which I have obtained in the be^innino- 

ofL^^lVctrrSGst" 13 " 1 -^* 5 " "*"*«** with A. M 

16 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. I, 

of AuguBt 1866, in a forest near Chini, was a young specimen of what I 

believe to be Aauila pennata, 6 m e 1, (L 63). The specimen is on y 
about three-fourths grown ; in colouring it exactly agrees with the old 
bird except that the inner webs of the tail feathers arc not barred ; a 
white shoulder tuft is distinctly traceable. Dr. Jerdo n says, that the 
voung bird of A. permuta is white beneath. This makes the question 
of the identity of our bird doubtful, although, as I have said, there 
is no difference in its colouring from that of an old A. penmta. The 
Bpeeimen is not a young Mopm, which always has the beak in propor- 
tion somewhat more slender* 

16. Neopus Malaiensis, Bein «., (I. 65) is common about 

Simla. . „ , , 

17. Buteo canescens, H o d g a., (I. 88), is occasionally found 

at Kotegurh, but not beyond in the eastern districts. 
' 18 Circus cineraceus, M o n *., (I. 97) occurs in tlie low lulls, 
where it may be seen to haunt in fields and low bushes, specially m 
the months of September and October. _ 

19 Haliastub Indus, B o d d., (I. 101) is only an occasional 
visitant of the lower hills ; I have observed it between Suket and 
Mandi on marshy ground, but not further in the interior. It is some- 
times seen in the Kashmir valley about Srmaggur. 

20 Milvus Govinda, Syhe Si (I. 104), common about Kotegurh 
but very rarely seen further to the East than Bampoor, except during 
the time of breeding. It does not approach the Tibetan climate. 

III. Fam. stbiqibm. 

Species belonging to this family are comparatively rare, although 
several of them may still be found in the wooded districts between 
Kotegurh and the Baspa valley. 

21. Syrnium Newarense, Hodgs., (I. 122). An unusually large 
specimen of 21 inches in length, with the wing of a little over 18 inches, 
and the tail of 10J inches was shot at Kotegurh in February 1866. 

22. Syrnium nivicoltjm, II o d g s., (I. 124). I procured one 
specimen of this species above Chini, at an elevation of 14,000 feet and 

* See Ibis 1867, p. 140. I cannot help thinking that Lieut. Beavan, who was 
very ea«*er to give notice of some of my specimens of birds, is mistaken m pro- 
nouncing the species to be a young of Neap, Molaiensis, Rem w. (Feb. 1608.) 

186&.] N. W. Himalaya. 17 

another specimen was sliot by my shikarees at Kotegurh in winter 
t868. It is in this portion of the hills rather a rare bird. 

The greater coverts of the primaries have a white terminal spot on 
the outer webs. The spots on the outer webs of the quills are fulvous 
brown, paler on the inner ; the cross bands on the two central tail fea- 
thers arc indistinct, and the plumage is generally finely mottled 
with light brown all over ; the tips of all tail-feathers are white. 
Below, on the sides of the breast, and on the abdomen most of the 
feathers are centrally streaked brown, each being marked with three 
cross bars. 

23. Otus vulgars, F I e m., (I. 125) not common in the forests near 

24. Athene cuctjloides, Vig., (I. 145), common enough about 
Kotegurh, but very rare further in the interior. 

25. Glaucidium Bbodijbi, Bu r L, (I. 140) must breed very early 
in the spring, for I met fully grown young birds about the end of May, 
The species is not rare on the Hatu mountain near Kotegurh, on ele- 
vations of 7 to 8,000 feet, and is occasionally seen all through the 
wooded districts of the Sutlej valley, but not beyond the more extensive 
forests. It chiefly feeds on small lizards, frogs and insects. 


26. Hirundo rustica, L., (I. 157) is common about Kotegurh, 
and further to East. 

27. Hirundo filifera, 8 i e p h., (I. 159). I met with this 
species near Belaspoor, in October 1800 ; the birds were few and 
probably migrating to the plains, for I found them during the previous 
year rather numerous in the eastern portions of Kashmir. 

28. Hirundo erytiiropygi a, 8y k e s, (Ibis, I860, vol. II. p. 337), 
The smaller type, which J3 1 y t h considers as distinct from 
B. daurlca, L i n., is common all through the Sutlej valley, especially 
in the portion between Kotegurh and the frontier of Tibet. 

29. Ootile rupestris, S c op., (I. 166). This is a common species 
all through the valley, and also occurs on the Indus in VV. Tibet ; it 
may have been occasionally mistaken for G. riparia which is, however, 
much rarer ; I have only once procured a specimen in Spiti. 

30. Ciielidon Casiimiriensis, Goul d } (I. 1167) breeds occasion^ 
ally near Kotegurh, but it is more common in the Kulu valley, 
I do not remember to have observed Ch. urhica } except late in autumn 


18 Ornithological Observations in tie Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

in the low hills. 

* 81. Cypselus Melba, L., (I. 175), common during the winter 
about Belaspoor, and in the valley below Kotegurh ; in summer it 
migrates into Tibet and Central Asia, a few birds only being occa- 
sionally seen in the vicinity of Chini. ^ _ 

32. Cypselus apus, Lin., (1. 177). I have procured near Chini 
specimens which are perfectly identical with the European bird, and 
the species is also common on the Indus in W. Tibet, especially about 
Lei I never got a specimen of the newly so called G. acaUcauda, 
Blyth, ii this ought to be really regarded as a distinct species, which 
does not seem to be very probable. 

33. Cypselus afpinis, Gray, (I. 177) is only occasionally seen 
in the valley ; one specimen was procured below Kotegurh m 

March 1867. tt '' 

34. Cypselus pacipicus, Lath., (Ibis, 1866, Vol II. p. .840). 
It appears that this species, to which (according to Blyth,) 
a ould refers G. vittatus, J. and S., G. austraMs, Gould and 

Birundo apus, var. p. of P a 1 1 a s as synonyms, only differs from Cyp. 
leuconyx, Blyth, by the blackish-brown claws. I shot last year 
near Chini several specimens of a Cypselus which, on comparing 
them in the Indian Museum with the original specimen of Cup. 
leuconyx, do not exhibit the slightest difference in size, though they 
distinctly have blackish claws, with no trace of white. The length 
of the wings differs from 6* to 6f . The birds are to all appearance 
identical with the specimens from the N. W. Himalaya determined 
by Blyth as C. vittatus, of which Jerdon says (I. 180) that 
they belong to Cyp. leuconyx. As far as these specimens of the so- 
called C. vittatus in the Museum are preserved, their claws appear 
to have been brown and not white. I cannot trace satisfac 
torily how far the distinctions pointed out to exist between G. 
leuconyx and C pdcificus are correct; the species do not seem to 
differ in colouring. Dr. Jerdon says (loc. cit. p. 180), ,that the 
blackish brown is < darkest on the head,' while in my and in B 1 y t h ' s 
specimens of C. vittatus, only the back is glossy blackish brown 
and the head, nape and neck pale brown, exactly like in Cyp. affims ; 
there is also in all our specimens a slight, pale supercillium traceable, 
being more distinct in front. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 19 


The species of this family are comparatively rare, and only to be 
found in the lower hills. I have often observed on the road from 
Simla towards Suket the following, — 

35. Caprimulgus indicus, L a t h., (I 192), which is also occasion- 
ally seen about Kotegurh, in company with the smaller 

36. Caprimulgus Asiatic us Lath. (I. 197). 


37. Merops viridis, L i n., (I 205), is only confined to the lower 
ranges and is from March till the end of October not uncommon in 
Southern Kulu and about Belaspoor. Neither the European Merops 
apiaster which is said to be found in winter, nor any of the other 
species belonging to this family have been observed. 


38. Coraoias indica, Lin., (I. 214) is very common in the lower 
hills about Belaspoor, but has not been seen further towards East 
than Kotegurh. 

39. Coracias garula, Ij i n., (I. 218). I only shot one specimen 
near Nadaon at the end of October 1865, but I have repeatedly seen 
this species in the northern Kashmir valley ; it is also found in 
Western Tibet. 


40. Halcyon fuscus, Bodd., (I. 224), common about Belaspoor 
and not leaving during the winter the lower ranges of hills. 

41. Alcedo bengalensis, (7 me/., (I. 230), is the only species 
which is occasionally seen as far east as Chini, though it is always 

42. Ceryle rudis, Lin., (I. 232), only in the lower hills to be 
met with. 

43. Cryle guttata, Vi g., (I. 239), occurs on the small streams 
beyond Rampoor, between Graora and Serahan, up to an elevation of 
7,000 feet ; in Kashmir it is very common. 


Several species of parrots are during the summer-months found on 
the lower ranges of the Himalayas, but they do not go in the interior. 
Among the more common species are — 

44. PALiEORNIS Alexandri, L i 71. (I. 286), 

20 Ornithological Olservations in the Sullej valley, [No. 1, 

45. Pal.sornis torquatus, Bod d., (I. 257) and 

46 Pamornis rosa, B o d d., (I. 259). Only the first and last 
species may occasionally be seen above Snni, in the southern portions 
of the Kulu-valley, and about Kotcgurh ; none of them occur more 


47 Palais siiisticeps, Eodg *., (L 261), is rather common 
in the neighbourhood of Chini ; I found it breeding near Urni (about 
10 miles W. of Chini) at an elevation of about 8,000 feet. Towards 
the end of August -at which time the young birds are nearly full 
grown -its shrilling voice may be heard between Serahan and 
Nachar almost in every ravine, wherever the elder and the elm are 
abundant, on the seeds of which it principally feeds. 

The young bird has no vinaceous spot on the shoulders of the wings, 
the head is dull grey with a greenish tinge, and nearly two-thirds 
of the basal portions of all the feathers and the quills in their entire 
length are slaty. 

X. Fam. FIGlDffi. 

48. Picus himalayanus, J. and Selby,(L. 269) may be consi- 
dered as the true representative of the European P. major, though 
it is a somewhat smaller bird. The third pair of the outer tail 
feathers is usually towards the tip whitish, tinged rufous, and 
interrupted on both webs by a blackish bar, the tip itself being 
whitish. The female is above uniformly black. 

Common in the cedar and pine forests all through the valley as far 
East as Chini, and ascending here to elevations of about 11,000 feet. 

49. Picus brunneierons, F*>, (I. 273). The third outer pair 
of tail feathers is usually also provided with 2-4 spots of white ; 
sometimes there are even one or two spots on the inner webs, the tips 
being rarely white ; the streak below the eye is very seldom black, 
but generally light brown, as also is the front of the head. 

This species is common in the lower ranges of the hills ; I have 
not seen it to the East of Nachar, but about Gaora (E. of Rampoor) 
it occurs at elevations of 8 and 9,000 feet. 

50. Gecinus squammatus, Vlg., (I. 286). Common all through 
the forests of the valley up to Chini, and ascending to elevations of 
nearly 11,000 feet. 

I procured in August 1866 near Pangi, a few miles beyond 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 21 

Chini, a pair of what I suppose to be young birds of this species, 
exhibiting, however, some noteworthy differences. Both the specimens 
are a little smaller than those usually known as G. squammatus ; the 
green is duller above than below, throat dirty greenish grey ; 
the feathers on the fore breast and on the vent are margined with 
black, while in specimens of G. squammatus, shot at Kotcgurh and 
in the western parts of the valley, the black margined feathers be gin 
on the lower half of the breast, its frontal half being green, the colour 
becoming duller on the neck and the throat. The middle tail feathers 
are margined with green, not being wholly black, as in typical G. 
squammatus. The streaks above and below the eye are almost white, 
while in squammatus they are distinctly tinged with green. The beak 
is also shorter, and apparently somewhat broader near the base. 

It is, as already stated, much more likely that we have to deal hero 
with a young bird in a certain stage of plumage— perhaps the winter 
plumage of the first year, — than with a distinct species. The red on 
the front of the head of the male is tolerably well developed, although 
not so pure as in old specimens of squammatus, it is, however, much 
purer than is usual in young specimens of this species. 

51. Gecinus striolatus, Blyth, (I 287) is very rarely met 
with in the forests west of Kotegurh. 

There are several other species of Picidye to be found in the lower hills 
but none of them is common even as far north or east as Kotegurh. The 
only other species which deserve special notice are the following ; 

52. VlVIA INNOMINATA, B U T t. (I. 300). 

The male has above the nostrils a pale yellow frontal zone, inter- 
rupted on the culmen of the beack ; next to it is an ashy green stripe ; 
the feathers on the forehead are greenish, or ashy white with a slight 
green tinge on their basal half, then black or blackish brown, and 
tipped with golden yellow, having the lateral margins whitish, 
Supercilliar stripe white, widening towards the nape and mingled with 
dusky near its termination ; ear-coverts ashy brown ; a white stripe 
extends from the upper mandible in the direction of the scapulars, 
having below a blackish stripe, which originates at the base of the 
lower mandible. Front edges of the wings whitish ; wing coverts and 
all the wing feathers dusky brown ; the latter (except the first two or 
three quills) on the outer edges greenish, the green colour increasing 

22 Ornithological Observations in tie Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

towards the tertiaries ; the edges of the white inner webs of the two 
central tail feathers are generally also black. The white below has 
usually a green tinge, but is purer on the throat ; each of the feathers 
has about the middle of its length a round black spot, gradually 
passing into crossbars on the vent. 

The female has the head above uniformly greenish, occasionally 
somewhat dull brown. Dr. Jerdon 's description— loc. cit — seems 
to have been taken from an imperfect female specimen only. 

The Vivia minuta of Temminck has the head of the male scarlet 
above, posteriorly black with small white spots ; otherwise it is like 
the Himalayan species, which though not very rare about Kotegurh 
is very seldom met with beyond the Nachar forests. Near Kotegurh 
it occurs between 6 and 8,000 feet, and about Serahan up to 9000 
feet ; it is a permanent resident of the valley. 

53. Yunx torquilla L in., (I. 303). I only procured, at the end 
October 1866 one specimen near Belaspoor ; it Nvas probably migrat- 
ing from Kashmir, or from Chamba, where this species is common 
during the summer months. 


The species belonging to this family are mostly confined to the 
lower elevations : they are very rarely met with above 9,000 feet. 

54. MEGALiEMA virens, Bod d., (I. 308), is common in the forests 
about Gaora (7,000—8,000 feet). 

55. Megaljsma Hodgsoni, Bonap., (Ibis 1866, p. 358— M. 
lineata, Vieil I. apud Jerdon I. 309), generally only occurs at 
elevations not exceeding 3000 feet, while the next, 

56. Megaljema caniceps, Frank I. (I. 310), has not been seen 
even beyond Belaspoor, though common in the Dhoon, south of Kangra 
and about Nadoan. 

57. XANTHOLiEMA indica, Lath,, (1.315) is also common in 
the low hills, but it does not go even as far east as Kotegurh, 
where the bottom of the valley is only about 3,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. 


58. Cuculus canorus, Lin., (I. 322) is, between April and 
November, common all through the valley, probably migrating into 
Central Asia. I have also seen it south of Lei in W. Tibet. Its 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 23 

call and the great variability of the plumage perfectly agree with 
the European bird. 

59. Cuculus poliocepiialus, L a t fc., (I. 329), is very rare in the 
interior of the N. W. Himalayas. A specimen, obtained near Pangi in 
August 1866, has the upper plumage uniformly rufous-bay, with dusky 
cross bars, being somewhat less numerous on the neck ; below whitish 
with a rufous tinge on the throat and on the front of the breast, purer 
towards the vent, all the feathers having narrow cross, black bars. 

60. Hierococcyx sparverioides, V i </., (I. 331), only occurs in 
the lower hills and scarcely above elevations of 3,000 feet. 

61. Coccystes MELANoLEuurjs, G m e I. (I. 339). is in the summer 
months tolerably common about Kotegurh, and ascends elevations 
up to 8,000 feet ; but I have not seen it beyond Naehar, although it 
usually prefers brushwoods to pine forests. 


62. Araciinotiiera magna, S o d g *., (1.860), only occurs in 
the lower hills about Belaspbor with the next species, 

63. iE'rnoPYGA miles, II o d cj s., (I. 362). 

64. jEtiiopyga GouLDiiB, Vir/., (I. 364). The male has the 
black on the head, above and in front, tinged with purple, gradually 
changing to steel-blue on the nape; a purplish spot somewhat 
below the ear coverts ; shoulder-tuft steel-blue ; throat violet, with a 
somewhat dull black median stripe, extending longitudinally towards 
the breast. Supercilliar stripe, cheeks, hind -neck, sides of neck, 
back, scapulars and lesser wing coverts deep crimson ; lores and some 
feathers on the cheeks glossless black ; rump yellow, upper tail coverts 
steel-blue, central tail feathers in the middle purplish, like some of 
the next edged bluish : the rest are blackish with greenish white tips, 
the white being especially conspicuous below and increasing towards 
the outer tail feathers. Wings and their longer coverts dusky brown, 
with the exception of the first and second, edged with olivaceous 
green, paling towards the tips ; all the wing feathers are internally 
at the base white, a little less so on the extreme edges. Breast and 
belly bright yellow, paling towards the under tail coverts, and on 
the breast with more or less crimson. All the feathers with metallic 
lustre have their basal half black, the yellow feathers white. 

The female is olive green above, brighter on the back and occasionally 

24 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

with some crimson feathers on the sides. All the feathers on the head 
and nape are centred dusky ; rump yellow ; wings dusky, as in male, 
but somewhat more broadly edged with olivaceous green ; tail edged 
with greenish, only the three or four outer pairs being tipped whitish. 
Below pale green, somewhat ashy on the throat, generally becoming 
yellowish towards the vent. 

Bill brown, much paler below. 

Very common about Kotegurh and through the whole valley as far 
east as Chini, living here at an elevation of between 9000 and 10,000 
feet. This is probably the only honey-sucker, which frequents such 
great heights in the Himalayas. I never noticed here jfi. Mpa~ 
lends Hodgs., which is decidedly a larger species. 

65. Arachnechthra asiaica, L at h. : (I. 370). 

Male ; the body has usually the same uniform glossy green colour, 
as the back and the head ; the pale tips of the tail feathers are not 
always traceable and, when they are, it is generally only the case on 
the outer-most feathers ; the sides of neck and the breast are purplish 
green, a longitudinal stripe on the throat and the rest of the lower 
plumage purplish black. 

Female ; above dark greenish grey ; the feathers on the head nar- 
rowly centred dusky ; wings dusky, externally edged paler, front edges 
white ; tail blackish, the feathers with a purplish lustre on the outer- 
webs, tipped white, which increases towards the outer pairs ; below 
greenish yellow, more distinctly so on the front of breast, paler on the 
throat and towards the vent, greenish ashy on the sides ; thigh 
coverts yellowish. 

The species occurs as far east as Wangtu bridge, and is especially 
common in the lower and warmer portions of the valley, as for 
instance near Bampoor ; it does not, however, ascend to greater 
elevations, than 7,000 or 8,000 feet. 

66. Piprisoma agile, Ti c &., (I. 376,) not common, and generally 
to be met with in the low hills, where I observed it in May ; it does 
not go to any considerable height, or to any distance in the interior, 
being very rare to the north or east of Kotegurh. 

67. Myzanthe icnipectus, Hodgs., (I. 377). The old male 
is above uniform dark bluish, metallic green ; the young one is 
distinctly green and all the feathers are tipped fulvous ; below the 

1868] N. W, Himalaya. 25 

throat is more white in the young bird, than it is in the old one. 
Female above glossless olive brown, greenish on the scapulars and 
upper tail coverts, and possessing a green metallic shoulder-tuft ; 
below greenish yellow, more white on the throat, and greenish or buff 
on the sides. 

Tolerably common in the lower hills, but rather rare in the eastern 
parts of the valley. I found a pair near the Gaora bungalow at an 
elevation of about 7,000 feet : it was most probably breeding here. 
The species is also pretty common in Kulu and in the neighbour- 
hood of Kishtwar; it most likely ranges over the whole of the 
southern declivities of the N. W. Himalayas. 

68. Certhia Himalayana, V i g. (I. 380). The last primaries 
and the secondaries of the old bird are somewhat fulvous towards the 
termination of the outer webs ; the tips of the secondaries are always 

The young birds have the fulvous spots on the upper plumage not 
so well developed, and all the feathers below are tipped very narrowly 
with dusky ; the white is also not so pure as in the old birds, but 
there is no other perceptible difference between them except in the 
length of the bill. Very young specimens have the bill sometimes 
scarcely half an inch long, and from this all gradations are met with 
up to a length of very nearly one inch. Such considerable changes 
in the length of the bill are likewise common in the Picidce, Upupidce 
\ and allied families. Specific distinctions which are occasionally pro- 
posed upon the difference in the length of the bill are, therefore, not 
always sufficiently reliable. 

This is the only species of Certhia, which is common in all the 
forests of the Sutlej valley, from above Belaspoor to near Sungnnm, 
ranging almost from the plains up to elevations of nearly 12,000 feet. 
It is the true representative of C. familiar is* of Europe. 

69. Tichodroma muraria, L i »., (I. 383), is found all through the 
N. W. Himalayas, and during the summer months in W. Tibet and 
Central Asia. 

70. Sitta Himalayensis, J. and #., (T. 385), is not rare in the 

| * I am informed by Mr. Birth, that this species has been lately procured in 
the Himalayas, (February, 1868.) 

26 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

lower hills and about Simla, but it is very seldom met with beyond 
the Wangtu bridge, and at elevations exceeding 9,000 feet. 

71. Sitta leucopsis, G o u I d, (I. 385), is tolerably common in 
the neighbourhood of Chini, where it chiefly feeds on the seeds of 
Pinus Gerardiana, but it is very rarely to be seen near Simla 
or at Kotegurh, except in winter. In 1866, I observed it between 
Budrawar and Kishtwar at an elevation of 6,000 and 7,000 feet, 
feeding here on seeds of Pinus excelsa. Its voice is a loud, uniform 
melancholy call, while busily engaged in securing a pine-seed in the 
bark of a large tree. 

I have never met with any other species of Sitta in the interior, 
wooded ranges of the N. W. Himalayas. 

XV. Fam. UP UP ID jE. 

TL Upupa epops, L i n., (I. 390), common during the summer all 
through the N. W. Himalayas and in W. Tibet. The plumage of the 
Tibetan bird does not differ in the least from that of the European. 


73. Lanius erythhonotus, V i g., (I. 402), very common all 
through the N. W. Himalayas and W. Tibet. 

The female has the grey on the head and back paler, the tertiaries 
more broadly edged with rufous or fulvous, and the tail feathers tipped 
pale • on the whole the grey and rufous colours are very variable in 
this species. The young bird is like the female, but all the colours 
. are usually still paler. 

74, Lanius Hardwickei, Vig., (I. 405). The head above is often 
ashy-white, and the nape and back pure ashy. The tertiaries are, on 
the outer webs towards their tips, pale ferruginous, the two outermost 
tail feathers on each side being white, except on the terminal half which 
is black like the inner web, the tips however remaining white ; the 
next two pairs have only the bases and the tips white, and on the four 
central feathers there are below occasionally traces of white tips 

The species is rather rarely met with about Kotegurh and only 
occurs as far east as Nachar. In 1865, 1 observed it between Budrawar 
and Kishtwar, but I do not remember it from Kashmir. Adams 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 488) states that he never saw it on the 
Western Himalayas. 

1868 -] N. W. Himalaya. 27 

75. Lanius arenarius, Blyth, (I. 407), was only once met with 
east of Chini, but it is during the summer more common in W. Tibet. 

76. Pericrocotus speciosus, Lath., (I. 419). I have only once 
procured a pair north of Belaspoor ; it does not seem to be found in 
the interior of the hills. 

77. Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vig., (I. 421), is on the contrary 
found everywhere in the low hills, even in winter. Daring the summer 
months it migrates into the interior, ascending to the limit of 
forests. It is common about Chini, breeding on elevations between 
9,000 and 10,000 feet. Some of my specimens are/*% 9 inches long. 
The red and yellow patch on the wings of the male and female, respec- 
tively, extend only up to the first four quills, the 2-4th of which are, 
towards their termination, on the outer webs insinuated and ed-ed 
with pale. 

The young bird resembles in yellow colouring the female, but all 
the feathers above are tipped whitish, forming short cross bars; 
below, the yellow is paler, throat and breast barred with dusky and 
whitish, the white being more prominent on the vent and the lower 
tail coverts. 

78. Dicrurus longicaudatus, H ay, (I. 430), is the only species of 
Drongs which is common all through the valley. It breeds about 
Chini at an elevation of between 9 and 10,000 feet and probably goes 
beyond the Kunawar frontier into Tibet. 


79. Tchitrea paradisi, L in., (I. 445), common in the summer 
months in Kulu and eastern Kashmir, but it is rather rare in the 
eastern portions of the Sutlej valley ; I have never seen it much 
beyond the Nachar forests and above elevations of 9000 feet. 

The colour of the plumage is known to be very variable. I met with 
old males, which had half of the tail feathers on one side white and 
on the other half ferruginous ; and again some which had only the 
terminations of the long central feathers ferruginous. It is probable 
that even old birds often vary in the annual colouring of the plumage. 
Mr. Cassin (Journ. Am. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, I860, vol. IV.' 
p. 323, pi. 50, figs. 1-2) describes from the west coast of Africa, under 
the name of Muscipela Duchalui, two specimens, apparently belonging 
to this species. 

28 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

80. Leucocerca fuscoventris, Frankl, (I. 451). I found this 
species in summer between Kotegurh and Nachav, on elevations of 
5_9000 feet ; it is a rare bird ; one speciman was procured below 
Kotegurh in March 1867. 

81. Leucocerca albofrontata, Frankl , (I. 452). Dr. Adams 
remarks that this species is only to be met with on the lower ranges 
of the western Himalayas. I obtained, in October 1865, several 
specimens above Belaspoor, bat have never seen it much further in 
the interior. 

82. Cryptolopha cinereocapilla, Vi e i I, (1. 455). The bill is in 
young specimens much shorter and comparatively broader at the 
base than it is in old ones. The species does not go eastwards beyond the 
more wooded parts of the valley near the Wangtu-bridge, and hardly 
ever ascends to greater heights than 8000 feet ; it is, however, most 
common at Kotegurh between 5000 and 6000 feet, and at similar 
elevations all over the lower, outer ranges of the N. W. Himalaya. 

83. Hemichelidon fuliginosdm, Eodg s., (I. 438). The old male 
is above olivaceous ashy, the feathers on the head being broadly centred 
dusky ; the wings and tail are darker, the middle portions of the 
inner webs of all the wing-feathers forming a large fulvous brown spot 
which is specially conspicuous when the bird is on the wing. Some 
feathers on the front of the head, above the nostrils, the lores, and 
partly the eyelids are white ; the front edges of the wings, chin and 
throat are also albescent, passing on the breast into ashy grey, and on 
the vent, especially on the under-tail coverts, again into white. 

The old female is almost exactly like the male ; the white above 
the nostrils, on the chin and on the interior edges of the wings being, 
however, somewhat rufescent ; the tertiaries and the longer wing coverts 
are usually also externally margined and tipped with fulvous or rufescent. 
The female generally appears to be somewhat larger than the male. 

The young bird has the plumage above much darker, sometimes 
rather black or deep brown; all the feathers above and on the 
scapulars are centrally streaked whitish or pale fulvous, the streaks 
varying in breadth in different specimens, being however always 
conspicuous towards the tips. The wing coverts, tertiaries and, towards 
their terminations, partly also the secondaries are more or less broadly 
margined with ferruginous, the entire tips of the tail feathers being 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 29 

usually of the same colour. Below, the plumage is albescent, more or 
less gray, the feathers on the breast being edged with dusky. The 
change of plumage is very remarkable ; there are scarcely two speci- 
mens to be met with which exactly agree in colouring. 

It is very probable, that the young birds of this species assume 
their full plumage only after the second year. In the first, the pale 
streaks on the upper plumage seem to be large and of a more fulvous 
colour, the breast more dusky ; in the second year the streaks are 
narrow, pale white, and the plumage below more albescent. Although 
I have no direct observations on this point, I think it probable from 
tbe fact that I obtained, far in the interior, birds of this last colouring 
in May, and those of the first description not before the end of June 
and then only on the lower elevations of the outer ranges ; in the 
interior not before July. 

The species is very common between 4,000 and 11,000 feet, at 
which elevations I often found it in the neighbourhood of Chini. It 
is not only seen on low branches, but very often on a dry perch near 
or on the top of a tree (especially of the oak), constantly dashing 
after insects and returning again to the same point. In 1865 I 
procured a specimen in Lahul, on the southern side of the Baralatse 
pass at an elevation of more than 13,000 feet, but I do not remember 
having seen it anywhere in W. Tibet, though it may occur. 
It is also rare in all the more western parts of the Himalayas, in 
Chamba, Kishtwar and Kashmir, while it appears to be frequently 
met with on the eastern ranges, towards Nepal. 

84. Eumyias melanops, Vig., (I. 463), is only a summer visitant 
to the hills ; it breeds about Kotegurh, but does not go eastwards 
of the Nachar forests. Compared with other allied species it is con- 
sidered to be rather a rare bird. 

85. Cyornis ruficauda, Sivai n s., (I. 468). The lores and eye- 
lids are whitish ; wing feathers ashy brown, pale rufous on the edges 
of the inner webs and olivaceous on the outer edges. The rump is 
only slightly, the upper tail coverts bright ferruginous, and the tail 
somewhat darker. 

Male and female do not seem to differ in colouring, except that the 
breast is somewhat more albescent in the latter. 

In the young bird all the feathers above are more or less whitish, or 

30 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

fulvous on the central tips ; the same pale colour also have all the 
outer edgings of the wing feathers, the tips of the tertiaries and the 
wing coverts, the latter being somewhat rufous. Below, the white 
is dashed all over with dusky, the feathers being edged dark ; tail 
rufous, as in the old bird. This kind of spotted colouring of the young 
birds is characteristic for nearly all Muscicapid^j. 

I found this species abundant among the apricot trees near Chini 
and Pangi, in Kunawar, between 9,000 and 10,000 feet. The young 
birds were full grown at the beginning of August. In habits it 
resembles other fly-catchers, generally sitting on a low branch of a tree 
and occasionally darting after the passing insects. I have never seen 
it ascending very high in the air, as for instance Hem. fuliginosum 
usually does. It is very probable that the species is also found further 
to the east, in Tibet, returning during the winter to the low hills or to 
the plains. The only other place, where I procured on the 15th June, 
1865, a specimen of it, was at Kangsar in North Lahul, at an elevation 

of 11,000 feet. 

The species, which Dr. J e r d o n (loc. cit. p. 468) mentions under 
the name of Muse, rubecula, Swains., as being probably identical 
with G. ruficauda must be altogether a different bird ; for among a 
number of more than 20 specimens of C. ruficauda, of both sexes and 
of young birds, there is not one which has a trace of orange on the 
throat and breast, or any blue colouring above. On account of the 
want of the last colour, this species may be considered as rather an 
abnormal form of the genus, identicating moreover a peculiar type of 

86. Muscicapula SUPERCILIARIS, J e r d., (I. 470). 
Old male ; above the sides of the head and of the breast are Prussian 
blue, brighter on the head ; the feathers on the rump are on the basal 
half grey, then white and tipped blue : the shafts of the same are white, 
while those of the back and head are grey. Wings and tail are black- 
ish, the feathers externally edged blue ; tail-feathers white on their 
basal half, except the two central ones which are in their entire length 
black. A white superciliar strip extends towards the nape ; lores deep 
bluish black ; moustaches black ; front edges of the wings and the 
inner margins of their feathers more or less albescent. Below, on the 
^hin, throat, middle of breast, belly and lower tail-coverts pure white 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 31 

the feathers being dark slaty on their basal half, except those on the 
chin and throat, which are entirely white. 

In the old female all the blue of the male is ashy grey, with an oliva- 
ceous tinge, with a little blue on the head, back and especially on the 
upper tail-coverts, and occasionally also on the edges of the outer webs 
of the wing and tail feathers ; both the latter are dusky brown, the tail 
having no white at the base ; a very indistinct pale superciliar 
stripe is present; lores whitish; the front-head above the nostrils 
and partially the cheeks have a distinct rufous tinge. The white 
below is less pure, than in the male, and somewhat fulvous, especially 
on the chin and on the throat ; the sides of the breast are pale grey. 

Bill and legs black in both male and female. 

The young male is above blackish brown, with more or less numerous, 
pale fulvous, triangular spots, with which all the feathers are centred 
towards the black tips. The external margins of the wing-coverts and 
the tertiaries are also pale ; the tail is white on the basal half as in the 
old male. Below, the plumage on the chin and throat is pale fulvous, 
the front of the breast down towards the vent spotted, all the feathers 
being margined and tipped with dusky ; purer white only on the under 
tailcoverts. The change of the plumage begins about the end of July 
or in August. The fulvous spots disappear and the young male is 
coloured, like the old female, but with much more blue above 
especially on the back, on the scapulars, on the rump and on the head \ 
the nape and the lateral spots on the breast remaining grey 
or somewhat olivaceous. In this state I found the young males 
retiring from the interior hills to the plains, or at least to the lower 
hills, but I have not been able to ascertain whether they do or not 
obtain their full colouring before the next spring. 

The young female in every respect resembles the young male, except 
that the general colour above is more grey and less dark, the lateral 
spots on the breast being very indistinct ; the tail has no white at the 
base, as likewise in the old female. 

This species is one of the most common birds in the Sutlej 
valley and is seen all the way from Belaspoor to Pangi ; I found it 
in general, in the N. W. Himalaya, ascending elevations up to 
12,000 feet. About Kishtwar, it is still not uncommon, but it 
is rarer in the Sind-valley of Kashmir, being also occasionally met 

32 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

with in the neighbouring districts of little Tibet. I observed it 
between Dras and the Zoiji pass. 

Blyth (Ibis 1866, p. 372) mentions, besides M. mstigma, two 
other allied species, M. ciliarismd leucoshista, as having been figured 
by H o d g g on. None of these have been seen by me in the interior 
of the N. W. Himalayas. 

87 Siphia strophiata, H o dg ., (1. 479). The basal white on the 
outer tail feathers is decreasing (not increasing as stated by J e r d o n) 
iu extent towards the outermost feathers. This species must in 
summer inhabit the more eastern regions of Tibet, near the sources 
of the Sutlej, for it only comes in winter to Kotegurh, and even then 
is rather rare. I noticed it also repeatedly in Rupshu and on the Indus. 
It appears to be more common in the eastern Himalayas. 

88 Siphia (Erithrosterna) leucomelanura, Jlodgs.^. 47y> 
I have met this species only twice,having procured a male near Kotegurh 
iu September 1866, and in the next month a female specimen near 
Mahasu, N. East of Simla. It appears to be a very rare bird. The male 
has the breast light grey, but scarcely with any purplish tinge The 
female resembles that of Muse, superciliaris, being olivaceous brown 
above and dusky on the inner webs of the wing-feathers ; tail ferrugi- 
nous, especially at the base ; chin, throat and vent white breast and 
part of abdomen pale olivaceous brown, especially on the sides ; under 
tail-coverts slightly ferruginous. _ _ 

The bill is much more feeble at the tip, than in typical OpAta and, 
if the distinctions of Mtidula and Erythrosterna from Musczcapula are 
admitted, it would be more correct to place this species in the genus 


89 Erythrosterna leucura, Gmel, (I 481) ; very rare about 
Kotegurh, hut apparently more common to the west, for I have pro- 
cured several specimens near Srinagur, in Kashmir. 


90 Pnorpyoa sqammata, Gould, (I. 488), very rare in the 
forests about Nachar and near Chini; it is found about Kotegurh in 
winter Another species, somewhat aliedto P. longicaudata, Moore, 
occurs in W. Tibet ; it is of the same size as the former, but has the 
rilumage below yellowish white or cinerous, (not ferruginous). 

P 91 Troolouytes nipa.ensis, Sodgs., (I. 491), very rare about 
Serahan and Nachar, more common in winter about Kotegurh. 

1868.] N. \V. Himalaya. 33 

92. Myiopiionus Temminckii, Virj., (I. 500), is usually known 
under the name of black-bird ; very common all through the N. W. 
Himalayas and most probably also to be found in Central Asia. It 
breeds at Chini and Sungnum on an elevation of between 9 and 11,000 


93. Hydbobata asiatica, Sw a in s., (I. 506)), occurs all through 
the valley, but is not usually found beyond the limit of the forests. 

94. Hydeobata cashmibensis, Gould, {I. 507). I have only 
seen one specimen of this species on a small mountain stream between 
Chini and Sungnum, it is however more common in W. Tibet and in 
northern Kashmir. 

95. Hydbobata? sf>. I have obtained through my shikarees a 
specimen of an apparently new species of Hydrobata, which was shot 
on the Sutlej river below Kotegurh at the beginning of March 1867. 
The following is a short description. Entire plumage light ashy grey, 
spotted with dull white, more white below, the white spots very large 
on the belly and breast ; chin and throat yellowish white, each fea- 
ther tipped dusky; wing and tail blackish, all the feathers narrowly 
margined with white ; bill and legs pale or whitish brown. Length of 
wing SJ inch., tail very nearly two inches ; bill only | of an inch long. 
The spotted plumage makes it probable that this species only is a 
young bird of some other known form, but this I am for the present 
unable to trace out. The young of H. asiatica, which is the only species 
common in the lower hills, has the throat and the front of the breast 
perfectly white, thus differing from our bird. The species might 
belong to II. Cashmirensis, but for this it is rather too small. Further 
materials only can settle this point. 

The bill of Hydrobata much more resembles that of the Mota- 
cillid^ than to that of the Merulid.e ; Bonaparte's classification of 
ffydrobata, in the neighbourhood of Euicurus, Motacilla a. oth., seems 
to be, therefore, a more natural one ; the habits of these birds are 
also in favour of this classification. 

96. ZOOTHERA MONTICOLA, V l g. (I. 509). 

A single specimen of this species was procured near Kotegurh in 
February 1867. The general colouring of the bird certainly recalls 
that of many other Merulina?, but the bill is somewhat similarly formed 
to that of Pomatorhinus. Head and nape are dark olivaceous brown, the 


34 Ornithological Ohervations in the Sullej valley, [No. 1 

feathers on the top of the head being centrally streaked pale brown; 

backup and scapulars blackish ashy, the feathers somewhat more ashy 

near the tips which are black ; wings dusky brown, wrth a rufous t.nge 

on the outerwebs ; most of the longer wing coverts are centrally tipped 

pale brown ; tail dusky brown, obsoletely barred on the outer webs, 

outermost pair is paler than the rest ; sides of neck olive brown the 

Ihers with pale brown spots and blackish tips a short black s reak 

extends down from the base of the lower mandible ; clun and throa 

Iwish white, each feather tipped dusky ; the feathers on the breas^ 

are olivaeeons brown with black tips, some of them on the sides 

pale spots ; centre of the abdomen and vent white, the feathers tipped 

black; sides of vent rather uniform dusky, lower tadcoverts ashy, 

tipped with white. 

97 PKTEOcossvrnus ounu* L i «, (L 511), very common, ex- 
tending all through the N.W. Himalayas, from the plains _ into W, 
Tibet- it also proceeds further to Central Asia and Siberia. The 
specimens from the lower hills occasionally have in summer some 
ferruginous colouring on the sides and the lower tail coverts but those 
of W Tibet have not a trace of it. They appear to be a little smaller 
than the European birds, hut there is no real specific distinction 
between them. A specimen, shot in winter at Kotegurh, is entirely 
blue, with dusky wings and tail ; it also has nowhere a trace of white 
or ferruginous. The plumage of the young bird, which in general 
resembles the female, exhibits variations quite similar to those known 
in the European species. _ 

Of the second species of this genus Pteroc. castaneocolhs* Less. 
(I 519) I obtained in the beginning of September 1865 a fine 
specimen north of Dras, in W. Tibet. It ought to occur in the 
Punjab during the winter. The colouring quite agrees the 
description quoted by Dr. J e r d o n. _ 

98 Orocestes eeythrogastra, Vig., (I. 514) is only found in th< 
lower hills about Simla and Kotegurh ; but the next smaller species, 
99. Orocestes cinulorhynchcs, Vig., (I. 515) goes further tc 

* T hive since, in the Vienna Museum compared this with a young, male of 
♦hi EaropeS X. smatiUs, with which it perfectly agrees. The two speoes 
thereto^ very probably are identical, (Feb, 1868). 

18G8.] N, w. Himalaya. 35 

East ; it is common about Serahaa and Nachar, but rare at Chini, 
and is not likely to be found to the east of the last cedar-forests. 

100. Geocichla unicolor, Ti c h, (1. 519) is rather rare in this 
part of the valley, bat more common in Chamba, Kishtwar, Kashmir 
and even in little Tibet ; it prefers wooded districts to rocky and bare 

101. Turdulus Wardii, Jerd., (I. 520), is not common in the 
lower hills. I have not seen it beyond Serahan, where once only, 
in August I860, I met with three specimens ; it is rarer in the N. W. 
Himalayas, than any of the other thrushes. 

102. Meruit boulboul, Lath., (I. 525). The geographical 
range of this species is restricted to the lower hills about Simla and 
Kotegurh, it does not oecur beyond Nachar, being far from a common 
bird, though found about Kotegurh the greater part of the winter. 

103. Merula ALBocrNCTA, Iloyle,(l. 520), common in winter 
about Simla and Kotegurh ; its range in summer is between 8 and 
12,000 feet. 

104. Merula castanea, Gould, (I. 526), only arrives in winter 
at Kotegurh, and probably lives during the summer months in Central 
Asia and eastern Tibet, for I have not seen it about Chini or Sungnum, 
though it may occur in tlte highest forests, near the limit of trees. 

105. Planesticus atrogularis, Temm., (I. 529), is also, only a 
winter visitant to the neighbourhood of Kotegurh, but it is common 
at that time of the year. 

Male; above earthy cinereous brown, most of the feathers on the front 
and top of the head, and sides of the neck centred dusky ; wings and tail 
dusky, all feathers pale olivaceous on the edges of the outer webs ; lores,, 
sides of the head and of the lower neck, chin, throat and front of breast 
black, all feathers slightly tipped whitish ; the rest of the plumage below 
white, ashy on the sides ; inner wing coverts pale ferruginous ; lower tail 
coverts mostly white, some of the longer ones broadly margined, but 
not tipped, with dark rufous brown. Bill light brown, yellowish at 
the base. 

Female ; above like the male, less dusky on the top of the head ; lores 
blackish ; sides of head ashy ; chin and throat white with longitudinal 
brown streaks, especially on the sides ; breast cinereous olive, each 
feather with a large triangular brown spot near the tip, which is white,. 

36 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

sides ashy with dusky quills, vent aud lower tail coverts mostly white, 
the latter somewhat rufous or dusky hrown, as in the male 

106. Tuunns HonosoNi, L afr., (I. 531), is common all through the 
hills adjoining the Sutlej valley ; it breeds about Chini and m L*oL 
The young bird, and probably also the female, has the feathers above 
centrally streaked pale fulvous, and on the back tipped dark brown. 
The plumage below is very rarely ferruginous, but often fulvous; 
sometimes almost pure white. The size and number of the cordate, 
hrown spots is very variable and scarcely in two specimens exactly the 
same Sometimes they are very large and less numerous, not extend- 
ing to the throat; in other specimens they are much smaller and 
conspicuous on all the feathers of the lower plumage. The size of the 
bird itself varies from 10 to 11| inches. Its voice is exactly the same 
as that of the European T. viscivorus* from which after all it may 
not be specifically distinct. It often feeds on the ground upon insects 
and berries, but is almost as often seen on trees. 

107 OHOOiaoLi mollissima, Blytb, (I. 533), rs chiefly confined to 
the lower hills, not usually exceeding elevations of 6,000 feet ; it is not 
so common in the eastern parts of the Sutlej valley beyond Kotegurh, 
as it is more to west, in Chamba and in the eastern parts of Kashmir. 

108 Grammatoptila striata, Vig., (II. U), S* only a winter 
visitant to Kotegurh, but then rather numerous. It must during 
the summer inhabit the higher forests along the central snowy range 
of the Himalayas, in North Kulu or in Kunawar, though I never met 
with it myself during the summer months in this portion of the hills. 

109. Pyctorhis sinensis, G m e I., (II. 18). is confined to the lower 
hills only, being common about Belaspoor, but it is seldom seen even 
as far east as Kotegurh. 

110. Stachyris pyrrhops, Hodgs., (II. 21). All the feathers 

on the head have a pale rufous tinge, those next of the black throat 

have the quills also black ; the quills of the rest of the lower plumage 

are pale rufescent, and of the upper olivaceous, similar to the general 

colouring of the bird ; the back and abdomen have a prominent 

greenish° tinge ; the middle tail feathers are obscurely barred across, 

and mnch paler brown below, than above. 

» The Eoropea,. species is in general smaller than the Himalayan one, which 
has the throat hardly streaked and of yellowish colour. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 37 

Tli is is comparatively a rare bird, though occurring all through the 
N. W. Himalayas, chiefly on elevations between 4 and 7,000 feet ; it- 
resembles in its habits to a tit, principally frequenting brushwood and 
low forests, where it eagerly searches alter insects. In the Sutlej valley 
it is not found beyond the Wangtu bridge, breeding near Kotegurh, 
Jaora and Serahan, on heights of 5 to 7,000 feet. 

usually have a short blackish stripe extending backwards from the 
lower mandible ; in young birds this stripe is rusty, as likewise the 
sides of the neck and of the breast. The inner webs of the wings are ashy 
brown, the outer olivaceous, of the same colour as the body and the 
tail; wings and tail are obsoletely barred with dark, cross lines. 

Not common in the forests and thick brushwoods between Kotegurh 
andNachar; it remains during the winter in the neighbourhood of 
Simla and Kotegurh. 

112. Gaurulax albogularis, Goul d, (II. 38). The lateral tail 
feathers are barred with dusky cross lines, the tips are white; this 
species in summer retires to the denser forests beyond Kotegurh, but it 
is more common in winter about this station. 

113. Trochalopteron erythrocephalum, Vig, (II. 43). The 
outer webs of all the wing feathers are bright greenish yellow, with a 
ferruginous tinge ; the inner webs are blackish, paling on the margins ; 
the tertiaries are broadly tipped ashy ; all the tail feathers have a yel- 
lowish green tinge, being on the outer edges brighter towards the base ; 
upper and lower tail coverts are ashy and somewhat olivaceous. The 
black spots are occasionally almost wanting on the middle of the 
breast. The male has the black on the throat purer, the chesnut of 
the head somewhat darker and the greenish yellow edgings of the 
wings tinged with more rufous ; in other respects of colouring both 
sexes are identical. The young bird is above and below on the 
neck, back, breast, vent, upper and lower tail and the thigh -coverts 
uniformly light rufous brown, without any black spots ; otherwise it is 
coloured like the old bird. 

114. Trochalopteron variegatum, Vig., (II. 45), is common at 
all seasons in the higher regions of the N. W. Himalayas, and 
seldom descends lower than 5,000 feet. Females which I procured, 
in June 1865, in Lahul, have the outer webs of the wing coverts 

38 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

ashy grey, with a very slight tinge of yellow, but having distinct traces 
of this colour on the outer tail feathers. The male has a little more 
yellowish rufous colouring on the wings, and the black central spot 
somewhat smaller. 

Other male specimens, shot near Kotegurh early in the spring, 
have the outer edgings of the wing feathers (except towards their 
terminations) bright rufous, as likewise the basal portions of the 
outer webs of the outer tail feathers. In the females from the same 
locality, the edgings of the wings and of the tail are more yellowish, 
and the central, black wing spot much smaller. All the specimens 
from Kotegurh have the upper plumage distinctly olivaceous, especially 
on the back, while the Lahul specimens are more ashy. The longer 
Wing coverts are always more or less chestnut and all the tail feathers 
are broadly tipped white, or sometimes in the male a little rufous. 

The voice of this species is a prolonged, monotonous whistle, being 
constantly repeated ; during the winter it lives, I am told, partly 
on insects, searching carefully after them in the hollows of willow- 
trees, &c. partly on buds of different shrubs. This and the next 
species belong to the few* birds which remain in Lahul during the 


115. Trochalopteron lineatum, Vig., (II. 50), is one of the 
most common species of birds all through the N. W. Himalayas. It 
is found from the low hills, near the plains, through the entire extent 
of the Sutlej valley up to Sungnum, and very probably farther east- 
wards. It is not usually a migratory bird, for it remains at Kotegurh, in 
Kulu, and even in Lahul, all the year round, feeding on insects or 
buds,' like the previous species. The specimens, which I procured 
in Lahul, were somewhat more ashy on the head and breast, and the 
central edgings of the outer webs of the wing feathers were less 
yellowish rufous, while they are generally conspicuously so in speci- 
mens shot in the lower hills. There is scarcely any difference in the 
brightness of the colours between male and female. 

116. Sibia CAPisTUATA, Vi g., (II. 54) . The shorter wing-coverts 
of the quills are black ; of the longer coverts the first are black, the 
next white for the basal half, the rest grey on the outer, and black on 
the inner webs ; the last coverts are also white, with ashy and rufous tips. 

* Only about a dozen species. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 39 

The quills are distinctly insinuated towards the tips, which are mostly 
grey, the rest of the quills being black, but paling towards the margins 
of the inner webs ; the secondaries are dull black, some of the last 
ones ashy on the outer webs, especially towards the tips, only the 
central margins of the outer webs being shining black ; the tertiaries 
are rufous with pale quills, ashy on the outer, and blackish on the 
inner margins. The black feathers of the head are somewhat paler 
in front, and have the shafts white for the basal half. 

Karo about Kotegurh between 5 and 7,000 feet, chiefly frequenting 
brushwood and low forests ; generally feeding on insects. 

117. CiiATARRiiiEA caudata, D u m. f (II. 67), is often seen in the 
low hills to the north of Belaspoor, but does not go any considerable 
distance in the interior. 


118. Hypsipetes psaroides, Fig., (II. 77). Only the greater 
portion of the outer webs of the wing-feathers are ashy, the inner 
webs are brownish black, like the tail, the outermost feathers of which 
are externally and near the base also tinged with ashy. Common in 
the forests between Kotegurh and Nachar, ascending elevations ud to 
9,000 feet, though generally to be seen between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. 

Sibia is very closely allied to this genus, and the species very much 
resemble each other in their habits ; it ought to be placed in this 

119. Otocompsa leucooenys, Gray, (II. 90) is found all through 
the lower forests of the Sutlej valley, and is occasionally seen as far east 
as Chini ; but in the low hills it seems to be replaced by the next 
species, the common Bengal bulbul, 

120. Pycnonotus pyg^us, lloclgs., (II. 93), which does not 
penetrate to the interior of the hills, and is rare even in the neighbour- 
hood of Kotegurh. 

Several other species of this family are also found near the plains, 
but very few extend to the interior of the hills. I may mention 

121. Oriolus kundoo,* Sy kes, (II. 107) and 

^ 122. Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin., (II. 110); both are occa- 
sionally seen between Kotegurh and Rampoor and in the Kulu valley, 
_ * Ibis 1867, p. 10, Blyth says it only differs from O. galbula by its larger and 
(Feb^LSfisf aped blll; and in havin S' some black feathers 'posterior to the eye, 

40 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

but generally only between 4 and 5,000 feet ; the former lias been seen 
solitary at Gaora up to 9,000 feet, and is common in Kashmir. I also 
received a specimen of 

123. Orioltts Traillii, Vi </., (II. 112), from near Kotegurh, but 
have not myself observed this species. 

XX. Fam. SYLVIIDffi. 

121. Copsychus saularis, L i n n., (II. Ill), is common in the 
lower hills about Belaspoor, also in Chamba and in Kulu, but is very 
rarely met in the Sutlej valley, even about Kotegurh, or farther to 
east of this station. 

125. Thamnobia Cambatensis, La tit., (II. 122). 
The male has the lower plumage shining bluish black, the tail 
is darker than the wings, being more brown, and the feathers of the 
former are obsoletely barred with dull cross lines ; the edges of the 
outer webs of most of the tail and also of the wing-feathers have a 
metallic lustre. 

Female ; wings and tail are darker brown than the upper plumage, 
the lower being light brown, much paler on the throat and on the sides 
of the neck, the ear coverts being generally somewhat rufous. 

This robin is also much more common in the more western portion 
of the hills and in Kulu than it is in the Sutlej valley, except in the 
autumn, when it descends to the lower hills near Belaspoor ; it 
chiefly frequents bushes and low woods, feeding on insects, for which 
it generally searches on the ground in the neighbourhood of streams. 

126. Patrincola caprata, L i n n. (II. 123). The female is in 
summer plumage uniformly brown, paler or sooty brown below, 
albescent on the throat and on the lores?* rufescent towards the vent; 
the lower tail coverts being almost white, the upper rufous ; there are 
also usually some traces of white on the uppermost wing coverts, &c. 

Common all through the Sutlej valley up to Nachar, but seldom 
farther to east above elevations of 8,000 feet. 

127. Patrincola indica, Blyt h, (II. 124) ; the winter plumage 
is much softer and is assumed about October, before the birds retire 
to the plains. The species occurs with the former, and generally 
agrees with it in habits. Young birds are extremely variable in 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 41 

128. Patrincola ferrea, Body s. (II. 127). 

Old male ; the ashy above is sometimes quite uniform, without 
any black streaks ; below the white is either pure or somewhat 
ashy on the breast, very rarely is there any rufescent tinge traceable. 

In the old female all the brown plumage above is edged paler ; 
there is scarcely a trace of a white wing spot ; the tail feathers are 
on their outer webs mostly ferruginous; the lower plumage is albescent, 
with a slight rufous tint, pure white on the chin and the throat. 

The young male has all the feathers above dark blackish brown, with 
pale brown or fulvous central streaks, the wing coverts and tertiaries 
broadly edged and tipped with the same colour, more ferruginous on 
the back and upper tail coverts ; below whitish, dashed all over with 
dusky, purer white on the throat and towards the lower tail-coverts ; 
tail black as in the old male, but the white on the outer webs passes 
towards the tips into pale rufescent. 

The young female is like the young male, the general plumage is 
only somewhat more brown, and all the pale and white streaks or 
edgings are much more rufous and almost purely ferruginous on the 
upper tail coverts and on the tail ; below whitish on the throat, the rest 
of the plumage with a distinct ferruginous tint. 

The young birds appear to assume the plumage of the old ones 
before they retire to the plains, for I found them changing the 
same already towards the end of August. 

Common with the previous species, and usually seen about Chini, 
where it also breeds. 

The form of the beak of Patrincola is more like that of Siphia or 
Erythrosterna than that of any species of the Sylvtlime, and in their 
habits they much more resemble the previous birds. The place 
assigned to Patrincola in this family does not, therefore, appear to 
be quite a natural one. 

129. Saxicola leucuroides, Guerin, (II. 130), and 

130. Saxicola picata, G oul d,(Blyth, II. 131), have been ob- 
served towards the end of October in the lower hills about Belaspoor, 
Simla and Kotegurh. 

131. Saxicola oenanthe, Linn, (II. 132), generally retires also 
during the winter to the plains. The only species which occasionally, 
during the cold weather, remains in the Kulu valley and near Kotegurh 
is the next one, 6 

42 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

132. Saxicola deserti, B up p., QL 132). The middle portions 
of all the wing feathers, except the one or two last tertiaries, are white, 
becoming purer towards the secondaries ; back and scapulars are more 
or less pale white, often with a rufous tinge ; the longer feathers of 
the upper tail coverts are also somewhat rufous. All the black on the 
throat, sides, neck, the wings and the tail, is pure in summer, 
but rather brownish in winter. 

In the female the head and the neck above are more uniform light 
brown, with a slight ashy tint ; back less rufous, wings and tail of the 
same brown colour as has the male in winter ; below uniform pale 
brown, albescent on the throat and vent, with no black whatever. 

This species is one of the most common birds all through western 
Tibet ; it migrates to the plains of Northern India in winter. 

A large number of species of Ruticillin^ inhabits W. Tibet 
and Central Asia during the summer. I may mention B. phamicura, 
Linn., B. rufiventris, Vieil., R. erythrogastra, Giildenst, and others. All 
these species migrate in winter to the plains, but their stay in the 
Sutlej valley must be a very short one. I defer any remarks on these 
species, as I hope to make farther additions to my materials on the 
Tibetan fauna, and publish the results separately. The only species 
which is found common in the eastern parts of the Sutlej valley, though 
generally only on the Tibetan side of the Central Himalayan range, is 


In old males the white edgings of the secondaries are soon worn off 
and disappear ; a white wing patch is chiefly formed by a portion of 
the scapulars and the posterior wing coverts. The margins of the inner 
webs of all the wing feathers are pale, purer towards the tertiaries. 

Dr. Jerdon supposes, that the female* is coloured similarly to the 
male, which is not exactly the case, so far at least as the summer 
plumage is concerned. Old females, shot about the end of July 
1866, are above uniformly light brown with a slight olivaceous 
tinge, the feathers on the head are centrally streaked dusky; the 
posterior part of the rump and especially the upper tail-coverts are 
ferruginous, wings and tail dusky brown, the feathers of the former 
externally edged pale, the outer tail-feathers margined rufous on their 
basal half; the wing coverts are edged and tipped whitish. Below 
* See also Blyth in Ibis, 1867, p. 15. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 43 

much paler brown, albescent towards tbe vent and lower tail coverts 
wliich are white with brownish quills ; thigh coverts brown. Bill 
and legs black, the latter irid dark brown. 

The young bird has the general brownish colour of the female, but is 
above and below spotted with whitish, each of the feathers being 
centrally on the terminal half white, the tip itself, however, blackish ; 
upper tail coverts ferruginous, less in the male, a little more dis- 
tinct in the young female. The young male has the wings and tail 
blackish brown, the wing coverts broadly tipped and the tertiaries, 
margined with pale white ; towards the tips a little rufescent. In the 
young female, the wings and tail are rather sooty brown, and all the 
edgings have a distinct ferruginous tint. Bill and legs blackish brown 
in young males, and light brown in young females. 

This species occurs plentifully, beyond Pangi and about Chini, 
generally on small streams, it also breeds here ; it is also common 
in Spiti, Lahul and southern Karnag, wherever any brushwood 

134. Ch2emorrornis (Ruticilla.) fuliginosa, Vi g. (I. 142). This 
species ought to be placed in Chcemorromis and not in Ruticilla, the 
beak being towards the tip much stouter and more evenly curved in 
the previous genus, while in Ruticilla it is more straight and slender. 
In habits the present species also perfectly resembles the next one, 
both being generally found near the rapids or waterfalls of mountain 
streams. Old males are occasionally seen with a few feathers of pure 
white on the top of the head, and thus likewise recalling the charac- 
teristic colouring on the head of Ghcem. leucocejohala, Vig. In the old 
female only the tips of most of the wing coverts are usually white ; the 
primaries are externally edged pale, round the bill the white has a 
distinct rufous tint ; the outer tail feathers are white nearly up to the 
tip, it being grey, this colour gradually increasing until the central 
feathers become nearly wholly grey, except at the base which always 
remains white. 

The young bird resembles the female in the general ashy colouring, 
the plumage is spotted, the white spots below being however 
larger, and the feathers centrally, towards the tips, streaked white ; 
the tertiaries and most of the longer wing coverts are tipped 
with rufous, which is specially distinct on the external margins. In 

44 Ornithological Observations in tie Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

the young male all the edges on the outer webs of the wing feathers 
are bluish, the general colour is dark ashy brown ; the tail often 
has the white on the base ferruginous, which is in the young female 
rather mixed with dusky, the general colouring of the plumage above 
being greyish brown, and the external edges of the wings slightly 
ferruginous, not bluish. Young males, shot in November, very closely 
resembled the old ones, except that the general dark cyaneous colour- 
ing and the ferruginous on the tail were not equally pure. 

Very common all through the Sutlej valley from about 3,000 feet 
up to 13,000 feet ; it is plentiful about Chini and can be seen almost in 
every ravine. I found it, as also Rut. rufiventris, breeding near Losar 
in the Spiti valley on an elevation of 13,000 feet. It lives here 
during the summer, but migrates to the lower hills about October, 
when the young birds are full grown. 

135. Chzemorrornis leucocephala, Vig. (II. 143). The female 
is duller black, than the male, especially on the rump and belly, the 
black feathers only being tipped pale rufous ; the posterior vent and 
the tail-coverts are pale ferruginous ; tail itself chesnut ; in all other 
respects of colouring, male and female are similar. 

Common all through the N. W. Himalayas, extending from the 
lower wooded ranges far into Tibet and probably into Central Asia. 
When I crossed the Lanier pass (somewhat above 20,000 feet) in 
Bupshu, the only bird, besides Otocornis pemcillata, which I have seen 
the next morning upon an elevation of about 17,500 feet, was this 
species. I have observed several specimens, but it is not likely, that they 
were breeding, for the temperature certainly must fall here to, or 
below the freezing point of water, every night all through the year. 
During the cold weather, the species migrates partially to the low 
Himalayan ranges, partially to the plains of Northern India. 

136. Larvivora cyana, Hodgs. (II. 145), is a rare bird in the 
Sutlej valley and does not go eastwards beyond Nachar. It chiefly 
frequents low woods between 4 and 7,000 feet. The general colouring 
very much recalls that of Sitta Himalayana, 

137. Janthia cyanura, P alias (II. 146). The female has (in 
winter plumage) a narrow superciliar stripe ; the external edges of all 
the wing feathers are of a similar pale greenish, or olive brown colour 
as is likewise the upper plumage of the head, the scapulars and the 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 45 

back. This species does not occur in summer to the west of Nachar 
and not below 8,000 feet. It breeds near Cliini and even here almost 
only near the limit of trees at about 12,000 feet. It is often seen 
about Korzog in Rupshu, on an elevation of between 15 and 1G,000 
feet. During the cold weather, it is tolerably common about Kotegurh 
and occasionally also about Simla. 

138. Tarsiger ciirys^eus, II o d g s. (II. 149). Only one specimen 
was procured in winter at Kotegurh, it is a female and somewhat 
smaller, than the measurement given by Dr. Jerdo n, the wing being 
only 2| inches and the tail hardly 2 inches ; I have never met the 
species on my summer visits to the Sutlej valley, or in W. Tibet. 

139. Calliope pectoralis, G o u I d (II. 150). The young bird 
is above dark drown, the feathers being centrally streaked pale yellow ; 
wings brown, wing coverts tipped and edged externally with slight 
rufescent, upper tail coverts with a ferruginous tint ; tail brown, except 
on the four central feathers, being white at the base and tipped whitish or 
pale rufescent ; snperciliar stripe pale, scarcely traceable ; below dull 
white, all the feathers on the chin, throat and the breast margined 

Rare in the eastern parts of the valley, generally frequenting brush- 
woods ; migrates to Tibet and Central Asia during the summer. 

140. Cyanecula suectca, Linn. (II. 152), is not very rare about 
the end of October in the lower and western parts of the valley. I found 
it breeding in little Tibet, where it appears to be common during 
the hot season. The young birds are almost identical in colouring 
with those of Calliope pectoralis, except that the ferruginous on the 
base of the tail and the whitish tips of the last species are wanting. 

As there are in the interior of the hills no extensive grassy places 
or swamps along the Sutlej, representatives of the sub-families cala- 
moherpin.e and drymoicin^e are consequently very rare, and only of 
the latter sub-family the next species, 

141. Suya criniger, Eodg s. (II. 183), is rather a common bird, 
being found on grassy slopes all through the lower ranges of the hills, 
but it does not go very far into the interior. 

The wide separation of Eurycercus (Laticilla, Blyth) from these 
I birds appears almost a too forcible one. phylloscopinje are com- 
paratively very numerous, but their determinations are in many 

46 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

respects still deficient and very difficult. In West Tibet I have 
procured several peculiar and apparently new species which no doubt 
visit northern India during the cold weather, but as they have not 
been yet obtained here, I intend to give of them a more detailed 

account at some future occasion. At the present I shall only 

mention a few of the better known species. 

142 Neornis flavolivacea, H o d g s. (II. 183); rare about 

Nachar and Chini between 6 and 10,000 feet ; at the latter locality 

I generally found it between apricot trees. Jerclon (III. 872) quotes 

Blyth's supposition as to the identity of this species with Hororms 

fuliginiventer* Hodgs. 

143. Prylloscopus trochilus, Linn. (II. 192), is common all 

through the Sutlej valley, between elevations of 5 and 11,000 feet ; it 

breeds near Chini. 

144 Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth, (II. 193) and 

145 Phylloscopus aepinis, Tick. (11.194), are comparatively 
rare, but both of them are during the summer more common m W. 
and central Tibet. The latter species is exceedingly like the European 
Ph sibilatrix and perhaps identical with it. 

146 Phylloscopds ? sp. I procured one specimen of an apparently 
new species near Nachar; it is not in very good preservation, but 
the attention of any future traveller may be directed to it by the 
following short description. 

4bove uniform olivaceous brown with a slight rufous tint, especially 
on the back and on the outer webs of the wing feathers ; wings and 
tail dusky; below albescent, purer on the chin and throat, towards 
the lower tail coverts with a gradually increasing rufous tinge ; lores 
dusky, supercilium pale-whitish, front edges of wings and lower wing 
coverts white, with a slight yellow tint ; wings 2J inch ; tail 1J inch. 
In general colouring, this species resembles Phyllopneuste rama, 
Syhes, but it is decidedly smaller. 

147 Reguloides occipitalis, J e r d„ QL 196), rare about Chini. 

148 Regul. trochiloides, Sund., (II. 196) is common all throng? 
the valley from Kotegurh to Chini, where it breeds between 9,00( 
and 10,000 feet. 

* Vide Ibis, 1867, pp. 21-22. 
f See Ibis, 1867, p. 24. 

!868.] N. W. Himalaya. 47 

149. Kegul. PROBBGULUfl,PaZi, (II. 197); Begul. chloronotus 
Hodgs. (III. 873) is not very rare about Chini, where it breeds. 
I met with young birds in the beginning of August. 

150. Culicipeta Buekii, B u r t., (II. 199), not common in the 
lower hills between Simla and Nachar, but I have not seen it further to 
east nor on elevations exceeding 8,000 feet. 

151. Abrornis xantiiosciiistos, Hodrjs., (II. 202), is the only 
common species of this genus found on elevations between 3,000 
and 9,000 feet ; it also occurs in eastern Kashmir, especially 'near 

152. Kegulus IIimalayensis,* Blyth, (II. 206J. 

The black streak on either side of the crest is very distinct in 
winter. The lores, and a streak passing above the upper mandible 
and connecting both eyes is almost purely white; the tertiaries are 
tipped pale. 

I procured this species only through my shikaries at Kotegurh, the 
specimens were shot early in the spring and in winter ; I met with it, 
however, during the summer in the Indus valley of W. Tibet; it 
breeds no doubt here as well as in other parts of Central Asia. 

The female has the top of the head uniform pale yellow without 
any flame colour. 

153. Henicueus maculatus, Vig., (11.212). The young bird 
has the head, neck, back, scapulars, throat and breast sooty brown, 
the feathers on the throat and breast centrally streaked paler; 
abdomen, wings, belly and tail as in the old bird ; the former 
does not assume its full plumage till the next spring or very late in 
the season; in some of the birds the white spots begin to shew 
themselves in October, but the feathers on the back want the pure 
black colour of the old bird. Common all through the valley on 
elevations from 5,000 to 12,000 feet, but does not go eastwards of 
the large forests, into the Tibetan climate proper. 

154. Henicurus ScouLERi,f Vig., (II. 214), is more confined to 
the hills of the outer ranges, but not uncommonly seen up to 8 000 
! feet. ' 

specimens' lift ^ % " fj ien ™ informs me > that ^ compared the Himalayan 
i CS ! Bur °P° an ones > and to ™able to detect any sufficiently 

characteristic distinctions Both may therefore be proved to be identical. * 
, Ibt mi n ^'° nS 1S Stated KjBlyth to be a young specimen of this species 

48 Ornithological Ohservations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

I have already remarked, that Hydrolata would seem to be more 
correctly classed here, instead of in the family TrjRDiDiE. 

None of the true motacillin^ are, during the summer, very 
common in the Sutlej valley, for most of the species generally proceed 
further north and eastwards, into Tibet and Central Asia. I procured 
a few of them through my shikarees at Kotegurh in April and May, 
and others myself when travelling through the valley proceeding to 
or returning from Tibet. The most common species are :— 

155. Motacilla Maderaspatana, Briss., (II. 217) being occa- 
sionally seen also in summer near Chini. 

156. Motacilla personata, Gould, (III. 873, M. dukhunensis, 
Sykes, II. 218), is very rare in summer as likewise the two following;— 

157. Colabates sulphurea, Bechst, (II. 220) and 
158 Budytes viridis, G m e I. (II. 222). 

159. Budytes citreoloides, Eo d g s., (III. 873), is especially com- 
mon beyond Chini, towards the Tibetan frontier, as also in Lahul and 
north of Kishtwar. Budytes Bayi of Europe occurs in Kashmir, but I 
have not met with it further eastwards. 

160. Nemoricola inlica, G m e l, (II. 226), has been shot near 
Kotegurh in April, and I also obtained a specimen in August 1865 
near Suroo in the Dras district, N. E. of Kashmir.* 

The following species, including the so-called Pipits, do not seem 
to be naturally classed with the motacillinje.' The great differences 
which exists in the form of the bill, in the plumage, in their 
habits &c, would seem to justify the formation of a separate 
subfamily, being rather more allied to the alaxjdin^, than to the 


161 Pipastes macttlatus, Hodgs., (III. 873,) I have only met 
with this species in the lower hills, but it breeds in W. Tibet. 
It was observed by me on one or two occasions in the Indus valley, 
W of Lei, in company with the next one. 

162. Pipastes arboretjs, Bech., (II. 229), not common in W. 
Tibet and Kashmir; about October it maybe seen in the low hills 
near Kangra and Belaspoor. The following species, 

163. CORYDALLA RlCHARDI, Vieil I., (II. 231), 

164. Corydalla rupula, Vieil Z., (II. 232), 

• Blyth (Ibis 1867, p. 31) says that it is also found near Pekin. 

1863.] N. W. Himalaya. 49 

1G5. Agrodoma sordida, Blip.. (II. 236), 

166. Antiius cbbvinus, Pall., (II. 237), 

167. Hetekuba sylvaxa, Hodgs., (239) also occur during "the 
glimmer months in the Stitlej valley, but they are generally confined to 
the lower western portions of it, and do not usually migrate further east- 
wards than Nachar. The elevations upon which they are found lie 
between 2,000 and 6,000 feet. In eases of the absence of grassy and 
shrubby slopes they are very seldom met with in the denser pine for- 
ests. The Agrad. sordida breeds at Kotegurh, and the Hei. sylvana is 
occasionally seen near Oiiini, where it also breeds. It is the only 
species which is more common in the valley, and even 
remains during the winter in the neighbourhood of Kotegurh and 
Simla. All the other species migrate at the beginning of the cold 
weather to the plains of Northern India, or to the Dhoons of the Sub- 
Ilimahiyan hills. 


168. Pterutiiius erxthroptbrib, Vig., (11.245). 

It almost appears to be a very unnatural separation to remove from 
each other the genera Ptheruthius andLanms, under the last of which 
P. erythvoptevus has originally been described. The species seems 
to combine the characters of Lanius and Tephrodornis, possessing the 
shape of the bill of the former and the short tail of the latter. 

Male ; some of the ashy feathers on the back are often tipped black ; 
the primaries and secondaries and their coverts are shining black 
on the outer, dull black on the inner- webs ; the quills, beginning 
at the third primary, are tipped white on the inner webs, the white 
increasing up to the sixth primary, then again decreasing, until 
it disappears on the last secondary ; a white wing patch is formed 
by the basal half of the inner webs of all the secondaries and of the 
primaries, with the exception of the first primary. Below white, all the 
feathers dark slaty at their bases, abdomen of a light fleshy colour, 
under tail coverts pure white. The tips of the tail feathers are 
distinctly mucronate, and have sometimes traces of golden yellow. 

The female has the tertiaries somewhat duller ckesnnt ; only the 
two central tail feathers are wholly dingy green, the others mostly 
black, greenish on the outer webs and tipped yellow, which increases 
towards the outermost pair, 

50 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

This species is occasionally in the spring seen about Kotegurh, and 
as far east as Naehar, the highest elevations, at which I observed 
it near Serahan, lying between 9,000 and 10,000 feet ; it is, however, 
always a rare bird in this portion of the hills. 

169. Allotrius* sp., the following is a short description. Head 
slaty, rest of upper plumage greenish, wings dusky on the inner webs, 
coverts of the primaries black ; lateral tail feathers pale on the outer 
webs, darker on the inner, tipped greenish white ; chin, throat and 
breast greyish white, abdomen and vent light green, especially on 
the sides ; length of wing 2 J inches ; tail 2 inches. 

The female seems only to differ by having the head above greenish 
grey, instead of pure slaty, and in having the coverts of the secondaries 
tipped pale yellow ; the tail is greyish green, the outer feathers tipped 
dull whitish. Only three specimens were shot, in February 1867, in 
the southern part of Kulu. 

170. Siva strigtjla, Hodgs. (II. 252). The yellow on the crest 
and below is paler in the female, than in the male ; the back is some- 
what ashy in the former, the black spot on the throat smaller and 
the central tail feathers more tipped yellow, while in the male the 
tail feathers are often nearly all black, being chesnut on the inner, 
basal half, not outer as stated by J er do n. 

The young bird scarcely differs from the old one, except that its 
plumage above, on the back, wings and on the tail is a little more 
ashy, the dusky spots on the throat being at the same time very small. 
This species in summer frequents thick forests, between 6,000 to 9,000 
feet, all along the elevated range from Simla to Naehar ; it is in 
general rare and only in winter more common about Kotegiu-h. 

171. Proparus (Siva?) vinipeotus, Hodgs. (II. 257). The 
ear-coverts are darker brown than the head and nape ; the white 
stripe, extending from the eye to the nape, is above bordered Avith 
some blackish feathers ; lores black, back pale brown, rump and upper 
tail coverts lighter and rusty, longer wing coverts bright rusty. The 
upper mandible has a very small and shallow, but a traceable notch, 
the bill is, however, in every other respect exactly like in Siva, the 

* This is Allotrius xanthocMorus, Hodgs. which J ev don identifies with A. 
melanotis, the present species being, however, certainly a distinct bird. Gould s 
figure in " Birds of Asia" pt. VIII. is correct. Allotrius can only be considered 
as a subgeneric division of Ptlieruthius. 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 51 

only difference from this genus probably consisting in the greater 
length of the hind claw, which is in reality almost a trifling distinc- 
tion, when compared with other generic characters. The differences 
of Proparus from Parus are on the contrary much greater, because 
the bill is in the latter genns mare distinctly conical and the nostrils 
covered, while in Siva or Proparus the bill is laterally rather 
compressed, lengthened, and the nostrils uncovered. With regard to 
this point as well as to the coloration of the wings, the habits, &c. there 
appears to be a marked relation of the species of Siva and Proparus 
to those of Garrulax and Trochalopteron. I only procured at the end 
of August 1866 two specimens of Pro. vlnlpectus at a'height of 8 000 
feet on the Matiana hill, beyond Simla ; it appears to be very rare 'and 
would seem chiefly to frequent in summer thick pine-forests' ' in 
company of Siva strigula. ' 

172. Zosterops PALPuimosus, Temm., (II ^65^ is ™^ „ 

all though the vallev, as far a S an y rich ar'borl. Z^ZZ^H 
ranges up to elevations of 12,000 feet, breeds about Ohini, but retires 
to the plains in winter. 

173. Sylviparus mopestus, Burt. (II. 267). Male in summer 
above olive green, brighter on the abdomen, on the upper tail-coverts 
and on the forehead ; the feathers on the head have black quills • 
indistinct supercilium, round the eye and the ear-coverts are pale 
greenish yellow ; on the lores andbeneath the plumage is whitish, slight 
ly tinged with greenish yellow, especially on the breast ; wings and tail 
blackish, externally edged with yellowish green, which i<T brighter 
towards the tips of the secondaries, as also on all the coverts and on the 
front edges of the wings. Some of the last primaries and the secon- 
daries are usually tipped white ; the tail is emarginated in the 
middle and all the feathers are slightly mucronate. 

The female has the forehead and the plumage below pale white. 

The species is in summer common on the apricot trees about Pangi 
and Chini, but I have not noticed it any where else in the valley. It 
is said occasionally to remain at Kotegurh during the winter. 

The bill of Sylviparus resembles in many respects that of Carduelis, 
and the feet are as stout as in Mnnla, the general coloration is that 
of Zosterops ; thus the genus represents a remarkable transitional 


Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valln 

[No. 1, 

174. Cepiialopyrus flammiceps, B u r t., (II. 267), is still raver 
than the last species, and is to be found only between elevations of 
3,000 and 7,000 feet ; it does not go eastwards beyond Wangtu brid; 

Sub-fcnnihj, PABINM 




178. Parus monticulus, Vig., (277). 

179. Parus cinereus, Vi e i I., (II. 278). 
All these species, except the last one, are very common in the valley 

on elevations between 4,000 and 12,000 feet. The M. erythrocephalw 
is occasionally met with migrating from one elevated portion of the 
valley to a lower locality, and vice versa. I found the birds in large 
numbers moving about in the morning hours, generally associated 
with Jhrornis xnthocliktos, Muscicapula svpcrciliaris, SittU Hi- 
mala^ana, and other species. The same observation I have made 
previously in C. hamba and in other parts of the hills. 

The species of Lophof anes prefer in summer higher situated pine 
and cedar-forests, while those of Bams are more commonly seen on 
the open places and on apricot trees in the gardens, &c. P. cinereus 
is by far not so common on this side of the snowy ranges, as it is in 
Kashmir and in little Tibet. It is the only species which goes farthest 
to north and extends into Tibet, although most of the others remain 
during the winter in the less frigid portions of the interior valleys, 
and only seldom migrate to the plains. 

180. Machlolopiius xanthogenys, Tig., (II. 279), was only pro- 
cured in winter at Kotegurh and appears to be even at this time of 
the year very rare. The yellow patches on the nape and the sides of 
the head are very pale in winter and there are occasionally even some 
whitish feathers on the top of the head. The coloration of this and the 
allied species is extremely like that of P. monticulus, and thus Macklo- 
lophus may properly be considered as a transitional form between 
Zophophanes and Burns. 

Sicb-famfy, ACCENT0RIN2E. 

181. Accentor altaicus, Brandt, (II. 287). The feathers on 
the head, nape and neck are centrally streaked dusky, those of the 
back and of the scapulars are centrally broadly tipped blackish brown, 

IB68.] iV. W. Himalaya. 53 

and of the same colour are the tertiaries, being- margined with light 
rufous brown. A rather dark streak extends from the lores below the 
eye; the ear-coverts have a slight rufous tinge; the lower tail-coverts 
are dark brown, margined with pure white. 

This species inhabits during the summer Tibet and Central Asia and 
comes in winter to the Sub-Himalayan ranges. The largest specimen^ 
which was procured at Kotegurh last year in winter, measures 3J 
inches on the wings, tail 2f and the total length could not have been 
much under 7 inches, the specimen having thus fully the size of A. 
n ij) ahn s is, Hod gs. 

182. Accentor strophulus, Hodg*., (II. 287). The general 
colour above is rather olivaceous brown, with a slight rufous tint on 
the back, wings and tail are dusky brown ; the white tips on the 
wing coverts are sometimes scarcely traceable. 

This species is likewise an inhabitant of Central Asia • I do not 
remember it even from W. Tibet, although it is probably to be found 
there, for it occasionally comes in winter to Kotegurh and to other 
Cis-Himalayan parts of the Sutlej valley. 

183. Accentor Huttoni, Moore, (II. 288). The pale line 
extending downwards from the base of the lower mandible is sometimes 
very indistinct ; the black on the throat is below occasionally margined 
with a whitish, pale line. 

Only a winter visitant to the lower ranges of the N. W. Himalayas 
and common at that season about Simla and Kotegurh. 

184. Accentor rubeculoides, H o dg s. (11.268). The general 
brown hue above is much paler in summer than in winter, but the 
ferruginous on the breast is brighter in summer. 

This species is common in W. Tibet, of which it generally is 
a permanent inhabitant. It seems very rarely to visit the plains of 
Northern India, and even the lesser ranges of the N. W. Himalayas ■ 
only one specimen was shot near Kampoor during the winter of 1865- 

I have also procured in W, Tibet one apparently new species of 
Accentor and another probably belonging to the type of Ace. modularis 
which has been called Tharrhaleus, but I have not yet succeeded in 
obtaining them on this side of the Himalayas; they may, therefore, 
better be treated subsequently with the Tibetan fauna. 


Ornithological Observations in the Suilej valley, [No. 1, 

XXII. Family 00RV1D2E. 

185. Corvus tibetanus, Ho d g s., (II. 294). This, so called, 
species is common in summer all through. W. Tibet and only very 
few birds come down in winter to Kulu and the Sutlej valley, near 
Koteo-urh, but it is said to be abundant at that season in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chini. Although generally supposed to be a good 
species* Dr. Jerdon includes it, and I believe very properly, in the 
list of the doubtful ones. The only difference, from the European Cor. 
corax, is its occasional somewhat larger size, but this is far from 
constant. I obtained in Spiti several specimens which evidently 
appear to belong to the same species, and they are by no means larger 
than true C. corax. Some do not even appear to equal the largest 
measurements of C. corax, but as these had been taken only from 
dried specimens, I will not absolutely rely upon them, especially as 
I hope to settle that point more carefully on my next visit to Tibet. 

186. Corvus culminatus, Sylces, (II. 295), is only to be found 
in the lower hills and generally retires to the plains for the winter. 

187. Corvus intermedins, A d a 7ii s, (11.29), is most common 
all through the N. W. Himalayas ; in W. Tibet it was found by me 
only W. of Lei, about Kargil, Dras and towards Skarclo. During 
the- summer it is the only species met with about Chini and in the 
eastern portions of the Sutlej valley. 

The usual measurements are; total length 18—20 inches, length of 
wing 12-13 inches, tail 8-8J inches, length of bill 2^-2^ inches, height 
of the same about | inches. 

188. Corvus splendens, Vie ill, (II. 298), is very seldom seen 
to the east of Kotegurh, and only near the villages. 

189. Nucieraga HEMispiLA,f Vig. (II. 304), is very common all 
through the forests of the valley, from low elevations to the limit of 
trees, and from Simla to Chini. 

190. Nucifraga multimaculata, Gould, (11.304). I procured 

* Ibis 1867 p 34 Mr. Blyth still considers the species as distinct from 
C corax. When lately in London he shewed me a large specimen of this 
species, sent from the Himalayas, bnt I confess that I have seen in the 
Museums at Munich, Berlin and Vienna quite as large specimens of the 
European C. corax. I do not think that they are distinct species, (Feb. 1868.) 

f The plumage of this species is very variable. I obtained specimens winch 
have very few and almost not traceable white spots. The N. immaculate, 
which B ly t h (Ibis, 1867, p. 36) calls an unspotted species from Nepal appears 
to me rather doubtful (Feb. 1868.) 

1868.] K W. Himalaya. 55 

a specimen of this species in October 1865 on an elevated point beyond 
Belaspoor, and found it tolerably common in the pine and cedar 
forests near Kistwar and Badrawar. The species very much resembles 
the European JV. cariocatadhcs, only that the white blotches are 
somewhat larger and perhaps more numerous, the quills and the two 
central tail feathers are usually tipped white ; the plumage above also 
appears to be darker, than it is in European specimens. 

191. GrARULUS BISPEOULABIS, Vig. (II. 307), and 

192. G-arrulus lanceolatus, Vi(j. (11.308), are both common, 
but the latter is more confined to the lower ranges about Simla while 
the former occurs much further to North, and in the interior of the 
hills, it is occasionally seen about Chini ; both species are also common 
at Kotegurh in winter. 

193. Urocissa occypitalis, Blyih t (II. 309, U. sinensis, and III. 
873). This is the only common species of Urocissa occurring in the 
Sutlej valley, I never have observed the U. cncn/la/a, Gould, noticed 
by Dr. Jerdon (III. 873) as distinct from V. J/avirostris of Sikkim. 

194. Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. (II. 314), and 

195. Dend. Him.vlayana, Blyth, (III. 316, No. 676, and III. 
; 874), are both only found in the lower hills between 2 and 5,000 feet 

the last one occasionally occurs op to 7,000 feet ; but very seldom in 
: the interior of the hills ; both are also met with in Southern Kashmir. 

196. Fregilus Himalayanus,* Goal d, (II. 319), is rare during 
I the summer in the neighbourhood of Chini and only on elevations of 

and above 11,000 feet ; it is, however, more common in these parts 
during the cold weather ; most of the birds live in summer in the 
Spiti valley, Tibet, and probably all through Central Asia, extending 
into Siberia, but 1 have nowhere in western Tibet seen them in large 
numbers ; in Spiti, I have generally observed them at elevations from 
13,000 to 15,000 feet. They live in pairs or three or four together, 
and at some distance from villages, being apparently very shy. 

41. J- i tLis is dfstinct from *W graculvs. L. G o u I d says that 

the Himalayan species has a larger beak, but when lately in Vienna I have com par- 
etlmy specimens with the European ones and found, a specimen from Savoy had 

, a longer and stronger bill, than either of my Himalayan ones ; size and colour do 
not otter any distinctions. I strongly believe that the Himalayan bird is 

. not specifically distinct from the European (Feb. 1868.) 

56 Ornithological Olservations in the Sutlcj valley, [No. 1, 

197. Pyrriiocorax alpinus,* Vi sill (II. 319), is in summer spread 
all over western Tibet, including the Spiti valley, the eastern districts of 
Kunawar, &c, but migrates in winter to the lower ranges and valleys 
of the Himalaya, being in the cold weather specially common in Kola, 
In its habits it is altogether the reverse from the last species, being 
very social and generally the first, and often the only, visitor to 
the camp of the traveller in Spiti or Ladak ; it is here quite as 
familiar and quite as noisy in the neighbourhood of villages and 
camping grounds as the Corvus splendens throughout India. 
Both this and the former species breed in holes of rocks. 

198-199 Sturnus vulgaris, L i n n, (II. 321), and St. unicolor 
(II 329.) have been both procured on the Sutlej to the north of 
Selaspoor', they were most probably migrating from Kashmir, where 
they are very abundant, especially near the Wollar lake. 

200. Acridotheres trlstis, Linn. (II. 325) is common in the 
lower hills and valleys, but never approaches the northern regions 
bordering on the Tibetan frontiers. In the Sutlej valley, it is not seen 
much fetter beyond Rampoor, or above elevations of 5,500 feet, the last 
and highest limit of growth of the Ficus religiosa ; it is also very common 
in Kulu and all through the western hills extending into Kashmir. 

201 Temenuciius pagobarum, G m e I (II. 329) ; common m the 
lower hills in the autumn ; I found it also abundant in May about 
Bnket and other places, where it breeds in holes of trees. It was as- 
sociated on the pasture-grounds with the previous and the next species 

202. Pastor Roseus, Linn., (II. 333). It is very probable that 
this species breeds in the lower hills of the Himalayas. 


203. Munia Malabarica, Linn., (II. 357); common in the 
lower hills and not ascending elevations above 5,000 feet, very seldom 
extending into the interior. 

204. Munia similarb-j, n. sp. 

There is another plain coloured species to he found on the lower 

* Lieut. Beavan (Ibis 1367, pp. 137 and 142) has trrach doubt as to the u*. 
Go ttil 'certainly mistaken in taking the colonr of the legs for yellow. 

1868 J N. W. Himalaya. 57 

ranges of the N. W. Himalaya. It is almost of the same size as the 
Munia Malabarica, or perhaps a trifle larger, of a uniform rufescent 
brown colour, paler below and dusky on the inner webs of the quills. 
The feet are plumbeous and the claws proportionally somewhat 
longer than in the last species. It has a distinctly more rufescent 
tinge in all its plumage, than the true M. Malabarica. The only 
specimen which I possess is in a good state of preservation and 
belongs, I believe, to a imw species. 

205. Passer indicus, J a r d. and Sell. (II. 362,) is common 
all through the N. W. Himalayas, but only near villages or cultivated 
spots. It is dining the summer most abundant in the Indus valley 
about Lei, though not a single bird remains here during the winter, 
all migrating either down the valley to the Punjab, or to the lower 
ranges of the Himalayas. 

206. Passer cinnamoueus, Goul d, (II. 365), is plentiful all 
through the valley, but usually found above elevations of 6,000 feet, 
it is mostly confined to the jungly districts,* though generally not far 
from villages ; it breeds in holes of trees. 

207. Passer montanus, L i n n. (II. 366), is only rarely seen in the 
eastern parts of the valley, near Chini and towards the Chinese 

^208. Emberiza cia, Linn. (II. 371, Emb. Strachei/i, Moore, 
372). The general rufescent colour above increases from the back 
towards the tail ; the longer upper tail coverts are centrally streaked 
black, the two central tail feathers broadly margined with rufescent, 
this colour being much, paler in the female; the two outer tail 
feathers are for nearly the total terminal half white, more so on the 
inner, than on the outer webs ; the breast is uniform ashy in old males, 
with dusky spots in the females and young birds ; the three black 
streaks on the sides of the head are very distinct, the central one 
becoming much narrower towards the nape, while the grey streak is at 
the same time much wider. 

This European species is very common in summer all through the 
N. W. Himalayas on both the Indian and the Tibetan side; in winter 
it mostly remains on the lower southern ranges. 

* Ibis, 1867, p. 42, B I y t h is correct in supposing that it is a tree- and not a 


53 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1 

209 Ekbmka pithyoenis, P •* I, ("• 3 ™> is occasionally shot 
in winter at Kotegnrh, but I have not observed it during the 
summer anywhere in the Sutlej valley. 

210 EMtauzA Sowim, JH,fk (H- 374). In the old male 
all the under parts extending from the chest nearly to the lower tad 
coverts are chesnut, mingled with white on the vent, on winch some 
of the feathers often have besides a central brown streak; the 
outer web of the first pair of the outer tail feathers is mostly white. 

In the old female each feather above is centrally and below only 
terminally brown, the rest is light ashy or sometimes fulvous brown 
internally the feathers are slaty; chin and throat are whit, g h vent 
and edgings of the wing coverts somewhat deeper fulvous ; the edgings 
of the tertiaries are broad with a rufous tinge, upper tail-coverts 
almost purely chesnut. There are generally also some traces of 
brown or chesnut on the sides of the breast and on the scapulars. Ihe 
two central tail feathers are broadly margined with rufous, the others 
only slightly so on the outer webs, and besides somewhat paler; 
the two outer tail feathers on each side are near the base black, the 
rest being white except on the black shafts ; of these two outermost 
tail feathers the first one is less black at the base, than the one next 

to it. 

Youna 'females differ from the old ones in having all the fulvous 
brown colour much paler, and whitish. The- young males are also very 
like the old ones, only that the brown central streaks on the breast 
and on the head are much narrower, the central tail feathers ess 
margined with rufous and more black ; the chesnut on the scapula* 
and on the sides of the breast is also somewhat less developed. Tins 
species occurs in summer in the interior portions of the N. W Hima- 
laya • in the Sutlej valley it is scarcely seen west of the Wangtu bridge, 
but it is very common about Chini and farther to east, making a nest 
of coarse grass near the ground in low bushes. I found young birds 
about the middle of June. It is only partially a migratory bird and 
remains in the wooded parts of the valley generally all the year, but 
apparently not in Tibet. 

211 Emberiza fhcata, Pall. (II. 375). The grey on the head 
is rather variable, sometimes it is very conspicuous, in other cases 
scarcely traceable; occasionally some of the feathers on the head are 

1868.] N. W. Himalaya. 59 

rufous. When I passed through the Sutlej valley at Kotegurh, Rampoor 
and Nachar in June 1866, I have not observed a single specimen of 
this species, but on my return through the same parts in August I 
found the males most abundant, but not a single female. I cannot 
at the present account for the solitary appearance of the former. 

212. Emberiza pusilla, Pall. (II. 376), is very rare at Kotegurh, 
and only to be seen in winter ; I have not noticed it during the 
summer in W. Tibet, it must travel further northwards. 

213. Euspiza melanocepuala, Gm el. (II 378), is common in 
the low hills about Belaspoor and Kangra. 

214. Melopiius melanicterus, G m e I. (II. 381), is generally found, 
on bare slopes of hills or open places, all along the southern ranges of 
the N. W. Himalayas, but it never approaches the Tibetan climate ; it 
does not go even as far east as Chini, and it is very improbable that it 
inhabits the western parts of Central Asia, although it may be identical 
with the species occurring in China. At Kotegurh it breeds in summer 
during the months of May and June, but it does not remain here in 

fringillin^ are especially numerous on the lower ranges during the 
cold weather, while in summer they are mostly to be found at greater 
elevations, in western Tibet and in Central Asia. Some of the species 
appear to be, however, permanent inhabitants of the outer ranges. 

215. Hesperipiiona icter ioides, Vig. (II. 384). The yellow on the 
back is in the old bird often mingled with some black feathers. The 
young female is like the old one, but the young male has in the first 
winter the whole head with the sides, nape, chin and throat ashy ; the 
rest of the plumage is yellowish green, brighter below ; the primaries, 
secondaries and the tail feathers are black, the tertiaries green on the 
outer webs, black on the inner, all the coverts being greenish. Common 
about Kotegurh and N. of Simla, in summer and winter, at elevations 
of 5,000 to 9,000 feet ; the species does not go far in the interior, at 
least not beyond the limit of the large forests. 

216. Pyrrhula erythrocephala, Vig. (II. 389) ; the shining 
blue black feathers on the wings and on the tail are narrowly barred 
across with dull black lines ; the species breeds about Kotegurh between 
6,000 and 8,000 feet, but it is found all through the valley up to the 
limit of the pine and cedar forests ; it is also common in Lahul and 

60 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

probably migrates much farther to north into Central Asia and Siberia, 
for very large numbers come down each winter to Kulu and the lower 


217. Loxia Himalayana, Eodgs. (II. 393), is only to be found in 
the forests about Cliini and towards the east ; it is rare at Kotegurh 
even in winter, but common in Lahul during the summer. 

218. Carpodacus erythrinus, Pallas, (II. 398) ; very common, 
on elevations from 7,000 to 14,000 feet, all through the N. W. Hima- 
layas and in Tibet during the summer; it remains at Kotegurh in 
winter. The different variations of the plumage quite agree with 
J er don 1 & description. 

219. Propasser rhoi>ochlamys, Brandt, (II. 401) is not very 
rarely met with near Kotegurh, though more common about Chini ; 
it breeds in Tibet. 

220. Propasser rhodochrous, Vig. (II. 402). 

The rose colour of the male is in winter on the forehead and on the 
superciliar stripe paler, than on the rump ; the feathers covering the 
nostrils are vinaceous ; the shorter upper tail coverts are bright rosy, 
the longer more dull ; the edges of the outer webs of the wing and 
tail feathers are generally rufous, while in the female they are much 


The young male very much resembles the old female, except that 
there are always some rosy feathers on the throat, sides of the neck 
and the front of the head. The species is very rare in summer on 
the lesser ranges and is scarcely seen below 7,000 feet, it is, however, 
more common to the east of Cliini, in Spiti and in Lahul, as likewise 
during the winter near Kotegurh and Simla. 

A large apparently new species of Propasser occurs in W. Tibet ; 
the length of the wing of the female is 4| inches ; it is similarly coloured 
as the female of P. rliodochlamys, but the brown longitudinal streaks 
below are comparatively much smaller; I have not been able to 
procure as yet a male specimen of this species, but it is possible that it 
is not different from the last named one. 

221. Pyrrhospiza punicea, Hodgs. (II. 406), comes only occa- 
sionally in winter to Kotegurh and Simla,but is more common eastwards; 
in summer it is found in Spiti and Ladak on elevations of 13,000 to 
17,000 feet, searching after food at the camping grounds. I found the 

1868.J N. W. Himalaya. 61 

nest, made of coarse grass, in Rnpshu near the Thsomoriri (lake), on 
the ground, in a little busli of the Tibetan furze ; eggs dirty white or 
greenish with some dark brown spots. 

222. Callacantiiis Burtoni, Gould, (II. 407). The entire 
lower plumage is in winter reddish brown, and only the tips of the 
feathers are crimson ; wings and tail are black, the tips of all the wing- 
coverts, all wing-and tail-feathers are white, those on the tertiaries 
slightly tinted with crimson ; the three pairs of outer tail feathers 
are terminally white on the inner webs, the white decreasing from the 
outermost, until it becomes reduced on the fourth pair and all the fol- 
lowing feathers to white tip. This rare species is found occasionally in 
winter on the lesser ranges, about Kotegurh and Simla between 
4,000 and 7,000 feet ; in summer it lives in the highest cedar forests 
on the central range of the N. W. Himalayas. I do not remember it 
from Tibet, but it very likely migrates farther to the north of the 
Indus valley in W. Tibet. 

223. Carduelis cantceps, Vig. (II. 408), common in summer all 
through W. Tibet, wherever any thistles are to be found ; in its habits, 
flight, song and nidineation it does not differ at all from the European 
Card, eleyans. During the cold weather, it is very plentifully met 
with at Kotegurh, near Simla, and all along the hill stations of the 
lesser ranges. 

224. Ciirysomitris spinoides, V i rj . (II. 409,) prefers the more 
wooded districts and is in the lower hills not uncommon even during 
the summer months between 5 and 9,000 feet ; it is, however, found 
with the former species also in Spiti and in Lahul. 

225. Metoponia pusilla, P a 1 1., (II. 410). The female has the 
head and ear coverts brown ; there are usually some traces of golden 
yellow on the forehead, specially in very old females ; the throat is 
pale, breast black, but the nape is rather ashy ; in other respects it 
resembles the male. 

This finch comes only in winter to the lesser ranges of the N. W. 
Himalayas ; it breeds east of Chini on elevations of 10,000 feet and 
above, as likewise in Spiti, Lahul and Ladak. I found old nests made 
of thin twigs, laid out with grass and wool, on shrubs or low trees of 
Jmxiperus excelsa. 

62 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

226. Linota pygmj5a, n. sp* There is another small finch found in 
Ladak and in Bissahir. It is considerably smaller than Metop.pmilla, 
the wings being only 2J ; the head and nape are blackish brown, ear- 
coveits rufous brown, general plumage above dark brown, the feathers 
being centrally streaked with that colour and broadly margined pale 
fulvous brown ; wings and tail blackish brown ; edges of outer webs 
of the primaries and partly also of the secondaries yellow, the entire 
margins of the tertiaries and the tips of the former, as well as the 
tips and outer edges of all the wing coverts are pale rufous brown ; tail 
deeply emarginated in the middle, the external edges for two-thirds 
length from the base yellow, the rest pale rufous ; throat slightly 
tinged with yellow, rest of lower plumage light fulvous brown, 
centrally streaked dusky on the breast and upper vent. The bill is 
very small, dusky above, culmen distinctly angular, ridged. 

I procured two specimens of this species, one at about 13,000 
feet near the snows above Chini (August, 1866), and one near Padam 
in S. W. Tibet at about 12,000 feet, (September, 1865). I cannot 
identify this species at present with any described by Pallas from 

North Asia, for which reason I think it advisable to introduce a 

new specific name. 

227. Linota brevirostrts, Gould, (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1855, p. 216), is exactly of the same size as the European Lin. 
montium, apparently only differing from it by its paler plumage ; 
rare in Ladak and visiting Kulu and the Sutlej valley in winter ; 
it is also in winter caught near Chini and sometimes caged. 


Asia, pt. III. pi. 15). 

229. Montieringtlla Adamsi, Moot e, (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1858, p. 482, pi. 156). The longer upper tail-coverts are grey; the 
secondaries are black on their basal half. 

Both these species are inhabitants of Ladak during the summer, but 
they have been procured in winter through my shikaries in the Sutlej 
valley as well as in Kulu. They also visit Northern India in the cold 
weather. There is a third, apparently new species of Montifringilla to 

* Dr. Je r d o n informs me that he also procured in the Punjab a very small 
finch which he supposes to be a second species of Metoponia ; my specimens 
thouo-h very small appear to be more allied to Linota (April 1868). 

1868.] A T . W. Himalaya. G3 

be found in the Himalayas, but as far as at present known, only occur- 
ring in Ladak, I shall give the description of it at some future occasion, 
as I am at present in possession of a single specimen. 

230. Fringillauda nemoricola, II n dg s. (II. 414), is likewise 
only a winter visitant to the lesser ranges ; I observed it often during 
the summer in the south-western parts of Tibet and to the north of 

231. Frixgillauda sordida, n. sp. Another species apparently be- 
longing to the genus Fringillauda has been procured by me near the 
Baralatse-pass in north Lahul and near Padam in 1868 ; last winter 
I got several specimens of the same species from Kotegurh. The 
following description is taken from these specimens. 

fMale in winter ; forehead dusky brown, all the feathers mar- 
gined pale; top of head and ear-coverts uniform rufous blown, 
nape and neck ashy brown, back dark brown, the feathers margined 
pale rufous; rump pure ashy ; upper tail-coverts blackish, tipped and 
margined white ; wings and tail dusky, the secondaries being narrowly, 
the tertiaries more broadly edged pale brown and tipped whitish ; wing 
coverts brownish, dusky in the centre, tipped whitish and forming 
two conspicuous bands ; all the tail feathers are margined pale; below 
uniform dull ashy, albescent on the vent; lower tail coverts dusky, 
broadly margined and tipped with pure white. The female has the 
entire top of the head light brown, the feathers being dusky centrally 
the ear coverts are pale ; otherwise it is coloured like the male. 

The specimens which I procured in summer, are more uniform 
dusky brown above, having all the pale edgings of the feathers much 
less distinct and the whitish bands on the wing coverts scarcely 

Length of wing 3| inches ; tail 2| inches ; bill dusky brown above, 
pale on the base and below ; legs greyish brown, irides fleshy brown. 

The form of the bill is scarcely different from that of a typical 
Montifringilla, but the hind claw is remarkably longer and like all 
the other claws very slender, and more similar to those of Fringillauda 
than to those of the former genus. 

I have not succeeded in identifying this species nor have I seen 
specimens of it in any of the European Museums, though it is compara- 
tively a common bird. . 

64 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

232. Mirafra cantilans, Je r d. (II. 420), is the only species of 
this genus which has been observed on the lesser ranges along the 
Sutlej valley ; it usually frequents grassy slopes of hills. 

233 Calandrella brachydactyla, Te m m., (II. 426) is common 
in the eastern portions of the valley, beyond Chini, and in winter also 

in the low hills. 

234. Alaudula raytal, Buch Ham., (II. 428) ; the typical 
smaller species was by me occasionally observed during the summer in 
Ladak, but it probably migrates farther to north ; in winter it arrives 
in Kulu and the north of India in larger numbers and is often caged. 

235. Alaudula pispoletta, Pallas, (II. 429), will stand as a 
distinct species ; it was procured by me near Korzog in Rupshu, but 
appears to be much rarer than the last species ; it most probably also 
migrates in winter to the lower hills and to the plains of North India. 

In general colouring, it is very like Al. raytal, except that the ear- 
coverts are more whitish, and the feathers on the head and nape very 
narrowly streaked dusky brown, while they are more distinctly streak- 
ed in the former species ; in size it is decidedly larger, the bill being 
in proportion rather long and slender, horny above, pale yellow 
below at the base, the upper mandible at the tip a little less curved ; 
legs fleshy brown ; length of wing 3f inches ; tail 2J inches. 

236. Otocoris longirostris, Gould, (II. 431), is common all 
through W. Tibet, where it usually remains all the year round, only 
few birds migrating to the lower hills or to the North of India. I found 
this species near the highest passes on the N. W. Himalayas, following 
the tracks of merchants on the snow and searching after gram. It 
has not been obtained by my shikarees at Kotegurh, but I am told that 
it is common in winter in eastern Bissahir, and Gould described it from 
a specimen, which is said to have been procured at Agra. Its song is 
remarkably like that of a true lark, for which it may very easily be 
mistaken from its voice only. 

237. Alauda leucoptera, P a 1 1 a s, occurs in eastern Bissahir 
near the extreme frontier of the Chinese territory. I have no- 
where observed Alauda triborhyncha, Hodgs., which ought to be 
considerably larger than the next species. 

238. Alauda gulgula, FranJcl (II. 434), is common all over 
W. Tibet and during the summer also in eastern Bissahir, migrating 
to the plains in winter. 

1S,; ' S -J 2t. W. llimalajja. 65 

239. Galerida oristata, L i n n. (II. 436), is often seen with the 
m ; it is not rare in the Indus valley about Lei. Both this and the 
former species often remain at Kotegurh during the winter. 


240. SPHENooeaora shiknurus, Vig. (III. 453), is the only 
species winch represents the family i„ the eastern portions of the 
butlej valley. It is found about Serahan in small flocks, and some- 
times proceeds even as far as Chini, being particularly f„,„l of 
mulberry fruits, g roves f those trees not being rare in any of the 
branch valleys ; elder and eln,-trec S equally are their places of retreat 
Je r d o n says that the third primary is not insinuate! in Sphenocvcm 
although it is unmistakeably so in the present species. 


241. Alsocouus IIonasoNir, Vig. (III. 463). The first and fourth 
qmlls are very nearly equal, the latter being a trifle longer, but both 
are shorter than the second and third, of which again the last one is 
somewhat longer than the previous; the second, third and fourth quills 
are msmuatedon the outer webs, the last one somewhat less than the 
two others. 

The plumage is rather variable in different specimens and at different 
seasons. The male has in winter the head and throat more whitish 
the vinaceous colour above more brown, the posterior part of the 
back, the wings and the tail greyish brown, and the white specks on 
the abdomen and the breast are large. In summer the head and throat 
are greyish, the vinaceous colour above purer and reddish, the white 
specks are at the same time less numerous; the abdomen, upper tail- 
coverts and tail are dark brown. 

The females have the head and body much paler than the males 
especially m winter, and the vinaceous colour is a good deal tinged with 
dull brown. 

This species is tolerably common near Chini and somewhat farther 

to east ; it feeds on berries and on different seeds on or near the ground 

During a whole fortnight I observed a small flock returning every 

v mug to the same tree (a Pavia indica), but the birds are very shy 

and difficu It to approach, as also stated by J . r do n. Many of tl 

l'fimmn of Tr^4^ i- -. . J 


-|aiu at Kotegurh even in winter, at which time they probably 
paitially live on seeds, partially on knops of trees. &c. 


66 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley, [No. 1, 

242 Palumbus casiotis,* Bo nap. (HI. 464), is very rare about 
Simla and Kotegurh ; it has been procured at the last place only in 
winter, and probably lives during the summer in the more eastern 
provinces of the valley and in Central Asia. 

243 Columb v intermedia, Strickl. (III. 469). This is of all 
pigeons the most common species and occurs all through the Sutlej 
valley, in Bissaliir, Spiti and all through W. Tibet. In Tibet it 
remains even during the winter, unless very large quantities of snow 
force it to search after food in the lower and western parts of the 
valley It is generally found near camping grounds and villages, 
occasionally ascending elevations up to 17,000 feet, but this only in 
cases, where it follows the grain-merchants towards the passes. 

I have not observed in the Sutlej valley Col. rupestris, but have 
seen it repeatedly on the Indus ; it is, however, by no means so 
common as the former species. 

244. Columba leuconota, Vig. (HI. 471), only occurs near the 
snows, on both sides of the principal range of the north-west 
Himalayas, (the Baralatse-range) ; it is often seen feeding with Col 
intermedia, Pyrhocorax alpinus and Fregilus (Himalayanm) some 
distance from villages, being always very shy and not usually migrating 
in winter, except within small limits of elevation. Wherever this 
and the previous species are seen together, the proportion of Col. 
leuconata to C. intermedia is about one to ten. 

245. Turtur rupicola, P all. (III. 476). This is in general 
colouring extremely like the European Tur. aurita, and I rather 
doubt their being specifically distinct ; it is very common all through 
the N. W. Himalayas, in summer preferring elevations between 6,000 
and 9,000 feet. In W. Tibet,f it is only found, where any shrubby 
vegetation exists, and not usually above 12,000 feet. 

246. Turtur meena, SyJces, (III. 477), is only found in summer 
on the lesser ranges and does not go far in the interior ; I have not 
seen it beyond Kotegurh. 

247. Turtur cambayensis, Cm el. (III. 478). I shot a specimen 

* See Ibis, 1867, p. 149. Blyth says the figure oiBonaparte represents 
a much darker coloured bird (Feb. 1868). 

f Ibis, 1867, p. 150. I do not remember of having seen any other dove in 
Tibet, than the T. rupicola (or aurita) and it is probable that Dr. Adams' T. 
orientalis, L a t h., only refers to this species, (Feb. 1868). 

1868.] JST. W. Himalaya. 67 

on the 26th August 1866, near Kotegurli, ami I was informed that 
this species breeds here, though it is very rare. 

248. Turtuii suratensis, G m e I. (III. 479), was met with in June, 
breeding near Gaora (beyond Rampoor) at an elevation of 7,000 feet ; 
I have not observed it, however, beyond Wangtu bridge and it 
certainly does not go eastwards beyond the limit of the arboreal 

249. Tcrtur risoria, Linn., (III. 481), is only found in the 
low hills, although occasionally ascending elevations of 6,000 feet, as 
for instance near Kotegurli, being, however, rather rare. 

250. Turtur humilis, T e m Di. (III. 482), was shot near 
Belaspoor on an elevation of about 2,000 feet, but I have never 
observed it in the interior of the hills. 

I also have not been successful in observing personally any species of 
the Sand-grouse, though Pterocles fasciatus is said to occur in the 
low hills along the Sutlej. I only obtained a few birds which were 
stated to have been shot in the Dhoon, south of Kangra. 


251. Pavo cristatus, L i n n. (III. 506), is commonly seen on eleva- 
tions of 1,000 and 2,000 feet, occasionally ascending up to 5,000 feet, 
but only in the Sub-Himalayan hills about Belaspoor. 

252. Lophophorus Impeyanus, L a t h., (III. 510). The Monal is 
now rather scarce during the summer under elevations of 8,000 feet, ge- 
nerally it is only to be found near the snows, or near the limit of the 
arboreal vegetation ; it occurs at those higher elevations throughout the 
valley extending from Simla as far east as Sungnum, where the last 
cedar forests are found, but it does not enter Tibet proper. In winter 
it descends lower in the valley down to 7,000, and in southern Kulu 
probably to 3,000 feet, for it is said to be common near the villages 
about Bijaura and Plash. 

253. Ceriornis melanocephala, Gray, (III. 517). The numbers 
of this beautiful pheasant are fast declining, and although it is said 
to have been formerly common near Simla at elevations of 5,000 and 
6,000 feet, it is now only found in the less visited and well wooded 
districts above 8,000 feet, and even here it is comparatively rare. 
Most of the birds sold in Simla are procured in winter, either on the 
Chur-mountain or in Kulu, where it is still tolerably common. Further 

6g Ornithological Observations in the Suthj valley, [No. 1, 

to east its geographical range is about the same as that of the Monal. 

254. Pucrasia macrolopha, L e s s. (III. 524), is not very common 
about Simla and Kotcgtirh, but oftener seen a little more eastwards, 
generally occurring on elevations between 5,000 and 10,000 feet. I 
could not receive any information, whether the species is found in the 
neighbourhood of Chini. It certainly does not occur in W. Tibet or even 
beyond the large forest. 

255. Phasianus Wallichti, Ha r d t* (III 527), is by no means 
a common bird and generally only met with at the same elevations el- 
even lower down than the last species ; it does not usually go beyond 
the Nachar forests towards east and is said to be very rare near Chini. 

256. Gallophasis albocrlstatus, V ig. (III. 532) ; common at 
elevations between 5,000 and 6,000 feet and often descending to 8,000 
and 2,000 feet ; it occurs at Chini (9,000 to 10,000 feet), though I have 
not been able to procure a specimen, and old skins which I saw had 
the black part of the plumage rather deep brown. 

257. Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Gray (III. 549), occurs all 
along the southern side of the Baralatse range ; it is rare at the 
head of the Wangur valley and above Chini, but more common east- 
wards, above Sungum and towards the Manirang pass, as also in North 
Kulu. In Spiti and Tibet it is usually met with during the summer at 
elevations of 14,000 to 15,000 feet, and is here much more frequently 
seen, than on the Indian side of that range. 

258. Tetraogallus tibbtanus, Gould (III. 554), is readily 
distinguished from the former by its smaller size and longer tail ; it 
occurs at the head of the Spiti valley and its smaller tributaries. The 
species must therefore be added to the Indian fauna proper. 

259. Lerwa nivicola, Ho d g s. (III. 555), is not uncommon along 
the Baralatse range of the N. W. Himalayas ; it occurs in Spiti, but 
I have not observed it farther north, in Rupshu. It is numerous in 
the north-western parts of Kulu during the winter, when it descends 
from the snowy range somewhat lower down, though it very rarely 
migrates as far south as Kotegurh. 

260. Francolintjs vulgaris, Steph. (III. 558), is common from 
the plains all along the lower ranges, ascending elevations up to 
about 9,000 feet ; it is not rare about Serahan, but I have not 
observed it beyond the Wangtu bridge. 

18C8 -] -ZV. W. Himalaya. gg 

261. CUocabis CHUIOB, ray, (III. 564) ; common all over the 
N. W. Himalayas and W. Tibet, where it ascends elevations up to 

14,000 feet, but in Tibet it generally prefers cultivated districts to tbe 
elevated and bare plateaus. 

The Tibetan specimens are usually much paler in colouring than 
those generally seen an tbe Indian side, and tbus very closely resemble 
the European type Oac. graea, of which in reality it can' hardly be 
culled more than a local variety. 

_ 202. Abboricoia tobqubola, Va I. (III. 577), is very solitary m 
Us habits and during the snmtner generally met with only near the 
taut ot trees or near tbe snows; it down to Kotcgurb, Simla 
and other places merely in winter; as soon as tbe snow begins to 
met on the higher ranges, it immediately retires fa, the interior. 

268. OOTDBNIX OOMMCBig, Bon a I. (III. 586) ; not rare on culti- 
vated grounds all along tbe lesser ranges, it ascends elevations up to 
about 5,000 feet, but very rarely extend, into tbe interior of the bills 
I observed it below Kotcgurb, and it is occasionally also obtained in tbe 
Kulu valley between 4,000 to 5,000 feet. 

One or two other species of quails occur in the low hills and in the 
Dhoons, but they do not enter tbe interior to any considerable distance 
Of these two orders scarcely any species permanently inhabit the 
Bntlej valley, their absence being due to the scarcity of marshy grounds 
With the exception of a few small places in the lower hills, where rice is 
cultivated. I may mention a few of the more common species, though 
there cannot be a doubt that a large number of others which migmte 
from tbe plains to Kashmir, Tibet or to northern Asia make at various 
times a short stay in different portions of the valley. The following 
species have been observed by myself, either in the spring or in the 
autumn; Ae.judiih pyrrhothorax, Numenius arquata, LUosa exm- 
Jhala, Chettusia gregaria, Totanus calidris, ActUis glareola, and 
A- hypoeucm, Eulica atra, Gallinula chhropus (an G. Bnmesi >) * 
BydroplananuscUmrgus, Podiceps cristas, Sterna U mn do, SteL 
lavmuca (all common in. Kashmir and Tibet), XemJ brm , 
mcephala (common on the Thsomoriri in Rupshu), Querela 
glooUans and Q. creeea, Ma,-eca Penelope, Ana S UueopthaUa (common ■ 
in Kashmir). 

* Not likely a different species. 

70 Ornithological Observations in the Sutlej valley. [No. 1, 

071 V««Hm cristate 31 eye r (III. 643), has been observed 
in the neighbourhood of Suket, it breeds at the beginning of May ; it 
is also not uncommon in the Indus valley about Lei, in W. Tibet. 

; L «™« ~, amel. (III. 618) is common on 
marshy riee fields all through the lower hills, especially about Belas- 
poor, extending in the Sutlej valley as far east as Rampoor, or up to 
elevations of about 4,000 feet. It does not go into Tibet. _ 

273. Sco t oP A x 1 «sT I co Li ,i-«.(ni.6T0 ) ,is ra the r eommoninthe 
Jests of the lesser ranges between 4,000 and 10,000 feet ; it breeds 
about and beyond Chini, and is occasionally seen also in _W Tibet 
it is common in winter in Kulu and along rivers in other valleys 
of the southern Himalayas. 

274 Gaixinaoo solitaria, Sodgs. (Ill 6 I 3), and 
7 5 : Oiu—o — , Bona P . (HI. 674), have both been 
procured in the southern part of Kulu and near Kotegurh during the 
winter though I never met the species here in summer. 

276 R™a bengals, Linn. (III. 677.) is rarely seen in 
the hills ; I procured a specimen on a marsh above Belaspoor (in Oc to- 
Z) and another one on the Wollar lake in Kashmir (in September). 

277 Acr ITI socH R oPUS,ii»».(in.698). Solitary specimens are 
always' met with along the Sutlej river ; the species is very common 

all through W. Tibet. 

278 Totals sxaonahs, Be cist. (III. 701), is still more com- 
mon than the last species, and at certain times of the year to be met 
with wherever there is a pool of water along the banks of rivers. 

279 Anser indicus, G m . I. (HI. 782), and 

2 a Casaroa m * - U. (HI. 791) , sol itary specimens 
both these species are occasionally seen in the »^™^*<H 
on the Sutlej river ; they breed in very large numbers on the lakes 
W. Tibet and Central Asia. _ . 

Many specimens of Gasarea, Anas and Anser remain even in wmtei 
,n Tibet, on places where the water of the lakes does not freeze on 
account of subterranean hot springs. 

1868.] On the intimate Structure of Muscular Fibre. 


On the intimate Structure of Muscular Fibre. 
By Dr. C- Macnamara. 

[Received 29th March, 1867.] 

I have this evening the honor to lay before the Society the results 
o£ some investigations I have recently been making regarding the 
minute anatomy of muscle. 

The muscular system, as is known, has commonly been divided 
into two classes, the striped or voluntary and the unstriped or 
involuntary muscle, but I can hardly consent to this division of the 
subject, because it appears to me that there is really no such thing in 
nature as a striped muscle, the muscular tissue as it is called, whether 
voluntary or involuntary, being composed of an homogeneous substance, 
the characteristic features of which are, that it contracts in obedience 
to the nervous force, its elements under every conceivable circumstance 
being arranged in such a manner as best to fulfil the mechanical 
purposes for which it is intended. Whether we examine it in the lens, 
in the walls of the blood vessels, intestines, or the heart we find in 
each instance such modifications in the dispositions of the contractile 
tissue as are best suited to the work it has to perform. 

It is, however, to the circumstances of voluntary muscle that I am 
now desirous of drawing your attention. This system forms the bulk 
of the limbs, and is the medium through which the movements of the 
skeleton and of the organs of sense are effected. 

Every muscle, whatever its dimensions, is composed of the external 
case of fibrous tissue from the inner surface of which numerous 
interlacing fibrous bands are given off, and in this fibrous matrix, 
the larger branches of the vessels and nerves ramify. These structures,' 
however, are to be found in every part of the body, and are by no 
means characteristic of muscle, the fibrous tissue allowing of motion 
among parts of the body which it also binds together; the vascular 
being the channels through which nutrint fluid is supplied and effete 
substances are removed from the organism, and the nerves in the case 
>f the voluntary muscle are the medium through which the mandates 
of the will are conveyed to the contractile tissue. It is therefore, to the 
substance contained within the sheath and filling the spaces between 

72 0,i the intimate Structure of Muscular Fibre. [No. 1, 

the fibrous matrix of muscle that I would direct your special attention. 
The prevalent ideas which histologic hold on this subject appear to 
be mainly derived from the investigations of Bowman and are weU 
defined in the following remark of Busk and Huxley, xn then 
translation of Kollikeris Histology. They observe « m a homogeneous 
I parent matrix definite particles are imbedded, the sarcoirs ehe 
me nts, which are arranged, side by side, in transverse rows. In some 
Ls the sarcous elements are all of one size, m others they are 
lately larger and smaller. The reason of this does not at present 
appear, hot it is possibly connected with the nutnt.on of he musch. 
The matrix usually tends to break up in longitudinal hands-tie 
fibrils-which have the diameter either of a single sarcous element or 
of some multiple thereof. It likewise tends to break up in the transverse 
direction giving way between the pairs of rows of sarcous element, ; 
"e cleavmg Hues are no indications of the existence of discs or 
fibrils as such in the unaltered muscle." The more one endeavours o 
comprehend the meaning of this passage the more perplexed n 
becomes, and in fact I have long since arrived at the condusmn 
the authors themselves did not comprehend the nature of the ap cm 
ances which they attempted to describe ; at any rate when they con 
to apply their anatomical description to the facts observed m th 
contrlion of a muscle, they are absolutely in fault, and p amly s tate 
they are ignorant of the process which takes place u. the fibrils dunng 

the consideration of these difficulties which led me to 

It was 

investigate the subject for myself, with a fiftieth o an inch leu. The 
magnifying power of this glass can be best comprehended when I state 
that a particle having a definite outline the TVJ f m of an rnch ,n size 
could be distinctly defined, and that an object three feet long would 
appear as high as Mount Blanc if it were possible to examine it under 

tlU I lave already noticed the relation of the fibrous sheaths and matrix 
to the contractile tissue; if we carefully examine the latter we shall 
find it to consist of bundles of contractile fibres, each fibre 
composed of two longitudinal bands running continuously from one 
end of the muscle to the other end, and connected throughout then 
length by spiral transverse bands, the whole being encased m a sheath 

J 868.] On the intimate Structure of Muscular Fibre. 73 

of homogeneous tissue. I believe therefore that a voluntary muscle 
consists of a matrix of fibrous tissue the interstices of which are filled 
up with contractile fibres such as I have just described, the largo? 
vessels and nerves ramifying in the fibrous matrix, but giving off 
numerous branches which spread themselves over the case of homo- 
geneous tissue which encloses each individual contracting fibre, so that 
the capillaries and ultimate branches of the nerves are brought into 
immediate contact with the contractile tissue. 

II this be the solution of the vexed question as to the minute anatomy 
of muscle, it certainly appears like many other things to be remarkably 
simple, when once we understand them, and to be another instance of 
the wonderful adaptation of means to an end, which is displayed in every 
part of the body. Evidently bands of simply elastic tissue could not per- 
form the functions required of a muscle, the increase in breadth of the 
muscles of a limb in contracting would, under these circumstances, 
exercise an injurious amount of pressure on the nerves and vessels of 
surrounding parts, and as the elastic bands became elongated, spaces 
would necessarily be left between them, which had previously been occu- 
pied by the bulk of the contracting muscle. All such anomalies are 
obviated by the beautiful arrangement I have now demonstrated, for in 
contraction the longitudinal bands must shorten on themselves drawing 
the transverse bands into close approximation, and these at the same 
time uncoil, each fibre therefore would increase in breadth exactly to 
the same amount which it lost in length. That such is the case with 
regard to the muscles of a limb as a whole, has been proved by repeated 
measurements. Mr. Bowman remarks « a muscle in the act of contract- 
ing becomes shorter and thicker, the changes being accurately 
proportioned to one another, the whole organ neither gaining nor 
losing in bulk." But the means by which these changes are effected 
have never been explained satisfactorily before, so far as I am aware. 
One can hardly be certain as to the active part taken by the transverse 
bands during muscular contraction. It is evident as the longitudi- 
nal bands are attached to fixed points at either extremity, that the 
tension or relaxation of the transverse bands would be sufficient of 
themselves by acting on the longitudinal bands to cause contraction 
or relaxation of the muscle ; and I am disposed to favour this idea, 
because we can thus easily conceive the means by which the remarkably 


74 On tie intimate Structure of Muscular Fibre. [Xo. 1, 

rapid actions Which muscle is capable of effecting are accomplished, 
it being kept in a state of perpetual tension depending on the action 
of its spiral transverse bands. The most casual observer moreover 
will at once perceive that through the mechanism I have endeavoured 
to describe, no puckering or pinching of any of these delicate structures 
can possibly occur, the parts being all admirably poised and adapted 
to one another. 

Time will not permit me to extend this principle to the case of the 
crystalline lens, but I am convinced that the lens is simply a mass of 
contractile bands arranged in such a manner that in contracting and 
dilating, the curve of its surfaces are capable of alteration, and its 
refractive powers thus modified, so as to enable it to bring both parallel 
and divergent rays of light to a focus on the retina. I cannot, however, 
close this paper without alluding to the fact that the minute anatomy 
of muscle I have delineated, evidently displays a source from whence 
animal heat may be derived. I need hardly say that much of Liebig's 
theory of the combustion of the hydrocarbons as being the chief if not 
only source of animal heat is fast falling to the ground under the 
assaults of modern chemistry. But in the action of a muscle, we have 
evidence of the existence of forces as capable of engendering heat as 
combustion, viz friction, compression, tension, and expansion,— they all 
necessarily giving rise to molecular motion and an equivalent amount 
of heat,— o x uite capable of keeping up the temperature of the blood to a 
healthy standard, and this, by constantly circulating throughout the 
body, would tend to equalize the temperature in all parts of the system. 
Many distinguished physiologists have supposed that the nervous force 
is analogous, if not identical, with electricity, and have pointed with 
triumph to the evidence of the excitation of electricity during muscular 
contraction; it appears to me, however, that we may easily explain the 
presence of electricity by the play of the forces above enumerated 
during muscular contraction : they must, in fact, induce electrical 
phenomena, and that independently of the nervous system which is 
simply the medium through which the mind acts. If therefore the 
consideration of the minute anatomy of muscle is attended with no 
other practical result, it serves to explain much that was before a 
mystery in the animal economy. It has not advanced our knowledge 
as to the influence which volition has over muscle, nor do I think 

1863.] On the intimate Structure of Muscular Mire. 75 

we can expect this. We have not the remotest conception of the 
nature of the active principle which maintains gravity or any other 
force in operation, though we may with advantage study the laws which 
govern these forces. All beyond this must at present be theory and 
speculation. And so with the voluntary muscles ; we have advanced a 
step in knowledge if we have gained a notion of their mechanical con- 
struction, but I have no more expectation of determining the nature of 
the subtle agency which sets the system at work through the nerves 
than I have of seeing the changes which occur in the molecules of an 
iron wire during the transit of an electric current through it. 




No. II.— 18G8. 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. IX,— Descriptions of new 
Dii'lommatin^/Vom Darjiling and the Kiiasi Hills.— By William 
T. Blanford, F. G. S., C. M. Z. S. Sfc. ; to accompany Captain 
Godwin-Austen's figure's ; see p. 83. 

[Eeceived 12th January, 1868.] 

Amongst a very large and interesting collection of land shells made 
by Captain Godwin Austen in the Khasi and Garo Hills are several 
undescribed forms, and of these no less than 6 belong to the genus 
Diphmmaiina, two forms of which, from the same neighbourhood, 
were described by Mr. Benson some years ago, from the collections 
made by Mr. Theobald in 1856. I hope to describe some of the 
other novelties shortly, but as Captain Godwin- Austen has figured 
the species of Diplommatina, not only of the Khasi Hills but also of 
the Himalayas, both Eastern and Western, and of Burma, from 
typical specimens in his own and my collections, I describe the new 
species thus figured at once. 

Most unfortunately, one of the most remarkable of Captain Godwin- 
Austen's discoveries, the very interesting sinistrorse species figured in 
PI. III. fig. 3. has been lost, the only specimen obtained having been 
crushed during transmission by post. I therefore refrain from giving 
the species a name, for, although there can be no reasonable question 


78 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. IX. [No. 2, 

of its distinctness, and although, from the exeellenee of ^rawing* 
m ade of it, it is improbable that there would be any difficulty m 
recognising it again, still the practice of describing shells from draw- 
ings is so objectionable, and has led to so much confusron, tha I do 
not think it should be permitted, except where the draughtsman 
himself is the describes* _ 

This unnamed form and the remaining simstrorse kind which 1 
have called D. giUosa, arc the first reversed species yet found in he 
Eastern portion of the British possessions in India. From the West- 
em Himalayas, D. Suttoni has been known for many years, and it is 
curious and interesting to find that both dextrorse and simstrorse 
JMtommati^, occur in the Khasi Hills, as well as at the North- 
western extremity of the known range of the genus. Captain God- 
win-Austen's extensive researches have raised the number of forms 
from the Khasi Hills to 8, viz., 6 dextrorse and 2 sinistrorse, or one 
more than all the species hitherto collected in both the Eastern and 
Western Himalayas, even when the new form from Daijiling is in- 

" "This new form, now first described, was found by myself in 1856, 
but the few individuals procured, remained unnoticed amongst my 
numerous specimens of D. pachycheilus, Bens., until lately I now 
give a description of it, in order to complete, so far as possible, the 
list of Indian and Burmese Diphmmatinw. 


Testa dextrorsa non rimata, ovato-comca, solidiuscula, albida vel 
sueeinea. Spira conica, subattenuata, apice acutiusculo, sutura 
superne mediocriter impressa, subtus profunda. Anfr. 7 convexi, 

wWh the orieinal drawing was taken, belonged to one ot the species smoe 
£ X e L IS the drawfng was carefnlly made, and the desenber a natura. 
b^Tas carefnl and eonscientions as Mr. Benson. What errors may be com. 
miled bv less oarefnl natnralists may be understood by studying the h.story 
Tlrtlus cucullatus in Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II. m. 56, 872 
Of course there are parts and important parts of animals, such as the _so 

1868.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. IX. 79 

primi costulati, postremi kevigati, antepenultimus major, ventricosus, 
penultimus juxta aperturam leviter constrict™, ultimus antice ascen- 
dens, subtus rotundatus. Apertura verticals late auricularis, peris- 
toma incrassato-expansum, subduplex vel duplex, margine dextro 
subrecto, columellari sinuato, angulo saliente subtus desinente basali 
juxta angulum fere concavo, dente columellari valida, callo parietali 
mediocriter expanso, tenui, appresso. 

Long. 4, diam. 2 mill. ; Ap. cum peristomate 1} mill, longa, intus 
1 lata. 

This shell is easily distinguished from its congener D. party cleilus, 
Bens., by the greater tenuity of the antepenultimate whorl,* the 
absence of sculpture on the lower whorls and the more prominent 
angle at the left lower corner of the peristome. This last character 
in D. semisculpta is rather stronger than appears in the figure. The 
present species is much more closely allied to D. dijjlocheilus, Bens., 
which it resembles greatly in sculpture and form. The principal dis- 
tinction is in the peristome which is much less developed in B. semi- 
sculpta, the parietal callus being quite thin and appressed instead of 
standing out from the last whorl as in that species. The mouth also 
is larger in proportion, the angle at the base of the columellar margin 
more salient, and the spire more acuminate. It would not, however 
be surprising if intermediate varieties should be found to connect these 
two forms. 

2. D. scalaria, n. sp. PI. II. fig. 2. 

Testa dextrorsa, nonrimata, ovato-acuminata, subfusiformis, costulis 
validis verticalibus distantibus ornata, pallide succinea. Spira cornea, 
sub-turrita, apice subacuto, sutura valde impressa. Anfr. 7 rotundati. 
duo primi laevigati, tertius confertim-, caeteri distanter-costulati, 
antepenultimus major, tumidus, ultimus versus aperturam ascendens, 
basi rotundatus. Apertura subverticalis, leviter sursum spectans, 
late auricularis, plica columellari mediocri intus munita : perist. 
duplex, internum continuum, expansum, externum expansum, fere 
retro-relictum, margine dextro juxta anfractum penultimum sinuato, 
tunc angulatim antice porrecto, subtus una cum basali recto, columel- 
i lari verticali, subtus angulo obtuso desinenti, callo parietali expanso, 
superne suturam fere attingente. 

* In Pfeiffer the length of D. pachyclieilus is given as 4 mill., diam. 2£. 
The length should be 5 mill. 

80 Contributions to Mian Malacology, Xo. IX. [No. 2, 

Long. 31, diaui. 2 mill. Apertwa c. peristoma*) vix 1J mill, 
longa, diam. intus circa §. 

Hab. rarissime ad Habiang in montibus Garo dictis, ad latus oc- 
cidental montium Khasi. (H. Godwin- Austen.) 

In sbape this form approaches the Darjiling D. Blarfordu, na, 
Bens, but may easily be distinguished by the distant and promment 
sculpture. But two specimens were found. 
3. D. labiosa, n. sp. PI. II, fig. 3. 

Testa dextrorsa, non rimata, ovato-acuminata, pallide succinea, soli- 
dula Spira attenuato-conica, subturrita, apice acutiusculo, sutura 
impressa. Anfr. 7*-8 convexi, primi confertim costulati, 3 ultmu 
tevigati, nitiduli, antepenultimus major, ultimus versus aperturam 
interdum subdistanter costulatus, antice ascendens. Apertura verticals, 
late anricnlaris, subcircularis, plica columellari valida mumta ; peri- 
stoma rectum, incrassatum, subtriplex, externum valde expansum, 
internum expansum, sulcatum, subduplex, margine columellari brev>, 
subsinuato, snbtus angulo vix saliente desinente ; callo panetah, 
tenui, mediocriter expanso. 

Long. 3f, diam. vix 2 mill. Ap. 0. peristomate 1J mrll. longa, 

aiam. intus circa f. _ 

Hab. Mayong et Hahiang in montibus Khasi et Garo dictis. 

(H. Godwin-Austen.) 

This shell is, in some respects, intermediate hetween D.pacly- 
aheilns, Bens, and D. diploeheil*,, Bens. It has the general form of 
the first hut resembles the last in its smooth lower whorls. The 
peristome is largely developed and peculiar, the inner portion being 
flatly expanded and almost divided into two portions by a groove, 
so that the whole lip is almost triple. 
4 D. eiBBOSA, n. sp. PI. II. fig- 4. 

Testa sinistrorsa, vix suhrimata, gibhoso-ovata, tnmida, succinea, 
lievieata, parum nitida, tenuiuscula. Spira supra conoidea, sutura 
valde impressa, apice obtusiusculo. Anfr 5. antepenultimus major, 
ventricosns, ultimus subtus rotundatus, alte ascendens. Aper- 
tura obliqua subelliptica, plica columellari valida obliqua mumta, 
infra plicam excavata ; peristoma leviter sinuatum, expansum, duplex, 
-ternum retro relictum, internum continuum, patens, callo panetali 
Wo, suturam fere attingente. Long. 3, diam. l|mill. Ap. c. penst. 
11 mill, longa, intus vix I lata. 

1868.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, JSTo. IX. 81 

Hab. Habiang in montibns Garo (H. Godwin- Austen). 

This very interesting species differs widely in form from the only 
previously described sinistrorse Diplommatina inhabiting India, 
D. Huttoni, Pfr., more widely than it does from some of the reversed 
forms met with in the Oceanic region. It shews a considerable 
resemblance in form to D. Martensi, H. Ad., of unknown locality, 
figured in the Proc. Zool. Soc. for 1866, but which is said by its 
describer to belong to the section Diancta* of Martens, charac- 
terised by a constriction at the back of the penultimate whorl. In 
D. gibbosa as in most Indian Diplommatince, there is a slight tendency 
to constriction in front of the penultimate whorl, to which an internal 
rib appears to correspond, but which is covered and concealed to a 
great extent, by the parietal callus of the peristome. 

5. D. Austeni, n. sp. PI. III. fig. 2. 

Testa dextrorsa non rimata, conico-ovata albida vel succinea. Spira 
superne conica, non attenuata, sutura impressa, apice obtusiusculo. 
Anfr. 6, primi 3 gradatim crescentes, confertim minute costulati, 
ultimi laevigati vel costulis subobsoletis signati, antepenultimus major, 
ultimus aliquando lineis subdistantibus versus aperturam signatus, 
antice ascendens, subtus rotundatus. Apertura verticalis oblique 
subovalis ; perist. incrassatum, mediocriter expansum, duplex, margine 
columellari verticali, angulo aperto subtus desinente, basali rotundato, 
plica columellari mediocri, callo parietali expanso. 

Long. 2J, diam. 1J, mill. Apertura c. perist. 1 mill, longa, intus 
§ lata. 

Hab. Cherra Poonji et Maotherichan in montibus Khasi (W. 
Theobald et H. Godwin- Austen). 

I, some years ago, received a specimen of this species from Mr. 
Theobald as D. polypleuris, Bens. On comparing the series of 
Diplommatincd collected by Captain Godwin-Austen with Mr. Benson's 
description, it is evident that the type of that species belonged to a 
different form, found abundantly by Captain Godwin-Austen with 
the present species on the Maotherichan ridge, part of the Northern 
scarp of the Khasi hills, and distinguished from the present form by 

* From the description however of D. constricta, Martens, the type of 
Diancta, that species would appear to possess peculiarities not shared by 
Mr. Adams' species. 

82 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. IX. [No. 2, 

its much stronger sculpture, less conical spire, deeper suture and 
rounder mouth. It is also a smaller form. Mr. Theobald's type specimens 
of D.polypleuris were from Nanclai, also on the northern portion of the 
Khasi plateau. D. Austeni varies considerably in the sculpture of 
the lower whorls, which are in most specimens, quite smooth. One 
individual sent is considerably more tumid than the type, but 
presents no other difference of importance. 
6. D. oligopleuris, n. sp. PL III- %• 4. 
Testa dextrorsa, non rimata, conico-ovata, costis distantibus 
obliquis ornata, fulvescenti-albida. Spira cornea, apice obtuso, sutura 
impressa. Anfr. 6, rotundati, antepenultimus major, tumidiusculus, 
ultimus antice ascendens, subtus rotundatus. Apertura verticalis, late 
auricularis, plica columellari valida munita ; perist. rectum, duplex, 
internum antice porrectum, expansulum, externum late expansum, 
margine columellari verticali, callo parietali mediocri. Long. 2, diam. 
vix 11 mill. Ap. c. perist, f mill, longa. 

Hab. Teria Ghat ad latus meridionale montium Khasi. (H. Godwin- 

This is evidently a peculiar type. In some specimens the 
sculpture on the lower whorls appears to be more or less obsolete. 
The form is not unlike that of polgpleuris and Austeni but it is easily 
recognised by its strong distinct costulation. In this character it 
resembles D. scalaria. 

The smooth or spirally Urate Diplommatince of Southern India I 
have proposed to distinguish as a subgenus under the name Nicida. 
This will include, 

Diplommatina (Nicida) Nilgirica, W. and H. Blanf. Nilghiris. 


D. (Nicida) Xingiana, W. and H. Blanf., Kolamullay ; and the 

following additional species. 
D. (Nicida) Fulnegana, n. sp. a less tumid form than D. Kingiana 

with more convex whorls, deeper sutures, oblique aperture and a 

non-ascending last whorl. It has no basal keel. Common on the 

Pulney hills where Mr. Fairbank obtained it. 
D. (Nicida) nitidula, n. sp., a tumid species, more so than any other 

met with, and with flattened whorls, Found in the Wynaad by 

Capt. Beddome. 

1868.] Figures of Indian Diplommatina. 83 

D. (Nicida,) Fairbanki, the largest form yet found in Southern India 
3} millimetres in length. It has 7 J whorls and resembles a lengthen- 
ed specimen of D. Nilgirica. The last whorl rises to an unusual 
extent and there is a basal keel. From the Pulney hills (Rev. S. 

D. {Nicida) liricincta, a conoidly ovate shell with marked spiral 
ribbing, being the only species so far as I am aware yet found be- 
longing to the Diplommatinidce which possesses spiral sculpture. 
Found abundantly at Khandalla with Cyathopoma Deccanense. 
The new species are described in a paper recently sent to the 

Journal de Conchyliologie. 

Fibres of the species of Diplommatina, Benson, hitherto described 
as inhabiting the Himalayas, Kiiasi Hills and Burma, with 
some additional forms from Darjiling and the Khasi Hills. — 
By Captain H. H. Godwin- Austen, F. G. S. &c. 

PI. I. Himalayan species. 

Fig. 1, Diplommatina folliculus, Pfr. typical form, Mastiri. 
,, 2, Do. Do. var. — Kalunga, Deyra Doon. 

„ 3, D. Huttoni, Pfr. — Masiiri. 
„ 4, D. costulata, Hutton, — ditto. 
„ 5, D. pacliycheilus, Bens. — Darjiling. 
„ 6, D. semisculpta, W. Blanford, n. sp. — ditto. 
,, 7, D. pallida, Bens. — ditto. 
,, 8, Sa, D. Blanfordiana, Bens. — ditto. 
PI. II. K h a s i H i 1 1 species. 

Fig. 1, la, D. diplocheilus, Bens.— Teria Grhat. 
„ 2, 2a, D. scalaria, W. Blanford, n. sp. — Habiang. 
„ 3, Sa, D. labiosa, W. Blanford, n. sp.— Northern por- 
tion of plateau. 
„ 4, 4«,46, D. gibbosa, W. Blanf. n. sp. Habiang. 
PI. III. Khasi Hill species, continued. 

Fig. 1, D. polypleuris, Bens.— Northern portion of plateau. 
„ 2, 2a, D. Austeni, W. Blanf. n. sp. Cherra Poonjee, &c. 

84 Notes on Tangong lake district of LadaH. [No. 2, 

Fig. 3, 3a, 35, D. a. sp— Nongsingriang. 

4, 4«, 45, Z>. oligoplcuris,W. Blanf. n. sp.—Teria Gliat. 

5, 5a, animal of D. folliculus, Pfr. Deyra Doon variety. 
PL IV. Burmese species. 

Fig. 1, la, D. sperata, W. Blanford, Arakan Hills, west of 

2, 2a, B. Puppensis, W. Blanford, Puppa Hill, Upper 


3, 3a, D. exilis, W. Blanford, Mya Leit Doung, near 


4, 4a, D. wo^«, W. Blanford, Akoutoung, Pegu. 
(For descriptions of new species, see last paper.) 

Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh, from journal made in 
1863.-% Captain H. H. Godwin-Austen, F. R. G. S., Topogra- 
phical Surveyor. 

[Received 16th June, 1866.] 

To the north of the Indus, from its junction with the Bras river, 
lies a high range of mountains which separate the Indus drainage from 
that of the Shayok or Nubra river. The axis and great mass of this 
range is granitic ; on the west this extends to within a very short 
distance of the river, while at Pituk below Leh, the granite hill on 
which that large and well-known monastery stands abuts on the 
Indus itself, and thence towards the east for a considerable distance 
it holds the same position. The great mass of coarse sandstones, 
red clays, grits, and conglomerates seen on the right bank of the 
Indus, west of Pituk, are now seen on the left or south bank, thence 
to the east in the direction of Stock and Himis. On the above 
granite range are several passes leading into the Shayok valley, all 
of great elevation, and on the direct road from Leh to the Pangong 
lake are two, viz., the " Chang La," and the " Kay La," both 
high, being respectively 17,470 and 18,250 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

The ascent to the first is gradual from the village of Tagar in 
the Ghimray valley, which there divides into two large ravines, 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVLLPt. II. 

PL I. 

m i 


Pig. 1 Diplommatina folliculus Pfr. 5 

2 do - do. do. var. 6 

"3 D. Huttoni, Pfr. 7 

" 4 !>• costulata. Hutton. a 

D. pachycheilus. Benson, 

D. seraisculpta. n. sp. 

D. pullula. Bens. 

D. Blanfordiana. Bens, 

Photozinco. Stirv. Genl's Office, Calcutta, 

urnal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVLLPt. II. 


U A 


Fig. 1. la. D. diplocheilus. Bens. 

.. 2. 2a. D. 

scalana. n. sp. 

„ 3. 3a, D. labiosa. n. sp. 
„ 4. 4a. 4b. D. gxbbosa. n. sp. 

Photoziaco. Surv. Geni's Office, Calcutta, 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVII.Pt. II, 







, / 




„ 2. 2a. 
„ 3. 3a. 3b. 


D. polypleuns. Bena, 

D. ? 

D. n. sp. 

4. 4a. 4b. 4c. D. oligopleuris. n. sp. 

5« 5a. D. folliculus. Ptr. ^animal) 

Photozinco. Sunr. Genl'e Office, Calcutta;. 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVU.Pt. II. 

PI. IF. 








Pig. 1. la. D. sperata. W. Blanf. 
„ 2. 2a. D. Puppensis. W. Blanf. 

3. 3a. D. exilis W. Blanf. 

4. 4a- D. nana W. Blanf. 

Photozinco. Stirv. Geni's Office, Calcutta, 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladalch. 85 

the western branch leading to the Wuri La, while the eastern runs 
up to the two passes above-mentioned. On the 15th July, when our 
party crossed the Chang La, the snow that had fallen in the early 
part of the month still lay covering about three miles of the road, 
and being fresh, it was glaringly white in the sun and much affected 
the eyes of our servants and the coolies, while all suffered more or 
less from the effects of the rarified air ; curious to say, on the return 
journey via the Kay La, 800 feet higher, scarcely a man suffered from 
this cause ; we had then been living for some time at a high altitude, 
which very probably had not a little to say to our immunity from the 
fatigue and headache engendered at high elevations. The mountains 
on the northern side are perfectly bare, a little grass growing only 
along the bottom of the valley which had a steady easy slope the 
whole way to Durgo ; a small tarn lies near the encamping ground 
below the pass, and another somewhat larger is passed about a mile 
further down the valley, and the scenery is not remarkable save for 
its huge scale and bleakness. Before reaching the village of Durgo 
one emerges out of the narrow valley upon the level surface of one 
of those large accumulations of alluvial sands and shingles that are 
seen along the large valleys of these mountains; the powerful force 
that accumulated the materials that form them is now extinct, and 
the circumstances attending their formation, and more wonderful 
subsequent denudation, are as yet but little understood. At this 
spot the vast scouring process was well exemplified, the level of the 
plateau on which I stood could be traced across the valley in and out 
of its numerous ravines in a perfectly horizontal line of a different 
colour, where very small portions of the alluvium still adhered to the 
slopes and precipices ; and I do not think I am exaggerating when 
I state that its thickness at the junction of the streams below Durgo 
was over 1,500 to 2,000 feet. Traversing the level surface of this 
plateau for about a mile its edge is reached, and Durgo with 
the valley up to Tankse is then clearly seen, a narrow green belt near 
the river with barren easy slopes thence to the foot of the hills. 

The whole valley is very open,- low cliffs of alluvial sands and clays 
can be traced the whole distance on both sides,— and it is self-evident 
that at no very distant period this presented a long reach of water. An 
after sojourn on the Pangong fully confirmed this; it was in fact 


86 Notes on the ***»» hhe district of Ladahh. [No. 2, 

a drained portion of that line of lake ; perhaps caused by some local 

slteration in the levels of the country. 

CDnrgo to Tankse is a distance of eight miles and the ; road 
aufteTevel The stream is considerable and contains a small W of 
II of wl hi saw numbers at the Durgo bridge. The road follows 
le righl bank for nearly the whole distance, mountains rise to a great 

t . ; ie village of this name is large and a veryfiur area , 
Ider cultivation-lucerne grass grows In— ly. Many oh 
houses are built close under a large mass of conglomerate, the stones 
fi l y cemented in it, and to this cause it must owe its present -- 
tence at the month of the narrow gorge towards the Pangong, ? out of 
w hich the soft beds have been washed away. The remains of an old 
fortified post still cover the upper portion of tins conglomerate^ 
The main stream comes from the southward, and drain, the Lung 
Xnghma valley and the mountains on the north of the Indus ^ river 
It I joined at Tankse by the small stream that drams the valley up 
which! road to the Pangong runs ; this is at «**-;-£ 
confined by the mountains that rise in cliffs on either bud, but wheie 
it takes the more direct easterly direction it opens out considerably , 
feh cliffs of the alluvial shingly deposits again occur, forming a belt at 
foot of the mountains of the northern side about 300 feet h,gh and 
some 400 yards distant from the stream. Muglib, where I halted, 
about 11 miles from Tankse, is a very small place. At tins point . 
broad belt of green pasture land extends along the valley, and through 
it the little clear stream finds its way in a very tortuous course, bu 
above Muglib this green belt becomes very swampy and on it several 
Brahmini duck were seen. The stream above flowed over a stony 
debris from the hills, with occasional patches of grassy and watery 
ground, and at about three miles the road passes two little tarns; 
these had been evidently larger at that season of the year when the 
snows are melting, or after an extra amount of rain has fallen, lne 
physical appearance of the whole length of this valley showed un- 
Lstakable signs of its having at one period been the bed of a lake 
and I am induced to think for a portion of that time continuous with 
the portion below Tankse and that the mass of alluvial above Dingo 

18G8.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladahh. 87 

was contemporary with that above Muglib. Above the two lakes, 
Tragume Bur Tso, there is no longer any water in the bed of the 
stream save at intervals here and there, where it breaks out in a small 
rill to lose itself in the loose gravel a few yards lower down. Over 
distances of more than a mile it is deep white sand, the collection of 
which is a good deal due to the wind. Down to this sand the talus 
from the mountains extends tending every year to increase the height 
of level. At the low pass of Surtokh, whence one obtains the first 
view of the Pangong lake, this action is nowhere so well seen ; this 
ridge of Surtokh forms the watershed across the natural exit for the 
waters of the great lake and is entirely formed by the loose shingle 
brought down a somewhat large lateral ravine from the snowy peaks 
to the south : this bed of talus actually divides, part to the eastward, 
part to the west, as exemplified in the sketch annexed (Fig. 1), so 
that the waters may in some years flow one way, in others another. 
If the supply of water to the Pangong lake were equal to what it 
must formerly have been when the glaciers were double their present 
size, the continual flow of water would soon carry off these talus 
accumulations from the mountains above Surtokh ; there being now 
no force in action for this purpose, the snows of winter and the waters 
of the side ravines tend to raise the main valley level every year. 
The Pangong Tso (lake) is about two and a half miles distant from 
the low ridge of the Surtokh La, or more properly speaking, its 
natural bar or bund, but the level of the old lake bed extends up to 
within a very short distance of the pass. A rise of 150 feet ;n the 
waters of the present lake would find them again an exit down the 
valley to Tankse. A Trigonometrical station lies close to the water's 
edge, it bears east-south-east from a rock, a quarter mile distant out 
in the lake, and is marked with a stone having the usual dot and 
circle cut on it ; its height has been determined trigonometrically to 
be 13,931 feet above the sea. From this mark-stone, a fine view of 
the first long reach of this elevated and interesting piece of water is 
obtained. Its colour is of an intense blue, the water as clear as crystal, 
but far too saline to be drinkable ; there was quite a true salt water 
feel in the air as the wind blew off it. This was a good site froiri 
which to form a commencement of my survey work, as knobs and 
peaks were seen for many a mile along the spurs that descended from 


Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladalch. [No. % 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh. 89 

the ranges bounding the northern shores. From the height at which 
one stood these all appeared comparatively low ; only on the highest 
lay a few small patches of snow, thence to their bases was one succession 
of shades of yellows, purples, reds and browns, the invariable colouring 
of Tibet-not a scrap of green. My intention was to proceed along 
the northern shore as far as it was possible, and eventually to turn 
north, and work round into Chang Chungmo. But it being necessary 
first to see something of the south side also, I left the supplies and 
sepoys at the spot where we had first struck the lake; and taking 
one small tent, I marched on, skirting the southern shore towards 
a low point that runs clown to and overlooks the whole of the western 
end, and forms the termination of the longest spur from the lofty 
snow-bound range, which forms the southern watershed of this basin." 
Late in the afternoon we reached a very small patch of cultivation, 
with some two or three wretched huts called Spang Mik, and the' 
next morning, by 9 a. m., reached the foot of the low point, named 
by the Survey Pankong (b) Hill Station. For so high an elevation, 
a considerable amount of green grass, Tibetan furze, and cultivation 
occurs on the west side of the hill, having a few houses scattered 
about it, forming the village of « Mun," the largest in the Pangong 
district. I ascended from it to the station by a short easy pull of 
some 1,000 feet above the lake, obtaining a most commanding view, 
up and down it, across to the spurs of north bank and high up among 
the snowy peaks to the south, where small glaciers just show their 
noses above the masses of the old moraines, which extend down to 
the ancient level of the lake. Little streams flow down these steep 
inclines like silver threads from the ends of these glaciers, to finally 
lose themselves in the silt and sands that skirt the edge of the lake, 
for only the most considerable of these streams find an exit in its 
waters. Such is the one that flows through the little oasis of Mun; 
it owes its size to the streams from three glaciers uniting some dis- 
tance above the village. The silt brought down by these, has formed 
a miniature delta, or arm of shallow water, running out into the lake. 
In the course of a conversation with the coolies and men of Mun, 
I learnt that some three or four marches further on, the lake narrowed 
to a mere stream which was fordable, and that it was not necessary 
to follow the northern shore, where ran besides the worst road. I 

90 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladahh. [N°- 2 > 

changed my route, sent back for the supplies and camp at Spang Mik, 
and late in the evening, they had all arrived. Other advantages 
accrued by following the south shore, viz., that I saw more of my 
ground without having to ascend to very high peaks, there was 
plenty of water and wood as far as the Chushal river, and the villages 
extended farther. On the other hand, the northern shore » very 
bare, and water is only obtainable by digging holes close to the edge 
of the lake, into these water percolates, but only slightly less saline. 
On the 22nd July, my march lay over the sandy, stony plain, skirt- 
ing the shore of the Pangong, crossing two or three ravmes, where 
actions are well displayed of former and higher levels of its waters 
in sands, interstratified with an angular rubble like that distributed 
over the present surface. At about eight miles from Man, the strag- 
gling village of Meruk is passed on the right hand, and the last on the 
Take Karkpet is three miles further. The level ground between the 
shores and the foot of the mountains increases much in breadth 
as one proceeds east, and the stream from Chushal gives, from a dis- 
tance, no signs of its proximity, and I was rather surprised on coming 
suddenly upon a fine body of water, flowing with a quiet current through 
a narrow belt of green grass some 10 feet below the surface of the 
plain. Finding plenty of wood and a nice green sheltered spot 
nnder the bank, I pitched camp by the side of it. 

The extent of level ground here is considerable, quite ten square 
miles, dotted over in the vicinity of the stream with a few low bushes 
and over the rest grows a scanty coarse grass in tufts. Towards the 
shore of the lake rise two very conspicuous isolated low rocky knobs a 
mile apart, and between these is the confluence of the Chushal stream 
and the Pangong Tso. The next morning I walked across and ascend- 
ed the most eastern eminence, having the strange sounding name o 
Tuggh Nuggu. This had formerly been a fortified post, the level 
space at the top was enclosed by a low stone wall, while a detached 
out-work had been built on the low spur that ran out on the east 
side- none of my coolies, who were all from this district of Pangong, 
could give any account of it, as to when or by whom it had been 
built; it must be comparatively an ancient work, still considering how 
soon events are forgotten by such men, its age may be only 150 to 
200 years. It was a lowering morning; and before I had finished 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh. 91 

my survey work from this position, it came on to rain hard, which 
we sat out on the top ; the shower passed off up the lake, and it had 
a fine effect on the view in that direction, with the lines of falling 
rain over the expanse of water, and the misty mountains bounding 
its sides. The state of the plain which, when dry, is covered with 
a hard incrustation of lime and a salt, that crackles under the feet, 
had now by the wet been turned into a sticky loam that adhered to 
the boots in huge lumps, and remained like a cement upon every 
thing it came in contact with. One and a half miles beyond IWffu 

XT v 1 OS^ 

JNuggu low spurs abut upon the lake in cliffs of 150 to 200 feet 
high, and the way leads along the narrow shore at their foot, with 
very deep water washing the bank. Passing one large bay we round- 
ed a low narrow point of beach only to find the existence of another 
bay, called Phursook : this forms the boundary between the Kashmir 
Rajah's territory and the Chinese district of Rudokh. Phursook 
formed a circular sheltered little lake in itself, a narrow strait only 
connects it with the water outside. It was evidently of great depth 
in places where the hills came down in cliffs upon it, a narrow beach 
ran along the foot of these formed of talus cemented by lime. The 
bay formed a perfect harbour, in which a line of battle-ship might 
have floated, and sailed in and out of. . Were this lake in a less ele- 
vated region, or on a line of trade, how useful would the water com- 
munication prove up and clown the extent of its two long portions. 
The first or lower lake is 40 miles in length ; the second 33, giving 
a total of 73 miles, exclusive of the upper long portion beyond Tso 
Nyak, whieh is quite 18 miles. 

I shall not detail each day's march, winding in and out of the bays 
of this long length of water, but will attempt to give a general de- 
scription of it, connected with which are several points, both curious 
and interesting. 

The first that must strike any one of observation is the evidence 
of this lake having been formerly fresh for its entire length. Myriads 
of dead fresh-water shells now strew the shore : these, thrown up by 
the waves in a long white ridge, lie so thick in some of the bays they 
can be taken up in handsfull. They are principally of Lymncea and 
Planorbis ; but though I searched diligently, I never found a large 
bivalve, only one very tiny Pisidium that I found inside one of the 

92 Notes on the Pangong lake district of LadaJch. [No. 2, 

specimens of Lymncea ; nor did I ever find a living specimen, which 
I had hoped to do in the upper lakes, where the water was very 
sightly' brackish. When these shells existed, the former lake most 
have had quite a different aspect from its present one, and m it must 
have grown for the sustenance of these molluscs beds of water plants 
while its banks would have been fringed probably witk grass and 
rushes In the lower lake there is not a vestige of any sort or kind 
of plant, the beautifully blue clear water washes a bank of sand and 
pebbles, the latter perfectly free even of alga,. This is not the case 
heyond Ote, where the water is much less salt, there the stones under 
water are extremely slippery and covered with vegetable growth. At 
this part also, patches of a coarse water weed are also seen here and 
there along the shore, hut not growing luxuriantly, and evidently 
making a struggle for existence. The waters of the western end are 
far more salt than those of that near Ote, noticeable even to the taste, 
hut it is not until the stream that connects the two portions is fairly 
entered that it is by any means drinkable ; thence for the whole dis- 
tance eastward, we used the lake waters save when we had the luck 
to find a spring of really fresh. By looking out carefully, we discover- 
ed springs in three places flowing out from under the bank; and m 
one spot, these springs were bubbling up for some distance out into 
the lake, rendering the water quite fresh around. It was quite a 
pleasure to see the poor yaks who carried our baggage take their fill 
of it when for three days they had drank nothing but salt water. 
A curious feature of the Pangong is the almost entire absence of 
streams, whose waters find an exit in it, considering the great area 
that some of them drain ; for, with the exception of the few glacial 
rills and the Chushal stream on its south shore, and the stream at the 
extreme west end, from the Marse Mik La, there are none. The northern 
shore is particularly dry, not a single rill joins it for its entire distance, 
until arriving at " Pal," on the upper lake ; and the same may be 
said of the southern shore, from the Chushal river to Ote, and foi 
many miles beyond. Many of the ravines have their sources at i 
considerable distance, but near the lake have broad dry beds from 
2 to 3, and up to 500 yards in breadth of rubble and sands. I may 
instance the very large lateral ravine at Ote, the longest branch of 
which runs back into the snowy mountains of Chang Chungmo, for 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong hike district of Ladakh t 93 

a distance of 40 miles, draining altogether an area of nearly 400 square 
miles. The silt which in former times has been carried down from 
the above area has formed the plain of Ote, the broad barrier to what 
would otherwise be a continuous long reach of water. This was no 
doubt the old configuration of the lake, for a rise of some 12 feet 
would cover the greater part of the Ote plain even now. In nearly 
all the higher ravines, water is plentiful, and glaciers of the second 
order are seen, but the streams are all sopped up in the broad bed 
of the main valley which acts like a perfect sponge ; the stream breaks 
out occasionally here and there only to hide itself a few hundred yards 
down, the last water seen being above the fort of " Lanakh-khur," 
but it nowhere is seen to flow into the lake, being lost in the sands 
of the plain. 

Another point in the history of this lake, on which may be based 
a good deal of theory as to its older aspect, is the former size and 
extent of its waters, On every side unmistakeable traces that the 
level was much above the present one, are seen in the lines of old 
beaches and in the beds of sand, containing the fossil remains of fresh- 
water shells,* interstratified with beds of angular debris, which I 
mentioned before, are to be seen in the little dry ravines that cut 
through the plain, over which the road from Mun to the Chushal 
stream runs. Fig. 2. is a rough section of these beds, in which No. 1 
represents the present plain of surface debris, the scattered talus of 
rocks brought down from the mountains of the south bank, when the 
small glaciers, at present only two to four miles long, extended nearly 
down to the lake, as proved by their old moraines still to be seen. 
Winter snow and the water action of time have spread their materials 
far out, nearly down to the water's edge. No. 2 are fine sands and 
arenaceous clay, such as would be now in the process of formation 
near the debouchement of the Chushal stream, perhaps a little coarser, 
which a moister climate would entail. It contains shells and stems 
of plants. No. 3 is a bed of angular debris, the same in every respect 
as the upper bed, No 1, but much thicker. No. 4 again are sands, 
i like No. 2, containing the same shells. No. 5, debris as beds 1 and 3. 

* These fresli-wator shells are the same as those now found on the edge 
of the lake, while the stems of plants are plainly discerned ; where these last 
i are seen, the sandy clay is generally tinged with an iron colour. 


94 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh 

Fig. 2. 

[No. 2, 

This section proves great changes, and also, I think, that the lake 
existed prior to, certainly during the latter part of, the great glacial 
period in the Himalayas. Whether the scooping out of the depression 
in which its waters lie, is due to glacial action in the first instance, 
when this high region was (as is most probable) deeply overlaid by 
ice and snow, is a hazardous question, and one rather problematical. 
From the alternation of the beds of debris and finer deposits, we can 
infer that there have been changes from milder and moister seasons 
than at present exist, back to colder and drier ; during the first, beds 
like No. 3 would have been deposited by the increased transporting 
power that would have carried the materials further out into the lake ; 
while, at the same time, the level of the waters would naturally have 
been much higher. Its waters must then have generally held much 
silt and mud in suspension to form the shell beds of above section. 
At the present day, no deposit of any kind is taking place, save per- 
haps near the debouchements of the Chushal, and the extreme western 
tributaries. A closer inspection with some levelling would, I think, 
somewhat clear up the mystery attached to the huge masses of 
alluvial deposits seen in the valleys of all the great rivers of the 
western Himalayas, from the Chang Chungmo and Leh, to Skardo 
in the valley of Kurgyl and valley of Dras, and on both the Jhelunv 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Laclakl^ 95 

and Chandra-bagha (Chenab) rivers. Give a greater rain-fall to the 
Pangong district, and a lower snow line (now above 20,000 feet), 
the ravines would be seen with fine running streams in them, and 
allowing time, would cut through the barrier at the Surtokh La ;* 
and eventually down through the whole length of the alluvial deposits 
in this lake basin, the large valley and its tributaries then drained 
would resemble most closely on either side the sand, shingle, and 
conglomerate deposits now seen at Tankse and on the above-named 
rivers. These deposits at Ote would be somewhat higher, and would 
cover a greater area from the junction of the great tributary there. 
The height of the waters of the Pangong have much diminished, 
and are diminishing at the present day : the first travellers who 
visited it, now some years ago, would I think find a marked difference 
on its shores. The coolies of the district assured me that formerly, 
say 30 years ago, it was not practicable to proceed along the southern 
shore, following close to the edge of the lake from Phursook to Ote, 
which at present is quite easy — even yaks can be taken. Only in 
one or two spots was there any difficulty, where the cliffs approached 
close down to the water's edge. A rise of 15 feet would bring the 
water close to them, and even 10 feet would render such placees quite 
impracticable for animals and nearly so for man. From other inform- 
ation I could collect, the fall must now be from 1 to 1 J feet per 
annum. The difficult spots mentioned above have only been practi- 
cable for yaks for the last four years (1863) ; before that time the 
track lay over a rough ridge a short distance back from the shore. 
The men of the district also said that it is only for the last 20 years 
or so, that the waters have fallen at this rapid rate. The rock that 
lies out in the lake at its western end, distant 1J mile from the shore, 
is about 5 feet high. It has only been noticed for the past four 
years, so this would again give a fall of about one foot a year. Again 
the numerous lines of the beach marks,— and at some points as many 
as five and six can be counted,— denote falls of level of about a foot. 

* The rock bounding the north side of this pass is a hard crystalline lime- 
stone, nearly on edge, up to the plane surface of which the ridge of detritus 
extends. The depth to which the rocks in situ have been eroded prior to the 
talus that has since been precipitated against them, is in all probability suffi- 
cient to drain the whole extent of the Pangong and valley towards Tankse, 
if these present accumulations were removed. 

9G Notes on the Pangong lake district of LadaLJi. [No. 2, 

These all lying close to the water's edge are very recent, as evidenced 
by being so well defined. But as a proof that the waters of the 
Pangong lake in former times have fallen below its present level, I 
may° state that on a long point of land in the little bay of Phtaook 
in deep very clear water, I looked down upon a terrace 10 feet below 
the surface which terminated in a cliff, where the stratification of 
the sand and clays could be well seen, the bottom was not visible 
beyond this, and it was too far out to sound the depth. This would 

be the section, 

Fig. 3. 


The only deduction to make from such comparatively recent changed 
is, that the level of its waters has been alternating with moist 
and dry periods of time, the slow process of which may be even now 
going on almost imperceptible to man : the water of the Pangong 
depending as it does mainly on the winter snow, (query, may not 
the snow-fall in this part of the Himalayas be much less now than 
formerly ?) and the country passing through a period of diminishing 
falls. Slow as such changes may be, they are by no means impro- 
bable or impossible. The western end of the Pangong Tsolies as nearly 
as possible in latitude 34° and longitude 78° 30', thence its direction 
is due south-east to latitude 34 c 40', it then takes a bend easterly 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of LadaLh. 97 

and follows that latitude as far as Noh, in longitude 79° 50'. The 
mountains to the north-west of the first long reach are of no great 
apparent elevation ; in July there was very little snow to be seen, 
and only on the very highest portion, or the main range, which 
nevertheless is from 18,000 to 19,500 feet high ; the highest peaks 
being 20,000 ; but the level of the lake being 13,931 feet above the 
sea, detracts considerably from their great altitude. The terminal 
knobs of the spurs from the above range lie close on the edge of the 
lake, rising to the height of 600 to 1,500 feet, generally terminat- 
ing precipitously, and the lake I should imagine is excessive- 
ly deep at such places. It would be a most interesting scientific 
enquiry to sound with some portable kind of boat the depth of this 
lake. To the south-west a high range runs parallel to the lake, 
some of the peaks on which attain an altitude of 21,500 feet ; this range 
terminates in a peak above and to the cast-south-east of Tankse, 
which is 20,003. The above fine line of mountains, covered as they 
are with perpetual snow, and their ravines terminating above in small 
glaciers, form a fine boundary to this valley on the south. The 
southern watershed follows the lake very closely as far as Ote. It 
there extends further south, and between that place and Pal, several 
very large lateral ravines descend into it, all with the usual broad, 
dry, gravelly beds, the largest of these are the Algrong, Tengun, 
Kiam-Snrpo Loombas, or valleys. On the northern shore, beyond the 
very large valley of Chang Burmah, which finds its exit at the Ote 
plain, there is another, the Dal-Loomba, that drains the considerable 
tract of 150 square miles ; the silt carried down from this has narrowed 
the lake very much, forming a low point jutting out into it, and has 
contracted the waters to a quarter of a mile in breadth. Altogether 
the mean breadth of the second lake, " Tso Nyak," or " middle 
lake" is much less than the first or true " Pangong." 

Wherever a tributary ravine joins the shore, there is grass, scanty 
as a rule, and of a very coarse kind. At Ote it is much' richer, 
especially in the vicinity of the stream that unites the two lakes. On 
both banks of the second lake, wood is found in plenty, growing 
luxuriantly in places ; at Algrong and Numkum it formed a scrubby 
jungle, but on the northern shore, at Silung, it was met with no 
more, and the snly fuel was a stunted plant which throws out a good 

gg Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladahh. [No. 2, 

deal of woody root, and is found all over this eonntry ; and I never 
found a scarcity of it even up to 18,000 feet in the Chang Chungnio, 
sa ve where the ravines were very rocky. Descending from the small 
ridge between Paljung and Pal, the extensive plain near the latter 
comes in view, bounded by low spurs on every side save the eas , 
where a conspicuous peak rears its head. A small stream winds its 
way through the eastern side of the << maidan," and join, the lake 
being the only one on the northern shore that does so. Three and 
a half miles beyond Pal, the second lake ends, and a small stream 
I found flowing" into it through half a mile of sandy flat ground 
heyond which is another lake, called Tso Rum, having a length of 
about four miles. After crossing again some flat ground, Lake Tso 
Nyak, (the second,) is reached connected as before described with 
Tso Bum below. Near the northern shore of this last is situated 
the small village of Noli, a short distance up a tributary from the 
north This place I much wished to visit, but as will be shown 
further on, I could not manage to accomplish it. On the northern 
shore of Tso Nyak, the effects of a very peculiar natural force may 
be seen; at intervals a ridge of sand and earth runs parallel to 
the line of beach, at first I attributed this to the action of waves, 
but observing the large proportions of these banks in some situations 
and at last s eeing the ridge quite 6 feet high; and, moreover that 
the bank had been fairly turned up, as if with a gigantic plough, 
I was fairly puzzled to account for such an appearance and on ques- 
tioning the guides then learnt, that during winter, when the lake 
is frozen over hard, the water naturally accumulates under the ice 
and flowing westward can find no exit. When the pressure becomes 
too great it tears up the frozen earth on the shore and being liberated 
flows over the surface of the ice. I give a slight sketch (Fig. 4.) 
of a section through one of these banks, showing the old surface grass 
still growing on the perpendicular face of the upheaved ground, which 
of course is on the inland side. On measuring this, I found it an inch 
or two over 6 feet. 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong Tale district of Ladahh. 


1%. 4. 

I noticed also that the banks were higher and better developed 
on the western curves of the bays. One reason for this may be seen 
by a glance at the accompanying diagram, (Fig. 5.) where «, a, a, 

Fiff. 5. 

represent the shore of the lake, the waters of which have a tendency 
to flow west, in direction of the arrows. These waters (?) suddenly 
increased by springs in bed of lake, and subjected to the upper 
pressure of a frozen surface meet with another resisting force in 
the curve of the bay at B. That line where the ice, united to 
the frozen ground, meets the dry soil into which water does not 
percolate, and is consequently comparatively dry, would be the 

100 Note* on the Pangong take district of Ladahh. [No. 2, 

liuc of least resistance ; and npon that line the disruption would 
take place and the pent up waters find an ex*. Where the bank 
is sandy or clayey and covered with grass, it would be turned up 
i„ the manner as shown in Fig. 4. In spots where the shore » 
gravelly, the water seems to drive in the sand and stones before it 
torn the bottom of the lake out upon the shore, and this being a 
continuous annual action it has in some bays formed a hank quite 
3 feet high Whether this phenomenon has been observed before on 
other lakes I do not know ; it could not take place even here, did 
not this lake Pangoug receive a large amount of water from the 
east, with a determination to flow towards its old natural exit near 
Lukoong. During summer, evaporation no doubt carries off a great 
amount of the surplus water that drains into it, but in the winter 
this must cease, and with its upper casing of ice the water to free iteelf 
thus tears and roots up the bank in the curious manner above detailed. 
During the whole time I spent on the shores of the 1 an- 
gon- the only animal I saw was the Kyang, or wild ass of Tibet, 
a few couple of these were grazing 'on the grassy maidans of the 
northern shore. Of the birds, geese were plentiful in the stream 
between the first and second lakes, and I saw many young broods. 
The Brahmini goose, teal, a red-headed diver with white body, and 
a very black plumaged duck, made up the water birds. There was 
a great scarcity of the smaller birds, a sandpiper and wagtail were 
occasionally seen on the shore. The large fish-eagle was plentiful 
at Ote, attracted there by the fish which are seen for the first time 
in the slightly brackish water flowing out of the ripper lake ; tins 
lake is full of them, they much resemble the tench in shape and 
colour, only somewhat longer in the body, and are covered with slime 
like those fish. I had fortunately brought a rod, and all its et- 
ceteras, and had near Numkum, in deep water under the rocks, a verj 
good afternoon's sport, catching some five and twenty ; they ran abouf 
a pound in weight, the largest I caught being about 4 lbs They 
would rise at a fly when the surface was much rippled, and seeing 
them rising at gnats, I managed to catch two with a small midge 
flv the first artificial I fancy ever thrown on these waters; but their 
extreme clearness is much against fly-fishing. The most paying bait 
after all was dough ; this they took readily enough, and I might have 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of LadaJch. 101 

caught double the number in another hour, but had to move on to 
camp. These fish formed a welcome addition to our food as long 
as we remained on the lake, I supplied my old Bhut Moonshie and 
some of the guard with hooks, and lines, they became fierce fisher- 
men, and brought in good bags. It is a fine sight to see the lake during 
a storm, when a good strong wind is blowing down a long extend 
of its surface, and dashing the waves, which rise to a considerable 
height, against the hard rocky shore : I had the fortune to see its 
surface in this state one morning, and sitting down watched the 
waves rolling in ; it was a minature sea, and Pangong waves brought 
up thoughts of beaches in old England. Though the country is sobarren, 
the lake has its beauties in the varied tints of surrounding hills and 
mountains, and the rich deep blue of its waters, becoming quite of 
an emerald green colour as they shallow near the shore. Daring 
the summer months the lake is quite deserted, and we did not fall 
in with a soul the whole distance up to Pal, or we might not have 
got so far. At that time of the year, the flocks of shawl-wool goats, 
sheep and yaks, are grazed in the higher valleys on the young rich 
grass that springs up in some places after the snow has left the 
ground. During winter they are brought down to the level « maidans'* 
near the lake, and Ote, I was told, becomes dotted with black « Cham- 
pa"* encampments. Snow, they said, never lies long at Ote, though 
the lake freezes all over very thick, and the degree of cold rnu°st 
be very considerable ;— what a glorious expanse for skating the lake 
must then present! The Champas or Changpas, who spend the 
winter on the lake at Ote, come from both Noh and Rudok. The said 
plain is a disputed piece of ground ; the men of the Pangong district 
claim it, though judging by the site of an old fort standing on a 
low rock on the north-western side of the plain, I should say it 
undoubtedly belongs to the Lhassan authorities, by whom it was 
built years ago : proximity of Leh and greater power of the Thana- 
dar there, places it in the Kashmir Rajah's territory. Walls of stone 
and earth are built up as a portection for the tents against the wind; 
and to render them still snugger, I observed that the interior floor 
had been dug down to a depth of 3 feet, which must make them 
warmer abodes. I found the summer winds of this country cold 
* " Champa," the nomadic trides of this country. 


102 Note, on the Pangong lake district of LaJM. [No. 2, 

enough, what the winter ave like I can well imagine : the amount 
cohort, in a tent on the edge of a frozen S heet of water stretching 
o/miles, must he a very minus quantity. During the whole period 
of my so ourn there in August 1863,.the weather, with a few solitaiy 
fine dlys was miserahly cold, nothing hut cloud, ^et, and ran, 
ma y have seen it under disadvantageous circumstances, and I trust 
it times it does enjoy a little warmth and brightness. 

tot i It of August we reached Paljung, and in the afternoon 
1 1J came in sight of the first natives we had seen, v*., three 
me dri vugTme vail in our direction, they saw us at the same 
Te, and turned and bolted; we followed hut failed to overtake : tfi = 
_it being about two miles to the point they had ronnded^they had 
disappeared up some lateral ravine out of sight : our approach was lee- 
fore known to the Rudok men. It rained in torrents durmg themght, 
ai was pitched at Paljung, where a l^."*^ 
down to the lake, and a low long promontory ran from the Mis on 
the north out into it. Our road next day on towards Pal Jay over 
this it being a very long round to follow the shore under the cliffs 
Rom the low pass the broad dull green plain of Pal was seen, and 
on its eastern side we discovered the black tents of a small Tartar- 
camp As our approach was now certainly known to these people 
ve bent our steps towards them. Three men came out to meet us and 
turned out very mild individuals, one being a Lhama or priest Then- 
do^ of the large Tibetan breed, were much more noisy and furious 
at the intrusion of strangers, and were not to be reconciled unti 
long after the tents were up. These Champahs informed me that 
one of their number was about to ride into Noh at once to give the 
news of our arrival, and have it thence sent on to Rudok, I at once 
S at my Bhut Moonshi down to write a letter to the Governor of 
the place, requesting that he would raise no difficulty to my paying 
the place a visit, and see its monasteries, &c. , . , . 

The next two days I remained at Pal, for the hills were buried u> 
dense cloud and a good deal of rain fell, so that I was unable to proceed 
with any suVey work in an eastern direction ; on the third day the 
ffimitang of Rudok rode in with some twenty followers, and pitched 
his tents on the other bank of the little stream, and came over at 
once to see me. He was a native of Lhassa, a short, stout, jovial 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakli. 103 

fellow, and brought a letter from the Governor of Rudok, and a 
white scarf, together with a present of two damuns (bricks) of tea, 
and some sheep and goats for my men. The letter was then read 
by the Moonshie, and was to the effect that it was not in hia power 
to give me leave to visit Rudok, as he had strict orders from his 
superiors in Lhassa to prevent foreigners crossing the frontier, and 
that it would eventually be known if he permitted it. He added that 
he could not use force to prevent my further progress, but he trusted 
I would not lose him his appointment by so doing, and that I would 
accept the presents as a sign of friendship. Having received orders 
not to bring on any collision with the Chinese officials, I had to 
give up the idea of seeing Rudok, but I held out for one more march 
towards the place and gained my point, but not before showing 
some anger at their absurd wishes. The Zimskang again came over 
after my dinner about 9 o'clock at night, to beg I would not proceed 
any further ; but I said they must abide by their first agreement. 
The afternoon of that day I was enabled to ascend the limestone 
mountain east of camp and fix my true position, the range around 
Rudok and the eastern end of lake were also again visible, and I 
was enabled to get intersections with other rays. The 5th broke 
fortunately clear and bright, so I started early along the shore of 
the lake in direction of Noli, my friend the Zimskang, stuck to me 
like a leech the whole day with a few of his men, and a curiously 
dressed rabble they were, with their enormous flat mushroom-shaped 
hats, and all mounted on little scraggy but sturdy ponies, they were 
all very jolly and amiable, I made no secret of my work, and showed 
and explained the map of the lake to him, which he thoroughly 
understood. I have found the people of Tibet far in advance of 
Hindustan as regards drawings, and what they are intended to 
represent. At a small hill called Tobo Nokpo, whence I had 
promised to return the previous day, I fulfilled my agreement evident- 
ly to the great pleasure of the Zimskang, who was now more plea- 
sant than ever and thanked me with many salaams. On the 6th 
August my tents were struck to leave Pal, and the Rudok men did 
the same, I was invited over to their tents, previous to starting, to 
partake of a parting cup of salted tea churned with butter, which 
is always kept simmering on the fire ; it is by no means a bad beverage 

104 Note, on the Pangong lake district of LcuhM. [No. 2, 

when made with good fresh butter. I gave him a few presents 

"irrelrn end of the Pangong the hills somewhat decrease 
intltitude the highest lying to the north of Noh. Looking in a 
li " ue east from the higher points I ascended the country 
pi d flat hut undulating, and I observed in the far distance wo 
or three pieces of water, these may turn out to be connected vith 
Pangong Tso, probably bounded by steep sides which were not discern- 
Se at twenty miles, they may extend for some distance ; the breadth 
of hi high region was considerable, and extended up to a snowy 
Lgt that rose suddenly on the south. The more level surface was 
not bounded by any mountains, and was seen stretching to he h™ 
The morning we left Pal was raw, cold, and cloudy ; the road lay 
north we terly for some distance over the dead level plain, that showed 
Sinclly it had once been covered by water, for dead fresh-water 
Saie seen for some way ; we then rose from it over a long very 
gradual slope of some three miles which at last contracted into a a- 
v ounded with very low and easy scarped hill, A portion of t is 

ra vine was well wooded with the same kind of shrub as grew along the 
hores of the Pangong. The little camp of Champas continued thm 
march with us; and had we been one day later coming into Pal we 
Bhouldhave missed them altogether and gone straight into Noh 
without meeting a soul. Nearly all their worldly goods were earned 
on sheep, only a few articles on the ponies which they rode. The 
women drove the former, and, in fact, did more in the packing, unpack- 
ing, and pitching of the tents, than their lords and masters ; a ter 
which they were sent out on the hill side to collect the roots of a low 
shrub having a scent like lavender. One of the girls was very nice 
looking, and wore a peculiar head-dress which is not seen on the 
Ladakh side. The usually narrow fillet of cloth worn by the LadaH 
women was treble the usual width, and covered with torquoise and 
silver ornaments; near the attachment at the forehead was a bar of 
silver set with small torquoise, pendant from which so as to lay on the 
forehead were a number of silver coins attached by short strings o 
coral beads, the effect was very good. 1 had the young lady brought 
over to my tent, where she sat for her portrait, and was debghtedj 
the drawing made of her. The encamping ground was called Tobo 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladalcli. 105 

Rubern, and was a level piece of green grass, with several good 
streams of water flowing across it, for curious enough the higher 
ravines of the country have plenty of water, but they are all absorbed 
a few miles down in the sand and gravel of the broad water ways. 
The valley was here high, broad, and nearly level, the mountains were 
of no great elevation above it, not more than 3,000 feet ; the lower 
slopes falling gradually from them into the valley, which was patched 
with furze of stunted growth, and plenty of good grass. The morning 
of the 7th broke clear, sunny, and bright, with a fresh breeze, we 
started early and gradually ascended the valley to the pass in our 
front, called the Dingo La (10,270 feet). On the top the ground was 
nearly level, expanding into wide open ground to the north ; on the 
left rose a hill about 1,000 feet, which I determined to ascend to 
obtain a view over the hills and country around. Walking a short 
distance up this, a small tarn was seen in the centre of the level 
ground north of the pass, which had once evidently extended over 
the greater part of its area. Scattered plants of rhubarb are here seen 
but very tough and acid. The rocks were all of limestone formation, 
with a strike nearly east and west. I found no fossilsj but it resem- 
bled in appearance the palaeozoic rocks of Dras, &c. I obtained from 
the peak a fine view, but could see no more of the eastern end of the 
Pangong near Noh, on account of a dense haze in that direction. I 
was much disappointed and could only fix a peak or two looming up 
through the mist. My own camp and the Tartars had gone on, and 
I quickly followed them down the valley. This was very characteristic 
of these regions, spreading out into a broad gravelly plain, on the left 
side of which was a sharply denned scarp showing its general level had 
been uniform ; this plain forms the head of one of the branches of the Dal 
Loomba. We parted with our Champa friends at a place called 
Chuchan, where they encamped to graze their goats and sheep for a 
few clays, while we proceeded on along the side of the hills of the 
right bank rising gradually to a low pass called Sa Lam, and descending 
on the other side to another broad tributary of the Dal Loomba, which 
at this spot branched into three broad arms that penetrated into the 
mountains on the north for some eight miles. The longest of these 
valleys, had a direction north-west, and up this our road to the Chang 
Chungmo ran ; no water was here to be found, and it was not until we 

106 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh. [No. 2, 

had proceeded another two miles that water was found in the bed 
of the ravine. Where we halted fuel grew in plenty— the yellow 
flowered Tibetan furze, differing slightly from the European in not 
being quite so thorny. The valley was still broad, but the hill sides 
descended into it with steeper slope, it was here called Drukker. 
When on the Sa Lam a horseman was seen riding down the valley 
from the north, who joined us. He had come from an encampment up 
the valley, and said he was sent to escort us on to the pass ahead. 
Our movements were, therefore, well known, though we should not have 
supposed a human being to have been within miles, but the Champas 
were evidently on the watch, and espied us the moment we topped the 
pass of Sa Lam. Between camp and the Demjor La, the valley bore 
the same character, save that the broad gravelly bed was covered with 
a luxuriant growth of furze, this swarmed with hares, which got up 
in all directions, and I had some good shooting. The Demjor La was 
reached about 10 o'clock, I found it by boiling point thermometer to 
be 17,465. The rise was gentle the whole way, and it fell in like 
manner into the valley on the north. As I came up to the usual pile 
of stones on the* crest, two fine Ovis amnion came round a spur to the 
right, at about 200 yards distance. I managed to get a little nearer, 
but missed them. A fine mass of hill rose to the south appearing 
easy and near, T sent the camp on to the stream below and commenced 
its ascent. This was a good deal steeper and further than I had antici- 
pated, proving to be 20,240 feet high, but the labour was rewarded, for 
from the summit I obtained a splendid view, and did a large amount 
of work ; massive snow beds still covered the top, and the wind was 
bitterly cold. The mountains to the south of the Pangong were well 
seen, with the great snowy range near the Indus beyond Rudok ; and 
I still longed to go on in that direction. Of the mountains to the 
south and west, there was a fine view of a country bleak, naked, 
stony, and inhospitable ; only in a tributary of the great Chang Burma 
Loomba, whence was a way to Ote, was anything green, a little grass 
and furze there skirted the stream. Work being finished, we were 
soon down again upon the level ground of the valley ; and on a piece 
of very wet ground, I was surprised to flush a snipe. It was a bitter 
cold evening, but the camp was in as sheltered a spot as we could find, 
and there was some good grass here for the yaks, Our Champa guide 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of La da kh. 107 

took leave of us on the Dimjor La, so that we proceeded on the next 
day alone. The valley below camp took the usual configuration and 
ran towards the north-west, with a bed about one fourth of a mile broad. 
At about three miles we reached the confluence of a large valley from 
the north, and up this T determined to proceed, and thence ascend to 
Kiepsang, trigonometrical station. Several Kiangs were here seen, 
and up the valley numerous Tibetan antelope. After marching up the 
gravelly wide bed for five miles, whose main tributary turned to the 
east, and ended in an extensive elevated plain on the surface of which 
lay some large snow beds, we were rather at a loss to find water. I 
took the eastern branch, while the yaks and servants proceeded up the 
western (the Nertse Looniba), towards a patch of green grass where I 
thought water would be found, and this proved to be the case. From 
this the staff on the top of Kiepsang was visible, and a very delightful 
little pull-up it looked. I followed the eastern branch to a low pass, 
which overlooked a narrow gorge that terminated a short way down 
on another high level plain. There was no track of any kind to be 
seen here, and my guides told me that the country on beyond was 
grazed over by a nomad tribe, called Kirghis, who did not own 
allegiance to the Rudok authorities ; that they were great thieves and 
robbers, and occasionally came into Tankse to exchange their wool for 
grain, of which they had none. These are the people who wander 
over the plains, thence to Ilchi and into a terra incognita on the east. 
It was not until late that I got back to camp, going to bed with the 
prospect of a stiff ascent next day. I was up and off very early, taking 
some breakfast with me ; at this hour it was very cold, and the water 
of the little stream was frozen hard, and the backs of the yaks were 
quite white with frost. I took the line of a ravine which led up to 
the ridge east of the Kiepsang staff, the ascent was most fatiguing, 
over the loose angular debris that filled the steep bed of this ravine, 
whose waters were frozen into water-falls of ice. In this ravine we put 
up from under a rock a hare so benumbed with cold, it could not run, 
and it was knocked over with a stick by one of my coolies, to his 
great delight. On reaching the ridge, there was still a long pull up 
to the pole, but the view recompensed all the labor to legs and lungs ; 
the ascent was 3,200 feet, the peak being 20,035, while the camp 
below was about 16,800. Bleak wastes of hill and wide dry drainage 

108 Notes on the Pangong lake district of LadaJch. [No. 2, 

courses met the eye to the north-east, backed by some high mountains, 
whose loftier peaks were covered with snow, and threw down some 
small glaciers. To the south the great tributary of the Pangong, the 
Mipal valley could be followed for many miles, high rugged angular 
mountains bounding it on every side. It was very, very cold, and I 
could scarcely do my work, or hold the pencil, the clouds were gather- 
ing up fast ; and before I left the peak it had begun to sleet, I got 
under the lea of the ridge for breakfast and made a brew of tea in the 
boiling point thermometer pot, of which I gave a tot all round to the 
Blurts, and then descended on the western side into the valley below ; 
by skirting the hill sides down into the ravines and over spurs, we 
reached by evening the Kiting Gang La, 17,259 feet, on the boundary 
of the Kashmir and Rudok territory. At this pass are stationed 
throughout the summer months a guard of a few Rudok men,— these 
we now met,— and who got a dose of chaff from my Tankse coolies, for 
thus being taken in rear, but they were very good humoured, and said 
that they were now off for their homes, and left that day with their 
ponies, black tent, tea churn, &c. We saw a good many antelope during 
the day. Near the pass was a great thickness of the conglomerates, 
sandstones, and coarse shales, seen in the Indus valley, which formation 
it is most curious to find having so wide an extension in this direction. 
This opens out a wide field for geological speculation. The south-west 
wind was bitterly cold all the afternoon, and in the tents, though they 
were in a somewhat sheltered ravine, it was very cold all night. The 
next morning we proceeded down the ravine to the north, which was 
grassy for some way. The coolie's who had gone on with the break- 
fast things came upon seven wild yaks, who went off down the valley 
and were not seen again ; they are, I believe, very wary ; great numbers 
are to be seen here later in the season, when they are driven out^ of 
their higher haunts by snow into these lower grazing grounds, which 
were covered with their traces. They occupy this part of the country 
from about the end of October until March, the larger number roaming 
away into the high plains on the north, though some remain through- 
out the year in the neighbourhood of the Pangong, but I do not think 
are met with south of it. About half way down, the ravine narrows 
very considerably, and a mass of rock quite detached rises in the 
centre of the valley, a narrow gorge to the west being the direct road 

18G8.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh. 109 

to Kyam ; by this the coolies proceeded, while I took the east side, 
crossing a low connecting ridge. Numbers of hares were seen, and I 
bagged a couple for the pot. I fell in near this, with a Mr. Turnor, 
a traveller from England ; and when I told him the beat I was going, 
he said he would accompany me. He had been searching for the pass 
by which M. Schlagintweit had gone towards Ilchi ; but by the natives 
with him (for he could not speak Hindustani) had been taken of) in 
this direction, quite a contrary point of the compass. We marched on 
together, reaching at last the main stream of the Chang Chungmo, 
called Kyamgo Traggar ; this was broad, and a great thickness 
of alluvial deposits were exposed on its sides. It was an alluvial plain 
in its transition state before the river had cut its way down to the 
solid rocks. Its former levels were beautifully shewn in a series of steps 
and terraces, of which as many as five could be counted. 

At the point where we descended from the alluvial terrace into the 
bed of the Kyamgo Traggar, there was a small rill of water, but this 
disappeared about half a mile on, where the valley narrowed consi- 
derably, and the hills rose on either hand in high cliffs of limestone, 
forming a regular gorge, througli this the wind blew with great violence 
from the eastward, and dark angry clouds hid the mountain tops : it 
was evidently setting in for a stormy afternoon. We pushed on, 
struggling against the strong gusts of wind, and the gorge widening 
as we proceeded at last brought us to a broad valley spread over with 
detrital matter. The mountains still towered in cliffs to the south, but 
rose very gradually from about 1J miles to the north, towards the 
high ridge of Samkang and Ghamkang. It now began to snow hard, 
and we got under the lea of a low cliff, and sat there until our coolies 
came up, when we pitched the tents with great difficulty for the tent 
pegs would not hold in the gravelly bed of the stream ; but by means 
of large boulder stones, this was accomplished. It was a miserable 
evening, snow falling until sunset, and lying on the top of the tents 
and in dry high spots. When the clouds broke at that hour, beauti- 
ful appeared the surrounding mountains with their white covering, the 
fleecy clouds, drifting up against the sides, added greatly to their height: 
the whole suffused with a lovely rose hue, and the sun shining upon 
the wet surface of the many tinted rocks, brought out their colours 
brighter than ever. Fires were soon blazing away, and we got ou 


HO Notes on the Pcmgong lake district of Laclakh. [No. 2, 

dinners as if nothing uncomfortable had happened. One must give 
the Indian cooks immense credit for the manner in which they work- 
under the discomfort and difficulties that must from time to time 

happen on the march. 

The valley ahead of us appeared to end at about six roles distance, 
aud thus it had been sketched in on the rough reconnoissauce I had, 
60 the next morning it was determined to leave the camp where it stood, 
and go on ourselves to the main ridge of the valley, and return by 
evening. After breakfasting we walked up the soft gravelly bed of 
the river for about four miles, it then narrowed considerably, and took 
a bend to the east-south-east and at three miles further on div.ded into 
two large branches : we followed that having a nearly due east course 
From the mountain spurs having approached so close to the broad bed 
of the Kyanigo Traggar, the absence of water, and it having a so 
taken a bend, we had been led to imagine its course here ended, but 
this we were both of us much surprised to find was not the case, for 
we now beheld ahead of us an enormous broad gravel covered valley, 
stretching away to the foot of mountains at least 18 miles further to 
the eastward. It was quite impossible to reach the main ridge that 
day so I sent a coolie back to bring on the tents. This open valley 
had the most peculiar aspect of any I had yet seen, but partook m its 
dry gravelly bed a good deal of the nature of those valleys I have seen 
between Pal and the Kiting Gang La ; its elevation was about 16,400 
feet, and its breadth in widest part about two miles ; the ridge of hills, 
hounding it to the north, lay about four to five miles off, but were only 
3,000 feet above it, and the spurs came with a very gradual fall towards 
tire valley. On the south a very low ridge of about 500 feet, in places 
not more than 300, separated this valley plain from another broad one 
of a like character, the ravines of which ran up into the hills in wide 
beds, from 2 to 300 yards in breadth. Several broad lateral drainage 
plains also formed a junction with the one we were in from the northern 
line of hills that ran parallel with it. Directly ahead a low broad pass 
was visible, the mountains rising to the south of it in snowy peaks 
21 000 feet high ; but from the great altitude we stood at, and their 
distance 15 miles off, they gave no idea of so great an altitude. Plenty 
of the woody rooted wild lavender, or rather a stunted plant with the 
like scent, grew around, but grass was very scanty, only in two or 

1868.] Notes on the Pangong lalte district of Ladakli. Ill 

three spots was there found barely sufficient for the yaks ; a few large 
patches of snow still lay on the plain, these (for the hill sides were 
now quite bare of it) were the remains of deep drifts formed by the 
winter winds. Water was also very scarce, and we could obtain none 
that day until we reached the spot chosen for camp in the evening. 
The distances on this plain seemed interminable, the ends of low pro- 
jecting spurs appeared in the clear atmosphere quite close at hand ; and 
had not the position of the pass ahead been fixed tolerably correctly on 
my plane table, we should, in all probability, have made our plans to 
reach it that evening ; and my fellow traveller would not believe that 
it lay so far to the east as it did. The "mirage" on the flat gravelly 
plain had at times the appearance of beautiful blue still lakes ; antelopes 
were very numerous ; and running across the plain in vicinity of this 
appearance, looked double their natural size. We found the sun very 
hot in the middle of the day ; but while waiting for our tents in the 
afternoon, found a blazing fire very comfortable ; and the night, with 
the usual great alternation of temperature, was very cold. We were on 
our way up the valley early on the 13th August, but did not reach the 
foot of the low hill until the afternoon. Antelope still very plentiful, 
and the males magnificent creatures, with beautiful long thin horns. 
The summit of the pass (17,960 feet) was quite 1,500 feet above the 
level of the valley at camp, but the ascent very gradual. The snowy 
mountains on the south could now be well seen, their valleys filled with 
ice,, and from the pass in easterly direction lay another valley which 
also widened out into another of the same type as that we had marched 
up ; the hills seemed to fall on both sides, and the country generally 
to take a more open plateau like character. I could not spare time to 
proceed any further, I had much work to finish in the rear, and some 
high points to ascend, which the early snow-falls would shut up for 
the season. I much longed to explore, but could not do so. Mr. 
Turnor went on beyond for two days, and gave me afterwards a sketch 
of the ground. It appeared that some ten miles further, the open 
valley turned sharp south, and disclosed a long piece of water like the 
Pangong, but the mountains shut out the end of it, nor did he even 
get so far as the edge to tell me whether it was fresh or salt ; so that 
this may be, for all we know, another rival to the great Pangong Tso. 
Turnor saw six or seven miles of its waters, which he described as 

112 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladakh. [No. 2, 

Laving a breadth nearly equal to that of the above lake. I retraced 
my steps therefore down the valley finishing the sketch of it. Some 
fine agates and cornelian are to be found in a small ravine at the 
spot, where the long southern spur from Chamkang H. S. abuts on 
the Kyamgo Traggar. I made a short ascent here, in order to look 
over into the country to the south-east. This presented the appearance 
of large broad level valleys that might almost come under the designa- 
tion of plains, the undulating ridges that divided them being of so 
little elevation. On the 15th August I had returned to the junction 
of the road from Pal, with that running down the valley towards the 
direction of Leh, and encamped close to the hot springs of Kyam. 
These rise at foot of the hills on the left bank ; the alluvial plateau, 
on the edge of which they are situated, extends for about half a mile 
to the river, and ends in a low cliff. The water rises in several spots, 
covering a distance of about 150 yards long. The spring on the 
extreme west side is the largest, and temperature the highest : this 
I give below. The ground about is wet and swampy, and consequent- 
ly beautifully green with grass and weeds; an incrustation of lime 
had formed about the springs, but very sparingly. 

Western spring, 103.5 degrees. 

Centre, 102.0 „ 

Eastern, 98-0 » 

From the north-west a large tributary here joined the Chang 
Chungmo river, adding so much to the 'depth of its waters, that it 
was a matter of difficulty crossing at the two fords below Kyam. 
The valley now lessened much in breadth, but the alluvial deposits 
were still well developed, and were cut into a series of steps by the 
gradual falling of the lake, or the diminished waters of the river on a 
drier climate commencing. At Pamzal the valley was still narrower, 
but these accumulations had disappeared. Here the Chang Chungmo 
is left, and the road leads up the Rimdi Loomba to the Marse Mik La, 
(18,452) and thence descends towards the Pangong basin, with a gra- 
dual fall down a broad valley passing Phobrang, Yurgo, Tublang to 
Lukung. At Chuggra, about three miles short of Phobrang, I turned 
to the north-west to the Kepting Kiptung La, 17,642. In the 
Cedmure Loomba was a green expanse of grass, with a rather severe 
ascent to a grazing spot called Boomzi, from this a high broad plateau 

18G8.] Notes on the Pangong lake district of Zadakh. 113 

extended to the pass ; the line of watershed being so broad, that it was 
difficult to assign its exact position. This high wide valley parted 
north and south, in the first direction to the Ororotze La, 18,050 feet, 
only used by shepherds when taking flocks to graze in the lower 
courses of the Chang Chungmo river. 

The scenery here was grand and very striking from its novel nature. 
On the broad high plateau are three small lakes, from which flows 
away a stream bordered with bright green grass, running parallel to 
slopes of talus backed by mountains over 20,000, culminating in peak 
Shayok (No. 2) 21,000 feet. These mountains rise very abruptly and 
send down a row of glaciers that end in moraines upon the plain of 
the Koh Loomba. The sides of this mountain mass are rugged in the 
extreme, and topped with perpetual snow. Shayok (No. 2) throws 
down a mass of ice covered with moraine debris, which abuts upon 
the river itself. From the foot of this glacier, I hardly ever saw a 
grander sight than the steep falls of rock and ice of 3,500 feet in a 
horizontal distance of only three miles to the highest point. This 
portion of the Pangong mountains is well worth the visit of a traveller. 
At the time of my visit the increasing cold had driven the shepherds 
with their flocks and herds from the higher grounds, and we found 
some families at Montol, from which place there is a path over the 
mountains to Muglib. I followed the Koh Loomba valley down towards 
the lake, where it ends in a narrow gorge opening out into a consider- 
able broad expanse of open ground, on which are scattered some small 
hamlets containing only three or four families each, viz., Phobrang, 
Yurgo, Tublang, and last of all, where the stream debouches into the 
plain of the Pangong itself, is Lookoong. Coming down the defile 
upon Yurgo, is a very peculiar and striking peak overhanging the road. 
Its high rounded point is called by the natives " Chomo Kong Go," 
or the " Woman's Head," it having some resemblance to the shock 
head of a Tibetan belle. 

Lookoong is situated about two miles from the spot where the 
waters of the Koh Loomba join the lake ; this distance is covered 
with sand, white and glaring to the eyes, and the sides of the ravine 
are cut down about 12 feet, forming a cliff of that height on either 
side. I did not see any fish here, the body of water in the stream, 
though much reduced from the quantity that rises at its sources, 

114 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladalch. [No. 2, 

is still very considerable, though not equal to that of the Chushal 
stream I had now finished the whole of my work, and went on 
that day as far as Miiglib, thence to Tangse, where I paid up my 
coolies and for yaks, &c. The men had behaved very well, never 
had I any occasion to be put out with them. From Tankse I re- 
turned to the Indus valley over the mountains by way of the Kay 
La, 18,256 feet. The Kay Loomba river is fringed with grass 
and bushes for a considerable distance up, and at a height of 16,300 
feet flows out of a lake about 400 to 500 yards long, of very deep 
clear water. It owes its origin to a large landslip from the left 
side of the ravine, by which cause a very considerable portion of 
the hill side has moved forward and been disrupted. The rock is 
granitoid, the same as the Chang La, and forms the main axis of 
this mountain chain between the Indus and Shayok. From the lake 
to the pass, the scenery was wild as wild could be ; near its source 
the ravine turned south and was nearly level for some distance, 
finally ending amid a mass of scattered rocks, debris, and snow j 
large beds of which still filled the ravines and lay in patches on the 
summit of the ridge.. The wind blew with great violence from the 
west-south-west on reaching the pass, with that cutting, piercing, 
unsparing manner it does at these elevations; behind the shelter 
of some rocks I boiled the thermometers, and then descended intoj 
the valley below. All my followers now on the return journey 
walked their best ; and by the evening we were well into the culti-j 
yation of the valley above Chimray. The next day I reached Leh, 
and was glad to meet some brother Surveyors, also on their return 
from their respective surveys. 

In the foregoing pages, reference has often been made to the great 
accumulations of boulders, gravels more or less angular, clays and 
sands, near Tankse and in the Chang Chungmo ; it is necessary to 
add a few words in conclusion regarding the cause I assign for their 
formation. This is, I think, clearly glacial. Proofs are not wanting 
that, in ages past, the valleys of the Himalaya contained glaciers of 
enormous fength and thickness, the only prototypes of which are to 
be seen in those now filling the valleys of the Karakoram, far north 
in Baltistan. About half way between the villages of Kungun and 

1868.] Notes on the Pancjong lake district of Ladahh. 115 

Gond lying on the Sind river a tributary of the Jhelum, Kashmir, 
and at the village of Gond itself, marks of glacial action are un- 
mistakeahle in the deep grooves or stria-marks cut in the hard 
metamorphic slates, at a height of about 150 or 200 feet above the 
present level of the river. This point is 20 miles in a direct line 
from the head of the valley, where at present some very small glaciers 
exist. How much further this glacier extended towards the plain 
of the Kashmir valley, it is impossible to say ; but at the debouche- 
ment 10 miles below, thick beds of debris are to be seen ; the Sind 
river is still of very considerable size, and glacial accumulations are 
very soon swept away, as may be seen in now existing large glaciers 
below their terminal cliffs. 

Taking 5,500 feet as the lowest limit of its extension, every valley 
in the vicinity of a range equal in mean altitude to the mountains 
north of Kashmir, must have once been the bed of these moving 
rivers of ice. The indications of glacier extension are also seen on 
the north of the Zogi La, between the present glacier of Muchoi 
and Pundras, at 10 miles from the pass. It is my belief that the 
jDras plain was once buried in ice, and that this region presented 
much the same appearance that the neighbourhood of the Mustakh 
does now. The imagination can hardly conceive the enormous 
magnitude that glaciers, like those in the Karakoram, must have 
once attained;* and that they extended into the Skardo valley on 
the Indus, 70 to 80 miles, is by no means improbable. Smaller 
ones from the ridge to the south we know did, for near Kepchun, 
a fine mass of moraine protrudes into the plain nearly a quarter of 
a mile, having very large angular blocks on its surface. Moreover, 
this moraine must have been formed after the valley around Skardo 
had assumed somewhat its present configuration, for this basin has 
at some period been filled up with beds of lacustrine deposit, gravels, 
and conglomerates, to a height that overtops the present isolated 
rock rising above the town, the coarser beds being the highest in 
the series ; but it is quite natural to suppose that, on a milder climate 
succeeding, these larger alluvial deposits would be the first to be 
removed by the extinction of glaciers further down the valley, 

* The existing glacier of Baltoro is 36 miles long in direct horizontal 

116 Notes on the Pangong lake district of Ladalch. [No. 2, 

while the cold was yet intense enough to preserve those around 
and above Skardo. Though the vast accumulations of detritus m 
the Skardo basin were, I conceive, due to the glaciers from the high 
ranges, both to the north and south of the Indus near Basho -which 
glaciers must have extended close down to and dammed up the river, 
—it does not follow as some might be led to suppose that the whole 
mass of such a mighty barrier should be formed of ice. It >was 
the debris of moraines that would have composed this, from its 
continued accumulation in so narrow a gorge as the Indus there 
presents. These exuviae there piled up, would have raised the bed of 
the gorge, and the bed of the lateral valley as well, also elevating 
the active cause, viz., the glacier itself; and in course of time the 
whole valley level would have been brought up to the height of 
the great deposits around Skardo. The section below (Fig. 6.) will, 
I hope, explain my meaning, in which a, a', a!' represent the successive 
levels of the gorge and corresponding lateral glaciers. 

Fig. 6. 

Innumerable other instances can be seen of ice action throughout 
the Kashmir territory ; I will instance near the Fotu La, on the road 
to Leh a spot now far removed from such causes in action. Even m 
the valley of the Jhelum, below Bara Mula, the effects of a glacial 
period can be seen. That glaciers filling lateral ravines have extend- 
ed across the main valleys at some periods of their existence is most 

Joar^As Soa fiegg-. XXXV t i. Pt 


ThrJuxjrgun) . / V 



BHOOTAN DOOARS. Clay A " (l ^si™***"-- ..jH;ii;| j 

________ Teritary Sandstones .... f|lsl|l§ li j 

Limestqne ? Nummutiiic rr ^i^7FI\j 



Litho. at the Sur. Geni's Office Calcutta, 1868. 

1808.] Geological features of Bhootan Dooara. 117 

probable; and in nearly every case where gravel deposits are seen 
some side ravine below, having its sources high up, can be pointed 
out, whose glacier has formed a temporary stoppage to the main river 
into which it ran : and such effects are still in progress in the 
highest ranges of the mighty Himalayas. When glaciers extended 
clown to 5,000 feet, what must have been the appearance of the upper 
Shayok, Indus and Chang Chungmo, where 12 to 13,000 is the 
lowest level of the country ; contemplation of such a scene in the 
mind's eye renders the formation of lakes and the accumulations 
of detrital matter a natural sequence very easy to imagine. Further, 
when such powerful forces of ice and water were in action, their 
results would have extended far down the main drainage lines, and 
arc to be sought for at the debouchements of such rivers as the 
Indus, the Sutlej, Ganges, &c.j and I believe that the more recent 
accumulations of immense boulder beds composed of rocks from the 
inner ranges, such as may be seen in the Noon Nuddee, Deyrah 
Dhoon, and other places along the base of the Himalayas, may owe 
their existence to a glacial period in those mountains. 

Mies on Geological features of the country near foot of hills in the 
Western Bhootan Dooars.-By Captain II. H. Godwin- Austen, 
F. B. G, S., Topographical Survey. 

[Reccivod, 26th March, 1867.] 

In the report ' On the coal of Assam, with Geological notes on the 
adjoining districts to the south,' &c. by H.B. Medlicott, Esq., Deputy 
Superintendent of the Geological Survey, published in the Memoirs of 
that Survey,* allusion has been made to certain geological features 
of the hills bounding the Western Bhootan Dooars.f 

A few more explanatory notes on the formations to be seen there 
may prove of interest in connection with the above paper, and lead 
others who may have the opportunity to observe them more closely. 
The base of the Himalayas is there so densely wooded that much 

Mem. Geol. Survey of India, Vol. IV. p. 387. See pages 392 and 435, 436. 
T See the map of " Bhootan and country adjacent" on the scale of 4 miles 
to the inch for all places mentionod in this paper. 


US Geological features of BhoolanVooars. [No. 2, 

j. necessarily often hidden, and interesting and important beds are 

I! overiooked on a hurried scramble ttaUgh the country The 

W where I first noticed the absence of the nsnal sandstone forma- 

Z —nding to the lowest Siwalik formations, so srmuar m 

Si Withal a like position in the Deyrah Dhoon, was near 
every waj ^ ^ heve j on i y 

t Un tli:t aetJC 1 7d boulders, cprite a fluviatile deposit 

t * -lau hWins gradually with them into a clay countiy clotliecl 
S^L^-.eM^ to the Tsakamchn, 
"te-e towards Sipchn, the beds of two large streams are crossed 
11 fte Nurchu and Mochu. Between these drainage hues the road 
-Her a .ha* ar ^ from the J*^^ 

^SSh~t^eLea t - .^^ 
courses of streams which are below those south of Dal mgkot 
finally increase as the longitudinal depression of the Jholdak r 
approached, so that on and about the Mochu, the conglomerate cltffs 
rise in fine proportions, the upper level surface of the terrraces bemg 
constant. But I must remark here that this is far below the Inghe 
level of like beds on the west of the Jholdaka or Dechu, shewmg that 
these last have suffered the effects of denudation t< , . to extent 
unless in the instance of conglomerates on the Nu.chu and 
M I; we are to suppose them to be later fluviatile deposrts o hos 
rivers A very characteristic feature of the country in tins part of 
Dooar's is the very sudden termination of these gravels and clays a 
iTsis miles from the base of the hills in a more or less 
pruning east and west; this outer boundary rise, Inghe , ha» 
^f the intervening ground between it and the hrUs 0J£ j 
deeply cut into by ravines and covered with dense jungle and forest) 

1808.] Geological features of Blwotan Dooars. 119 

forming at Tsulcha Pahar and Rnngamntti isolated high points of 
ground. The watershed between the Dholla and Jholdaka is thrown 
Oft from Tsulcha and running due south towards Ramsahai Hath 
terminates there in a marked low scarp of sand and gravel about 20 
feet high, beyond this a more clayey level begins and blends 
into the dead level of the plains. Looking due east from Tsul- 
cha over the Jholdaka, the conglomerate deposits are seen abut- 
ting on the river, and terminate at Tondoo in a high cliff about 
120 feet high irregularly but horizontally stratified, some of the 
boulders being of large dimensions, one remarkably large, about 
10 feet high, lay at the foot of the cliff. About half a mile below 
this in the bed of the Jholdaka the masses of gneissose rock were o f 
very large dimensions, their size and position so far from the 
hills requiring the existence of more than the ordinary transporting 
power of moving water. This cliff follows the left bank of the 
Jholdaka and the road to Sipchu runs at the base of it as far as 
the trijunction of the Jiti and Sipchu with the Jholdaka. Looking 
up the first named river, the masses of conglomerate beds with clays, 
are seen to rise into very considerable proportions, and towards the 
east form low hills running up to the main mass of the mountains. 
I was unable to proceed far up the Jiti nulla, but it is far from 
unlikely that the sandstone formation may be found there, the look 
of the gorge gave somewhat the appearance of being cut through 
these rocks. The greater elevation of the newer deposits on this side 
of the Jholdaka also favours this idea, as they may have been raised by 
the upthrow of the sandstone on which they are seen to rest when 
both are present, and I may say generally unconformably. At the 
Jiti nuddec the road to Sipchu rises to the top of the high terrace 
that overlooks the left bank of the Jholdaka for the rest of the 
distance. No one, as they proceed, can fail to remark the succeeding 
sudden rises on to higher levels sharply and straightly defined. This 
with a slight slope to the main surface causes the mass of this 
formation at Sipchu to be of very great thickness ; it is there seen 
abutting against the gneiss rocks quite 500 feet above the bed of the 
Dcchu, and no trace of the tertiary sandstones are here to be seen. 
Close beyond this the conglomerates have been removed, and the 
gneiss extends low down to the bed of the river Dechu, but between 

120 Geological features of Bhootan Dooars. [No. 2, 

Sipchuand Jangtsa a remnant comes in as a valley deposit in a 
narrow high ledge overhanging the Deehu, and at Jangtsa the highest 
level must be quite 800 to 1,000 feet above it. This level ledge can be 
traced in a greater or less degree up the valley, being most conspicu- 
ously marked at the junctions of the main lateral valleys. Looking 
over the face of the country just described, at the abrupt termination 
of the conglomerate and clay beds at Tsulcha, &c. and the successive 
and regular high cut terraces on the east of the Jholdaka, no part of 
the outer hills that I have seen, gave more the appearance of 
denudation due to the action of the sea than this: all seemed in 
accordance with a slow but intermittent last elevation of the land 

The large mass of conglomerates, north of Tondoo, disappear before 
reaching Chamoorchi: there in the gorge of the Pyim Chu, only alow 
terrace of transported water-worn materials brought down evidently 
by that river is seen sloping gradually out into the plain towards 
Ambari. The hill on which the fort of Chamoorchi stands is of the 
metamorphic rocks, some of the beds being of a more shaly nature, 
but all micaceous. Neither here, nor on the right bank of the 
Pyim Chu was any trace of the tertiary sandstone formation, nor did 
I see it any where the whole distance to Buxa, not even in the re- 
entering angle of the large river, the Boro Torsa. In the Chamoorchi 
Pooar, between the rivers Dahina and Baiti, is a dry flat plain, more 
or less stony on the surface, open and only covered with grass. It 
extends as far south as Garkunta and Huldabari Hath: the 
termination of higher level is very regularly marked also by the 
sudden rise of numerous small streams that flow due south, through 
a country where the surface beds are clay and free of pebbles. The 
distance that the gravel beds extend from the base of the hills, and 
these streams take their rise, is very regular, and conforms very closely 
with their contour at 8 to 10 miles. I also noticed that the bouldery 
character of the beds of the larger streams ceased at the same distance, 
the Jholdaka, the largest of them becoming at once sluggish, broad, 
and with a sandy bed at Eamsahai Hath, and the stony bed of the 
Raiti and Demdema are dry for a long distance ; these outer gravels 
are evidently the most superficial recent deposits that have spread 
away from the several hill streams. East of the Baiti a long slope oi 
gvavel and boulders extends from the foot of the hills some 8 to 10 


18G8.] Geological features of Bhootan Dooars. 121 

miles, these end at Rangali Bujna in abrupt but low scarps much 
intersected with ravines. This scarp is seen on the left hand on the 
road following the right bank of the Boro Torsa that leads to Balla ; 
its materials appear to have been carried out this distance by the 
above river, and are of very recent origin. About four miles from 
Tazigong, the site of the Bhutea stockade, the spurs from the 
mountains abut on the river, and a new and isolated feature in the 
geology of this part occurs. The rock is a hard compact limestone 
very similar to beds in the limestone of Masuri. The mass is of no 
great extent and dips at a very high angle to N. W ; the lower beds 
being shaly and thin bedded. I found no fossils, so that its age can 
only be conjectured ; certainly older than the middle tertiary, it may 
be nummulitic. The Balla hill in the immediate continuation of this 
limestone on the opposite side of the Torsa is a micaceous schistose 
rock, and in the bed of a small ravine near the foot of the ascent to 
Tazigong, I found several pieces of very pure soft steatite, which 
I was told the Bhuteas cut into small cups. I was unable t) examine 
the foot of the hills to the east of Balla, having much ground to 
survey to the south, but looking in that direction the termination of the 
mountain spurs appeared somewhat detached from the mass, as if due 
to newer beds lying at the base of them ; they may either be a 
continuation of the sandstone at Buxa, or the higher conglomerate 

To the east of the Boro Torsa, no marked feature denotes where 
the gravels end, the level of the country is very equable, the beds of 
the streams being very sandy, bouldery and dry for a distance of 10 
miles. The Basera river, one of the largest, is dry nearly as far down 
as Nathabari in the month of February ; but, although no scarp marks 
the commencement of a lower level in the country, this line coincides 
with what I have before said respecting the Balla and Chamoorchi 
Dooars. The larger streams have generally a narrow strip of kader 
land bounded with a low scarp marking their former, higher and 
lateral extension. 

^ At Buxa the sandstones suddenly come in with the accompanying 
higher and unconformable conglomerate beds, the former with the 
prevailing high dip towards the main hills. I have already noticed 
the occurrence of this formation in a short paper in this Journal 

122 Geological features of Bliootan Dooars. [No. 2, 

(1865), I have now an addition of some interest, Iviz. that in the 
bed of Deemahnuddee a short "distance west of Buxa, which flows 
through the sandstones and conglomerates, Assistant Surgeon J. Rich- 
ardson has since informed me he found the fossil molar of an elephant, 
probably washed out of the upper beds. 

The absence of the tertiary sandstones at the base of the Himalayas 
for a distance of over 50 miles is, as remarked by Mr. Medlicott, an 
anomalous case, and if any remnant be found hereafter, it must be 
.mall In the deeper gorges of the main rivers such as the Jholdaka, 
Dahina, and Boro Torsa, they would be the more likely to shew, as 
they do on the Teesta, if nowhere else, but we only find stratified 
rocks of the most recent formations with the single exception of a 
small mass of limestone thrust up at a high angle at Balla. The 
question arises where are these usual formations, they suddenly 
disappear east of the Teesta, and as suddenly reappear east of the 
Torsa in equal force. Are they still below the surface over this 
area or have they never existed, one of the suppositions brought 
forward by Mr. Medlicott. If they have ever found a place 
here to what forces are we to attribute this single instance of total 
widespread denudation in so long a line of formations. Taking great 
physical features into consideration, it may be worthy of remark 
that the country and its rocks under consideration is to the south 
and east on the edge of a great natural basin of depression that must 
have been receiving for ages the drainage of the whole of the Eastern 
Himalayas, and considering its distance from the sea, the neighbour- 
hood of Kooch Behar is yet one of the lowest in Bengal on the north 
and east. From Balla there runs in a north-westerly direction a higl 
ridge, 8 to 10,000 feet, given off from the great Himalayan mass oJ 
Gyepmochi, and this narrow but high feature runs parallel to the deer 
transverse valley of the Am Mochu, following in all probability * 
great fault, and the existence of which is, in a measure, proved by th( 
sudden termination of the limestone in the direction of its strike at 
Balla, for in the Dootia nulla on the left bank of the Torsa, I was 
unable to find any, but metamorphic rocks in its bed ; and if the 
limestone be continuous, this ravine would cut through the whole of 
it. I am, therefore, more of opinion that the elevatory force that has 
raised the' tertiary sandstones into the position they are found along 

18C8.J Geological features of Blwotan Dooars. 123 

the whole base of the Himalayas, often to a height of nearly 3,000 
feet above the sea, has hove been exerted in a less degree, and that 
they are to be sought for yet below the upper conglomerates more or 
less deeply seated at a short distance from the base of the hills, as I 
have shewn by the dotted line in map (Plate V). Should further 
exploration shew more clearly how these sandstones near the Teesta 
disappear eastwards, how they commence again near and to the west 
of Buxa, and that they lie deeply seated in the intervening space, 
it will not a little form a connecting link geologically, though not 
orographically, with the hill mass south of the Brahmaputra ; it is 
curious to find the last low eminences of gneiss in the Assam valley, 
viz. at Dhoobrie and Mateabug as noticed by Mr. Medlicott, to be 
upon a line in the direction of this great gneiss mass of the Uinialayabs 
at Gyepmochi, the area so devoid of the tertiary deposits lying 
between them. 

Oct. 1866. 





No. Ill— 1868. 

On Dwellings, Works of Art, Laws, &o. op the Karens ; embracing 

'Query 50 to Query 76 ;— by Rev. F. Mason, D. D. Missionary to 

the Karen people* 

[Receivod 7th January, 1865]. 

The following pages contain the answers to " Queries respecting 
the human race, addressed to travellers, by a Committee of the 
British Association for the advancement of science," from query 50 to 
query 76 inclusive, furnished at the request of Col. Phayre, and with 
the previous sheets, complete the replies. 

No answer is given to query 73, for obvious reasons. It asks the 
results of missionary labours on the people, and for a scientific associa- 
tion, the answer should be furnished by one who is not a Missionary. 


50. The character of the houses the Karens inhabit, varies with 
the character of the cultivation pursued. Among the Red Karens and 
Toungthus, where the cultivation is permanent, the same ground 
being cultivated for a succession of years, the houses are comparatively 
permanent. But most of the Karen tribes change their fields annually, 
and move every two or three years to be near their cultivation ; and 
there build temporary houses of bamboos, leaves and ratan. They 
clear a few acres of land, burn them over near the close of the dry 

# This paper is a continuation of the answers to queries 1 — 50, on the same 
subject, published in Journal As. Society, Bengal, 1866, vol. xxxv. pt. ii. p. 1 &c> 


126 Dwelling*, -k «/ aH > laws > *»• o/ * e ^amlS • [N °' 3 ' 

season, the ashes serving as manure; and when the first showers 
fall, they plant their paddy. They do not scatter it over the ground 
as in the enltivation of lowland paddy , bnt one walks over the field m 
front with a pointed bamboo, with whieh he makes holes in the ground, 
afoot or move apart, and another follows droppinga few grains into the 
holes; and there they leave them for the showers to fill m the earth 
After the harvest has been gathered, the field lies fallow for several 
years ; while crops are raised in like manner in other localities. 

Each village has its own lands ; and if they are large, in comparison 
with the inhabitants, they are able to cultivate new fields for six or 
seven years; but if their lands are small, they are compelled to come 
back to their former cultivation in three or four years; but after so 
short a period, the jungle on it is too small to produce any good 
amount of ashes, and the crops are poor. In this way the Karens 
move around their scant domains, like the moon in her orbit, so as to 
present the same phases, after intervals of very few years. 

While each village has its own lands and boundaries, as one, and 
which they call a country, the lands of each village are divided among 
many owners, as in other countries. Laud is often bought and sold, 
and in the instances that have fallen under my own observation, the 
price paid has been from two to three rupees per acre. Like other 
communities, there are some too poor to own land, and these a« 
allowed, by the landowners, to cultivate at a fixed rate of one rape- 
for every hundred baskets harvested. 

In the north, where wars have been prevalent, the people hav. 
been necessitated to live close together for mutual protection. The 
Bghais Mopghas and some other tribes, have usually but one building 
for a whole village. It is built like a bazar, with a square in the 
middle There is a walk all around the building, with rooms opening 
into it on each side. Every married couple has a room and a fire-place 
of their own for domestic purposes, while the hall is common property, 
to which women often take their weaving, and men their mats and 

basket-making. _ 

All around the hall is a raised platform, on which the young men 
of the village sleep, and where strangers are lodged. The building i 
of bamboo, usually raised some eight or ten feet above the ground, 
with rows of pig-sties ranged under the rows of rooms, while the 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. 127 

fowls often roost on the beams over the rooms, but sometimes below 
in connection with the pigs. 

Among the southern tribes, each family has commonly a separate 
house, though sometimes several families of relatives occupy the same 
building. These houses are built on one plan. The front is at one 
end, where the ladder, by which they are entered, leads into the hall ; 
which is a verandah, where visitors are received, and where both men 
and women work. The main body of the building consists of one 
room, with a fire-place in the middle that serves to divide it into two 
apartments ; in which different members of the family, when large, 

The Pwos of the Tenasserim Provinces have the singular custom 
of always building their houses so as to face to the east, but they 
can give no account of its origin ; and it is not observed by the other 

The size of Karen villages varies from ten to one hundred houses or 
families ; and in some of the Red Karen villages there are two or 
three hundred families. 


51 — 52. No monuments of any kind are raised by the Karens, or 
have ever been known to be raised. They prefer that their localities 
should be unknown, and wish to ignore their existence to all the 
outside world. 

Works of Art. 

The Karens are singularly deficient in works of art. In the Tenas- 
serim Provinces, the only works they can exhibit are baskets and mats, 
which are very neat. The mats have various forms woven in them 
to which they attribute a divine origin. When god was about to die 
as the legend rims, he called all nations to him to receive his dyino- 
legacies ; but the Karens being tardy in coming, they arrived only in 
time to see his mats burning, and to note the figures on the ashes which 
had been woven into them ; and they have made their mats, they say, 
after these patterns ever since. 

Among the Bghais, we find a few that can work in iron, so as to 
forge their own axes and bills, hoes and spears. On proceeding to 
the Red Karens, silversmiths are met with who make all the common 
female ornaments, as rings, bangles, ear-knobs, and the like. The 

128 Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

Tarns, further north, make matchlocks, some of which that I have seen, 
are very well done, and sell for thirty rnpees each. They display no 
ingenuity, however, in these works. They are mere imitations of Shan 
articles. While the Karens originate nothing, they show as great a 
capability to imitate, as the Chinese. 1h*J - J- «"•*£ 
Boys who never saw a chisel or plane or saw, wdl readily learn to u e 
them, as well as a Chinaman. Men who were called Loo-yamg, wild 
men " by the Burmese a few years ago, can now do all the work ot a 
printing office, as well and as readily as Europeans with the same 
amount of training. Others can use the chain and the prismatic 
compass in the field, and the plotting scale and protractor, and paint- 
box in the house, and produce unaided a very creditable plan of a piece 
of land, while still others can use the sextant, measure heights and 
distances, take the sun's meridional altitude, and calculate the latitude. 
Karen women can generally weave, and embroider very prettily ; 
but there is a tribe or clan in the valley of the Salween, the We-was, 
in which there was not a single woman of the whole tribe, when the 
missionaries went first among them, that knew how to weave. They 
buy all their clothes from the neighbouring tribes, and have no 
peculiar dress of their own. 

The Karens have a few musical instruments of their own manufac- 
ture but they are quite rude. They make pipes or whistles out of 
bamboos ; and bugles out of buffaloes' horns, or the horns of the antelope. 
They have also harps, guitars, jews'-harps, and a kind of dulcimer. 

They are remarkably fond of the sounds of gongs, and kyee-zees, 
a taste they have in common with the Shans and Chinese. The Kyee- 
zee is little known, but it may be described as a large gong, with a 
cylinder a little less than its own circumference attached to one side; 
or it may be viewed as a bell-metal drum, with one end open. It is 
struck like a gong, and gives forth a sound like a gong, but not so 
shrill. They are manufactured by the Shans, and have ornamental 
circles and bands with representations of birds and fish ; and on the 
outer circle are four raised frogs, as the figure of the cat sometimes 
surmounted the ancient sistrum. Whether the sound of the instru- 
ment is intended to emulate the voice of the frog or not, must be 
left to conjecture, for no one can give any reason for the frog being 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, <tc. of the Karens. 129 

The Karens attach a fabulous value to these instruments, and often 
pay absurd prices for those that have good tones. They have dis- 
tinctive names for ten different kinds, which they pretend to distinguish 
by the sound, the poorest of which sells for one hundred rupees, and 
the best for a thousand. Besides these, there are several inferior kinds 
with prices varying from thirty to one hundred rupees. When a good 
kyee-zee is struck, the Karens say the music softens the heart, and the 
women weep for the friends they have lost, or from whom they are 

The possession of kyee-zees is what constitutes a rich Karen. No 
one is considered rich without them, whatever may be his other pos- 
sessions. Every one who has money, endeavours to turn it into kyee- 
zees, and a village that has many of them is the envy of other villages, 
and is often the cause of wars to obtain possession of them. 
Domestic Animals. 

54. The only quadrupeds, entitled to be considered domestic animals 
among the Karens, are hogs and dogs. The hog is the small Chinese 
variety, and is very extensively raised, both for food and for sale. It 
is used in all their offerings as most acceptable to the unseen spirits ; 
and no idea of uncleanness is attached to it, any more than to the ox, 
the buffalo, or the goat. They are exclusively in charge of the women, 
and each hog distinguishes the voice of his mistress, though a dozen 
be calling at the same time, with unerring accuracy, and runs to her 
with greatest alacrity for the food he expects at her hands. 

A few solitary oxen and buffaloes are occasionally seen, purchased 
from the Shans or Burmese, but they cannot be regarded as Karen 
domestic animals, any more than the elephant which is met with here 
and there. The Pakus and Mannepghas raise a few goats, and the 
Red Karens ponies, as well as oxen quite extensively ; but these are 
local and exceptinal. 

Dogs are found everywhere, and are eaten by the Bghais as readily 
as by the Chinese, but not by the southern Karen tribes. The pariah 
is the most common variety, but the Karens raise also a small dog 
allied to the smooth-haired terrier, which they use for hunting. It is 
not abundant, but is highly valued, the price of a good one being 
equal to that of an ordinary pony or buffalo. Deer, it is said, are so 
afraid of them, that they lose strength when they find one of these 

130 Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

dogs after them, and become an easy prey to the hnnter. When they 
start anything, they go yelping after it all day, so that a Karen has 
only to follow on, and he is snre of his game m the end They will 
follow a large snake that the Karens eat, as readily as a deer, bnt they 
will not attack it. Tiger cats, palm cats, and civet cats they attack 
and kill. They fear nothing, excepting tigers and leopards. It they 
come on a tiger's track, they run back. 

Cats are not domesticated by the Karens, for they say, We cannot 
eat them, while they devour the rats we wish to eat ourselves." 

Fowls are raised almost universally. Most of them appear to he 
the common domestic fowl, but a few are the Burmese domestic race 
of the wild jungle fowl ; and a few are met, in the southern districts, 
with the membrane that covers the bones black, or nearly so, Gallw 
Morio, Temm. It is not found among the northern Karens. 

55-56 The government of the Karens may he compared to that of 
the American Indians at present, or to that of the Scottish clans m the 
days of Rob Roy. As a whole, they are ungoverned and ungovernable. 
The Pakus are the hereditary enemies of the Pwos, the Bghais of the 
Pakus, the Gaikhos of the Bghais, and the Red Karens of all Then 
there is not a village, perhaps, without an unsettled feud with some 
other village. Their districts are ill-defined, and they quarrel and 
fight, like civilized people, over a few roods of land. 

If a man is devoured by a tiger, while on a journey, the price of 
his life is demanded by his relatives of his companion who mvited him 
to take the journey, and they constitute themselves both judge, 
jury and executive. Should any one innocently introduce small-pox, 
or cholera, or be supposed to introduce it, or any other disease into a 
village all the deaths are charged to him ; and if he has not property 
to pav the debt remains for his children or grandchildren to liquidate 
Each village, with its scant domain, is an independent state, and 
every chief a prince ; but now and then, a little Napoleon arises, who 
subdues a kingdom to himself, and builds up an empire. The dynas- 
ties, however, last only with the controlling mind. 

Before the country was occupied by the English, Lai-quai, a Bghai 
chief, ruled all the Bghais, and Gaikhos north of Tonngoo. He waged 
war at will with his subjects on the neighbouring tribes ; and by 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, <&c. of the Karens. 131 

furnishing the zenanas of the Burmese governors with comely Karen 
girls, whom he kidnapped, the chieftainship of the Burmese district on 
the plains was given him, and he reigned a king. He died, and his 
empire died with him. 

Twenty- five years ago, I found some ten thousand Karens in the 
valley of the Yuneselon, under the rule of a great chief, called La-kee. 
At his death none of his sons or sons-in-law could keep the kingdom 
from falling to pieces, or prevent its crystallizing into the same ele- 
ments in which La-kee found it. 

In many districts the chieftainship is considered hereditary, but in 
more it is elective ; as much as the chief of the executive is in 
America. The people select the man that pleases them best for chief, 
no matter what his antecedents may have been ; and if after a trial, 
he does not please them, they elect another. In this way divisions 
sometimes occur, one part of a village adhering to one chief, and 
another part to another chief, and they perhaps settle the question by 
a fight. 

In many villages that do not pay taxes or tribute, there are no 
regularly constituted chiefs. The man with the most property, and 
the largest family possessing the power without the name. 

57 — 59» There are no divisions of caste among the Karens, and 
though found in many tribes and clans, the division seems to have 
arisen from the original separation of families, and communities. 

60. Although there are no written forms of law among the Karens, 
yet there is in fact a code of laws preserved in the traditionary 
commands of the elders that meets all the relations of man to man. 
The elders are the depositories of the laws, both moral and political, 
both civil and criminal, and they give them as they receive them, 
and as they have been brought down from past generations. Every 
village has its elders, who are expected to teach the young people 
to do good and to avoid evil. A village without an elder well stored 
with traditionary instruction would be regarded like a parish in 
England without a clergyman. To indicate their usefulness, the 
Karens use this saying : " Where there is no smith, the axes are 
soft ; where there is no cock, the rooms are still." That is, the 

132 DtoelUnys, xoorhs of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

elder gives efficiency to the people, as the smith does to their axes; 
and excites them to action, as the cook hy crowing arouses the sleepers 

t0 lowing leetures are from the lips of Bghai elders. Others 
might not nse precisely the same language, but all would convey the 

same ideas. . ., , v 

^^.-Children and grandchildren, you are children You 

d0 not know, and have never yet seen « es ^ ^ J 
But I am old, difficulties I have seen, troubles I have found. 
iLve been in scarcity and famine. Great waters I have met, 
nd mastered; great fires, I have contended «*,«* £?Z 
Momentous feud, I have known; with mighty w rs 1 [ hav been 
acauainted I am familiar with heat, and I am familiar w th la in. 
T a r e i ruptions of rats destroy the crops ; I have seen the Talalngs 
and Bu mans overrun the country. I have known famines, when the 
p pie had to dig deep to obtain poisonous wild yams ; and I ^have 
Ln them die with exhaustion at the diggings. I have known the 
line so severe that a man has deceived his associate, and given him 
a meal of rice and curry, but no sooner had he done eating it, than he 
eS him as a thief, declaring that he had stolen the food, and then 
oM him into slavery for the theft. I have known a kyee-zee sold for 
a sheaf of paddy, and a basket of paddy for a basket of money. 

tlt'.-Children and grandchildren, do not be lazy work hard 
If fonwm-khard,you will obtain paddy, you will obtain rice ; an 
you can sellit,and obtain money, and what you nave to spare you 
L take care of ; and when times of scarcity and famine coin , you 
can bring out your stores of paddy, and eat and be satisfied, and have 
enough for your children, and grandchildren. 

If you are lazy, you will have no paddy, you will have no agreeable 
food, and you will have nothing with which to buy. When the amine 
is unendurable, you will steal to eat; and you will then be sold into 
slavery ; or if you do not steal, you will die. 

Observe what I say to you, work and labour with cheerfulness and 
gladness. Grasp the helve of the cleaver firmly, hold it with a strong 
grip Expose yourselves to the heat of the sun, and to the pouring 
runs and the fierce winds. Bend down your backs, hold firmly the 
hoc 'and live among the weeds. What yon do, do thoroughly, 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. 133 

completely. We love happiness ; and out greatest happiness is to clear 
our fields and to build our houses. 

I tell you truly, every thing is in the earth. Therefore I say to 
you, bend down your backs, grasp the hoe, hoe deep, weed clean ; 
and you will obtain eatables. Then, in times of scarcity and famine 
you will be able to purchase kyee-zees. Grasp the axe firmly, and clear 
a wide field; and you will obtain abundance of paddy. Then when 
times of scarcity and famine come, you will be able to buy buffaloes, 
and they will be the gains of your labour, the work of your hands. 

If you want to obtain gongs, weed and make it all clean around 
your paddy. Then when times of scarcity and famine come, you will 
be able to purchase gongs ; and they will be the gains of your labour, 
the work of your hands. 

If you want to obtain silver, plant your fields industriously, and 
when the rains come, your paddy will spring up abundantly, and you 
will have good crops. Then you will be able to procure silver, and 
it will be the gains of your labour, the work of your hands. 

If you want to obtain hogs and fowls, take cotton and make clothes. 
Then you will be able to procure hogs and fowls,* and they will 
be the gains of your labour, the work of your hands. 

If you want handsome clothes, spin thread diligently, put in the 
woof and the warp, and weave. Then you will obtain clothes, and 
they will be the gains of your labour, the work of your hands. 

All things are in the earth, and every one who will work hard 
will obtain them ; and he will have eatables ami drinkables, and 'will 
become rich, and will have in abundance. When he dies, he will 
leave his property to his children and grandchildren, and they 
will enjoy it. It will not be like those who obtain property by 
reprisals and forays. That is ill-gotten wealth, and is accompanied 
by hatred aad malice ; and their children never enjoy it. It goes to 
to their enemies. 

Children and grandchildren, work hard, put forth every exertion 
and you will obtain everything by the labour of your own hands 

i^/^.-Therefore I say to you concerning the indolent. Lazy 
people do not like to expose their bodies to the sun, or rain, so their 
skin and flesh are comfortable, and do not suffer like the skin and 
* That is by selling the clothes. 


134 Dwellings, works of art, laws, M. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

flesh of the industrious , but though their «. and flesh are comfort- 
able, their stomachs and mouths are often very uncomfo table Some 
tim s the mouth of the lazy man eats, and his stomach » sat.fied 
Z often Ws^h^.ot^gWea^^.t^ie*^ 
distress; and this is because hedoesnot work his hand j Chmhen 
and grandchildren, do not become imitators of people these 

Help the ^-.-Children and grandchildren, work, every one o 
yofanfle" prepared for a time of famine. Then, when a Ume o 
car ityorfamJcomes, let not the rich, and those ***£* 
the rice and paddy, reject the poor who have nothmg ; tha ~ 

not lose your honour, and be abused ; but that you may be honou d 
and respected. When hard times come and there „ famine in yo 
midst, let the wealthy help those who have nothmg w,th winch to 

Tmv and cannot borrow. 

WiJou. ani 0^^,-Children and grandchildren, do no forsak 
the widows and orphans. You must take care of the widows and 
orphans, yon must look after those who have nothmg all that can 
neither buy nor borrow ; that the poor, the widows and the orphans 
ma y not die of hunger nor become slaves Then , will be , mused 
abroad in other lands, that on your streams, m your land the.e are 

n ny wealthy men, and many elders ; and that they take care of the 
poor, and the widows and the orphans, and that there none die of 
Ln^er, or become slaves among them. When you are thus prated 

nonewill dare to speak evil of you; and you will become powerful, 

and be honoured. „!,„„,. 

But if you do not work, yon will have nothmg and come to hame 
because you have nothing. And if you have property, but do not 
look after each other ; if you are covetous, and do not give compas- 
sionately, you will come to shame on that account. 

men famine comes among yon, if you do not look after the poor, 
and the widows and the orphans ; if you do not take care of those 
w bo have nothing, they will die of hunger or become slaves. Then 
the inhabitants of other countries will hear and say : << We hear tha 
in that country the poor, and the widows and the orphans becomj 
sH ves or die of starvation .» Then the inhabitants of other count >e 
11 abuse you, and speak evil of you and say, "The people of that 
ar all tbchildL of poverty. There are no rich men among 

18G8.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sc. of the Karens. 135 

them ; or if there be one, he is a covetous fellow, and does not take 
care of his people ; and he leaves them to die, or become slaves." 
After you get such a bad character as this, should you become exceed- 
ingly wealthy, and exalt yourselves, and set yourselves up for this and 
that, the people of other lands will not believe you, will not fear you 
will not regard you at all. 

Love. — Children and grandchildren, love one another. Do not 
quarrel, do not find fault with each other. When we are in the 
village we are separate people, bat when we go together to clear the 
fields, we are brethren ; and if one is taken sick on the road, or in 
the jungle, we must take care of him ; we must look after each other. 
When we cut fields together, we are brethren, and if one is sick, all 
are sick ; if one dies, all die, and we must carry his body back to his 
house, and lay it in the hall, that his brethren may see, and his 
children may see, and his wife may see that he is dead. 

Love peace.— Children and grandchildren, love peace, and you will 
live in peace, and live to be old. He who loves peace, his house will 
be established, and it will be permanent. He will sleep in peace and 
have agreeable food to eat. He who walks in peace, will enjoy 
peace. He will have associates, he will have friends. His daughters 
will demean themselves with propriety, and his sons will live happily. 
He will have no adversaries, he will have no enemies. The lovers of 
peace will live long and be prosperous. 

Evil doers. — The evildoer has no friends ; he has no houses, no 
fields ; but he has adversaries and enemies. His daughters will be- 
come slaves, his sons servants. His wife will become the wife of 
another, and his kyee-zees and gongs will be all expended. His 
kyee-zees will become the kyee-zees of others ; his money the money 
of others. His land will be destroyed, and his country will come to 

Children and grandchildren, take no pleasure in them. Evildoers do 
not live to be old. Their ways go up quickly to old age and death. 

Duty to Parents. — Children and grandchildren, he who does not 
love his father and mother, will suffer for his sin. When he was 
small, his mother gave him the milk of her breast to drink, and she 
bore him about, and carried him pick-a-pack, and cleaned him when 

1S6 Dwellings, worts of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

he was dirty ; and when he cried, his mother sympathised with him, 
and did not laugh at him. Great a*e the sufferings that his mother 
endured for him while he was an infant. 

Therefore, when a man is grown up, he must take care of his 
mother ; if he does not take care of his mother, if he does not iur- 
nish her food and drink, he will suffer for his sin. He will he 
afflicted, and become poor. 

Your father left your mother in the house to watch you, and he 
went out and worked hard for you and your mother, that you might 
have food and grow, and that your mother might have leisure to 
watch you. If your mother had not had food provided for her, she 
would have had to leave you in the house, and you might have fallen 
out of it and been killed. In order therefore that your mother might 
take care of you, your father went out to work, and endured burning 
heat, and bore the drenching rain. 

Therefore, children and grandchildren, when you grow up, you 
must take care of your father, and provide him with food and drink. 
He that does not take care of his father, will suffer for his sin. When 
the God of heaven and earth looks down upon him, he will punish 
him for his sin, and he will become poor and wretched. If he works, 
he will not succeed in obtaining anything, and he will become sickly, 

weak, and helpless. 

Humility.— Children and grandchildren, he who does not humble 
himself, but exalts himself, and regards his relatives as nobody, and 
makes forays and extorts from his brethren without cause, and does as 
he likes, and is proud, and beats others for nothing, he will not live 

to old age, he will die young. 

Because he acts proudly, and extorts from his brethren without cause, 
the God of heaven and earth will look down upon him, and will say, 
" This man has done thee no evil, thou oughtest not to have done 
evil to him." Then the man that exalted himself, and did the evil, 
will suffer punishment for his sin, and he will become poor and 
wretched. If he has kyee-zees, he will lose them, if he has money, 
he will not enjoy it ; and though he should have sons and daughters, 
they will not live to help him. They will die without apparent 
cause, and he will be left wretched and childless alone, unhappy, un- 
able to work, and without means to purchase anything. 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. 137 

Swearing. — Children and grandchildren, by no means curse each 
other. If there be cause for it, swear, but unless your brethren make 
trouble in your hearts, do not curse and swear causelessly. For I say 
to you, if your brethren make trouble in your hearts, and you curse 
them, and imprecate evil on them, the curse will really come upon 
them. Because they did evil, the evil curse will come upon them. 

But if people do not make trouble in our hearts, do not curse them 
causelessly. For when you curse each other without cause, your 
curses go from one place to another to see to whom they belong, and 
when they find no owner, the Lord of the lands and the waters, 
the God of heaven and earth, is displeased ; and he says to the curse, 
" There is no reason why thou shoulde>t hit this man-; he has done 
no evil, go back to the man that sent thee."* Then the curse returns 
to the man who sent it, and enters into his boiled rice, and into his 
water, and under his ringer nails, and he eats it ; and it hits the 
man who sent it, and he dies. 

Children and grandchildren, this is assuredly true. Anciently 
there was a man who had ten children, and he cursed one of his 
brethren, who had done him no injury ; but the curse did the man no 
harm, and he did not die. Then the curse returned to the man who 
sent it, and all his ten children died. Not a single one survived. 
Then the man repented, because his children died, and he said ; 
11 Hereafter, may I never curse more. That man did me no wrong. 
I cursed him without reason. There was no cause for it, so the curse 
returned and came upon my children ; and all my ten children have 
died. The God of heaven and earth, the Lord of the lands and the 
waters, has killed them, that we may not curse people causelessly." 

Covetousness. — Children and grandchildren, do not covet the money, 
do not covet the kyee-zees of others. Covet not the oxen and 
, buffaloes of your brethren. These things are at your own hands, if 
you will be careful and work hard- 

Partiality. — Children and grandchildren, do not act partially ; do 
not have regard for one more than another. 

Backbiting. — Children and grandchildren, do not backbite, do not 
abuse people who are not present. 

* " The curse causeless shall not come."— Prov. xxvi. 2. 

138 Dwelling*, works of art, laics, fa, of the Karens. [No. 3, 

Hatred— Children and grandchildren, do not hate each other, do 

not give way to hatred. 

Exacting Fines.-ChMren and grandchildren, do not require fines 
for trespass, for breaking your arbitrary rules or regulations. Though 
others make you pay fines for trespass, do not you make them pay 
you for trespasses in return. 

Falsehood-Children and grandchildren, do not testify to words 
which are false. In buying and selling do not use deception. Do 
not defraud, do not be dishonest in your transactions. 

Quarrelling.— Childrea and grandchildren, do not do evil to each 
other, do not strike and beat each other, do not rage against each 
other'. Do not extort from each other. Do not push each other 
down. Be careful. Do not pull each other's hair, do not slap each 
other's cheeks. These things are wrong in the sight _ of the God of 
heaven and earth. Cultivate adjoining fields, build neighbouring 
houses. When you eat rice together, do not boast against each 
other ; when you drink whisky together, do not strike each other. 
The former elders said, "Sleeping together ^ is warmth, eating 
together is sweet, travelling together is pleasant." 

O^reWon.-Children and grandchildren, why is it that one and 
another suffer so exceedingly as they do ? It is because he exalted 
himself at first, and said : "lama man, and my hands are strong/ 
And he sold into slavery the widow and the orphan, and regarded his 
relation as nobody. And he extorted money from others, and treated 
others outrageously ; so when he became old, and his strength failed 
him, his enemies rose up that he had wronged, and retorted on him, 
and' he suffers for his sins. He did evil, and his evil returns upon 
him ; and he grieves, and weeps, and suffers anguish ; and when he 
dies he has no one to bury him, and his body remains in the field, 
and the birds devour it. 

Theft.— Children and grandchildren, do not steal. Those who 
steal or destroy, defraud or act dishonestly, their deeds are by no 
means secret. Though the doers say nothing, though their mouths 
do not speak ; their deeds will become manifest in the ordeal by 
water, and the ordeal of ascending trees. You will be beaten in 
remaining under water, you will be beaten in ascending trees. You 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. 139 

will dive into the water, and come up to the surface quickly ; you will 
ascend trees and fall down. It happens so, because you have stolen 
and destroyed, and dealt fraudulently, and have displeased the God 
of heaven and earth. The God of heaven and earth sees, the Lord of 
mountains and hills sees, Thie-kho Shukha sees. 

Children and grandchildren, if you are hungry, bend down your 
backs, and weed hard. If you want fish, take your hand-net and go 
fishing. If you want rats, set traps for them ; and if you want to 
eat beef, deer and stags are abundant in the jungles, and they are to 
be had without price. They have no owners, no one claims to have 
nurtured and fed them. Dig deep pits in their paths, that they may 
fall into them ; and set nooses, by which they may be noosed and 
sprung up in the air. Feed yourselves and families in this way. 
Borrow not, go not into debt. By no means leave debts for your 
children to pay after your death. 

Every one that does not work hard with his hands, when he steals 
or borrows laughs ; but when he is required to pay, and has nothing ; 
then he weeps. And every one when he steals, and his deeds are hidden, 
puts himself forward as an honest man, and is bold and laughs ; but 
when his true character becomes manifest, and he is required to pay, 
all abuse him and speak evil of him, and call him a robber ; and his 
honor is destroyed, and he becomes exceedingly ashamed. No one 
will believe his professions of honesty afterwards. They will say to 
him ; " Once honest, ten times honest ; once a thief, ten times a thief." 

Forays. — Children and grandchildren, do not make yourselves 
wretched by making forays, and taking the property of your brethren 
for nothing. It is wrong for you to take forcibly the possessions of 
your brethren. It will be lost in like manner, and your children will 
not enjoy it. Do not engage in forays ; do not make reprisals for in- 
juries received. Those who make forays make enemies who will 
never forget them, and the ground around their houses will never be 
smooth, but will be filled with caltrops* and arrow heads. They 

* Not precisely caltrops, but pointed bamboos, a few inches high set firmly 
m the ground, at an angle of about 45°, to pierce the foot of an enemy while 
running to or from the house. They are rather formidable weapons in their 
way. I have seen a man's foot with a hole quite through, made by one that 
caught him on the top of his foot while running awaj . 

140 Dwellings, works of art, laws, dec. of the Karens. [No. 3. 

will not be able to sleep, and they will be unhappy while awake. If 
they obtain kyee-zees or money, they will not use them themselves. 
If they raise hogs or catch wild fowls, they will not eat them them- 
selves. Their enemies will possess them, and eat them without labour, 
and they themselves will come to abject wretchedness. 

j^7^ —Children and grandchildren, do not kill each other cause- 
lessly. Man is not like a beast. Man has a Lord and Master ; he 
is not like the wild animals. We are the children of Thie-kho, the 
children of Shu-kha ; we are the children of Shie-oo, the children of 
Yu-wa, and our God created us. Therefore do not kill each other. 

The man who kills his brother without reason, who is not angry 
with him nor hates him ; that man will be killed without cause in 

like manner. 

When a man kills his brother, Thie-kho Shukha sees it, the God of 
heaven and earth sees it ; and Thie-kho Shukha, and the God of 
heaven and earth look with compassion, and the tears flow from his 
eyes, and he says to the murderer : " Thou hast killed this man and 
he did thee no harm. Thou oughtest not to have killed him, and thou 
wilt be killed in return." 

Therefore, he who kills will be given up by the Lord of the lands 
and the waters into the hands of his enemies, and they will kill him. 
He will not escape death. Be warned, those who kill, death takes 
note of them. They will come to want and distress, and be helpless." 
When night comes, they will long for the day ; and when day comes 
they will long for the night. They will grieve, and take their full 
of o-rief ; they will weep, and take their full of weeping ; and their 
end will be death. When they die, they will have no children, and 
there will be none to bury them. Their bodies will be left naked in 
the fields, and the vultures will devour them. These things I have 
seen with my own eyes, I know them from my own heart ; and they 
have often happened among us. 

Adultery and Fornication.— Children and grandchildren, do not com- 
mit adultery or fornication. If you wish for a wife or husband, take 
one in an upright way with a marriage feast. Do not act covertly. 
If you commit fornication, your daughters will die, and your sons will 
not live ; and the country will be defiled and destroyed on your 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sc. of the Karens. 141 

When you commit adultery or fornication, or have illegitimate 
children, it is displeasing to Thie-kho Shu-kha, it is displeasing to the 
God of heaven and earth. Then the rains do not come at the proper 
time, and the dry season is irregular. The crops are bad, and the 
hunter is unsuccessful ; and your vegetables do not come up ; because 
you commit fornication and adultery. 

You are poor and become slaves because you do that which dis- 
pleases the God of heaven and earth. This he makes known to you 
by bringing on you troubles and difficulties, in order that you may 
not do evil. Children and grandchildren, be careful. 

Suicide. — There is no command against suicide. It is very common 
where Christianity has not been introduced, and the Karens seem to 
see little or no guilt in it. It is regarded as an act of cowardice, and 
the suicide is not awarded an honorable burial ; but we are nowhere 
told that it is displeasing to the God of heaven and earth. 

It is singular that hanging is almost the exclusive way by which 
Karens commit suicide, while poisoning is the most favourite mode 
with the Burmese. 

If a man has some incurable or painful disease, he says in a matter- 
of-fact way, that he will hang himself ; and does as he says. If a 
girl's parents compel her to marry the man she does not love, she 
hangs herself. Wives sometimes hang themselves through jealousy, 
sometimes because they quarrel with their husbands, and sometimes 
out of mere chagrin, because they are subjected to depreciating com- 
parisons. It is a favourite threat with a wife or daughter, when not 
allowed to have her own way, that she will hang herself. 

One of Mrs. Mason's Paku pupils went and taught school in a 
Bghai village, where she was very popular. The village preacher 
observing his wife at her toilet one day, remarked jocosely ; " You 
need not rub your face so much, for you cannot make yourself look as 
handsome as the Paku girl." She said nothing, but immediately 
rose up, and went and hanged herself. 

A young man in my employ recollects twenty-five persons who have 
hung themselves within the last fifteen years, in the circle of villages 
with which he is acquainted, eleven within ten years. Of the whole 
number, ten were men and fifteen women. 


142 Dwellings, works of art, laics, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

Criminal Law.— Tte general principle of criminal law, which the 
Karens recognise as just, is exactly the same as the Mosaic. An eye 
for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. The elders said, « If made blind, 
take out an eye in return; if the ear is cut off, cut off an ear m 
return ; if an arm is broken, break an arm in return." 

The elders do not, however, recommend the exaction of these terms. 
They say again : « In order that we may not subject ourselves to 
fines and punishment, we must allow others to treat us as they choose. 
We must humble ourselves ; we must not retaliate. If we are struck, 
we ought not to strike again. If one grasps the head, grasp the 
floor ; if one slaps the face, slap the floor. If we are made blind, we 
must not make blind in return ; if our ears are cut off, we must not 
cut off the ear in return. The long is before, the short is behind* 
Loving peace, gives a wide place ; loving evil, gives a narrow space. 
It is difficult to obtain happiness, easy to get evil. If we want evil, 
it is at hand before all the water has run out of a vessel that has been 


Law of Inheritance.— -The father wills his property to his children : 
and it is the custom to share it nearly equally among them ; but 
always giving the eldest son the largest share, and sometimes giving 
a little more to the youngest than to those between. Nothing is 
given to the widow, but she is entitled to the use of the property till 

her death. 

When a Karen of property made his will, before letters were intro- 
duced, he killed an ox, or a buffalo, and made a feast at which every 
inhabitant of the village was invited to attend. At the feast, he 
declared his wishes, as to the disposal of his property ; and prayed 
that the disposition he had made, might be carried out after his death. 
The mother has no property of her own. If she brought property 
at her marriage, it became her husband's ; but at her husband's death, 
she takes his place, the Karens say, and the property is hers to use 
till her death ; after which, it goes to the children, according to the 
will of the father. She has no power to make any other disposition 
of it. 

In the event of a second marriage, the children of a mature age 
take possession of the property their father left them. The second 
* That is, the future is long, the past is short. 

18 68.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 143 

husband is not allowed to appropriate to himself an}' part of the 
property of the first husband ; nor can the children of the second 
marriage share in it, though in the case of minors it may remain in 
the mother's hands. 

61. Lawgiver.— No tradition of any legislator, or lawgiver has 
been found. The Karens ascribe all their laws, and instructions, to the 
elders of preceding generations, and have no idea of any period when 
they did not exist. 

62. Change of Laws.— The Karens never make any alterations in 
their laws, or regulations, for the government of their country. They 
seem to think that everything of the kind has come down to them 
from the ancients in a state of perfection, requiring neither addition 
nor alteration. 

63. Observance of their laws.— In respect to the observance of 
their laws, or the instructions of their elders, very little can be said 
in favour of those who have not come under the influence of Christiani- 
ty ; and many that worship with Christians are Christians in name 

The truth can be obtained from a Karen much readier than from a 
Burman, because he is much less artful ; not that he has any more 
regard for the commands of the elders than the Burman has for the 
commands of Gaudamaa. I have never yet met with a Karen, in the 
church or out of it, that when heliad committed a wrong, would not 
tell a falsehood to cover it. They have no regard to their engagements 
or promises. What a Karen says he will not do to-day ; under a change 
of circumstances, he will do to-morrow, and seem to think it all right. 
He has changed his mind, he says, and that is sufficient. 

They have no idea of suffering for truth and righteousness. If their 
leaders or associates do what is confessedly wrong ; they think it quite 
excusable to go with the multitude. They join themselves to forays, 
in which they are not concerned, and think they do no wrong, 
however unjust the attack, because they were hired by others, with 
whom, they deem, the guilt of their robbery or murder rests. 

Theft among themselves is usually discovered and severely punished, 
so the people are ordinarily honest ; but they have no conscience 
about abstracting small articles when they are not likely to be 

144 Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

They are exceedingly vindictive, and demand heavy damages from 
those who have injured them ; and are most implacable enemies. The 
dying charge of a father to his sons, is often for them to avenge his 
wrongs, real or imaginary, and should they be unable to do so, to 
transmit the charge to their posterity. A Gaikho chief was put m 
jail, and I visited him. He was very humble, and promised every 
thing to get out. I interceded for him and he was released. He was 
treated by our Karens with all possible kindness, the few days he 
staid with them. He soon after died in the jungles, and his last 
words to his family were, that they should avenge his death on the 
party that had caused his apprehension. 

Natural affection too is weak among them. It is no uncommon 
thing for a man to curse and strike his mother ; and children, not- 
withstanding the instructions of the elders, take very little care of 
their parents. I have stood over an old woman dying alone m ( 
miserable shed, and tried in vain to induce her children and grand 
children, close by to come to her help. 

The Gho-kho, a Bghai clan, it is said by those who know them 
often sell their relations into slavery. If a child is sickly, and th 
parents think it will not live to advantage, they sell it off, whe: 
occasions offer, to strangers. They say among themselves; " Thi 
child will never grow up and become our posterity. It is contmuall : 
sick, and will never be able to do any thing for us. We had better 
sell it, and then we shall get its price to eat." In seasons of scarcity, 
they frequently sell their orphan nephews, and nieces to obtain paddy. 
Occasionally, when a mother gives annoyance to her children by 
reproving them ; one will say : " My mother talks excessively. I shall 
not be happy till she dies. I will sell her, though I do not get 
more than a gong or five rupees for her." And he sells her. If an 
uncle dies, they often sell the widow ; and if a brother dies, they 
demand ten rupees, of the widow as the price of her husband, their 
brother; and if she has not the means to pay, she is sold into slavery. 
So also, if a married woman dies, her relatives demand a large price 
of her husband, which he must either pay or become a slave or fight ; 
and if he has no money, he usually chooses the last alternative. 

64_67. Administration of the Laws.— -It is instructive to see how 
different the same act looks when viewed from different stand-points. 

I8G8.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. oftlie Karens. . 145 

The forays of the wild Karens appear to civilized people little better 
than unqualified robbery and murder ; but a Karen looks upon them 
much as Europeans do suits at law, and the execution of judgments 
by the sheriff. 

If a Karen is defrauded of his money by dishonest debtors, there 
are no courts of law to which he can appeal for justice ; so he calls 
on his friends, to go and seize the debtor, and make him pay the 
debt with interest, or sell him into slavery. Forays of this kind for 
debts are called small cause actions, and correspond to what we 
denominate civil suits. 

If a man is killed, there is no authority to which a Karen can go, 
to have the homicide brought to justice. Every family is expected to 
avenge its own wrongs. Perhaps a man has been mortally wounded in 
an attack, or quarrel, and he calls his son and says to him ; " I have 
been speared and shot without cause. I am very sick. Should I die, 
get my value, obtain my price. If you can get the living, take the 
living ; if you can get the dead take the dead." After this charge, 
a son deems it his sacred duty to avenge the death of his father, 
whenever a favourable opportunity occurs. These are called great 
cause actions, and correspond to criminal suits. 

In all cases, it is not the custom for the man who occupies the 
position of plaintiff to go to the foray himself. He employs others, 
and stays at home to compensate those that go ; because in the event 
of his death, there would be no one to pay them their wages, or avenge 
their deaths, should they fall in the attack. Thus a Karen always 
thinks himself right in taking the law into his own hands ; for it is 
the custom of the country, which has the effect of law. He is never 
interfered with, unless he is guilty of some act contrary to Karen ideas 
of propriety, when the elders and the villagers interfere and exercise 
a check upon him. 

Civil Suit. — When a Karen has been repeatedly to one that owes 
him money, without obtaining it, and has perhaps been treated un- 
civilly, he calls out the posse comitatus, so far as his friends constitute 
the comitatus, and when a favourable opportunity occurs, they go and 
seize the debtor in his house or field and bring him off ; sometimes 
taking along one or two of his family or friends. 

When the debtor is set down bound before his creditor, the creditor 

146 Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

will say to him ; u I have no feud with thee. On the contrary I 
compassionate thee. But thou borrowedst money of me, thou bor- 
rowedst kyee-zees of me. The money was in my wallet, and I took 
it out and gave it to thee ; my kyee-zee was in my room, and I tied 
a string to it, and slung it on thy head, and caused thee to back it 
away. Therefore I went and asked thee for the return of my money ; 
I went and requested thee the price of the kyee-zee. But thou 
wouldst not pay me ; thou wert abusive to me ; thou stirredst up 
strife. Thy language was contentious ; thy words were not peaceable. 
Thou didst not give me food to eat ; thou didst not give me water to 
drink. Thou wast angry with me, thou didst hate me. I went after 
thee, and returned hungry and thirsty. I ascended mountains, and 
descended into valleys ; I suffered from heat, and I suffered from cold. 
Thou didst not repay me my money, thou didst not pay me for my 
kyee-zee. Many years have now elapsed, many months have past 
over. So now I have commenced an action against thee ; now I have 
made an attack on thee. Thou didst borrow one kyee-zee of me ; 
now thou must pay me two. Thou didst borrow one share of me, 
now thou must pay me two. Thou didst borrow one hundred rupees 
of me, now thou must repay me two hundred. If thou dost not 
pay me, I will sell thee to repay me for my money, to pay me for 
my kyee-zee. And when I sell thee, I shall do that which is right 

and proper." 

Criminal suit,-Mm are not unfrequently killed in drunken broils ; 
but such cases are not allowed by Karen custom to be a cause of action. 
No price can be demanded for persons who lose their lives in such 
circumstances. It is argued there was no malice, no intention to 
kill ; and the person who died was perhaps as much to blame as the 
man who killed him ; and people are not well responsible for what 
they do in a state of intoxication. 

But when a man has had a near relative killed in a foray, it is 
deemed right that he should have blood for blood, and his friends and 
others whom he loves, stand ready to avenge him when called upon, 
and they go and make reprisals. 

The f t —When a thief is discovered, if it be his first act, and he 
promises to be honest for the future, he is allowed to go free on 
restoration of the stolen property. But if he be an habitual thief, 


1868.] Dwellings, ivories of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 147 

he is sold off into slavery among strangers, so that the village 
may have no more trouble with him. 

When a man is suspected of theft, and there is no positive evidence 
to sustain the charge ; if he denies it, recourse is usually had to the 
water ordeal. 

The accused says to the man who brings the charge. " We will 
decide this matter ourselves by diving under water. If thou beatest 
me, by remaining under water longer than I do ; if I have kyee-zees, 
I will give them unto thee ; if I have slaves, I will give them to thee. 
If I do not give thee the kyee-zees or slaves, take my body and rip it 
open, take my head and cut it off. Split me in two from head to 
foot, and cut me in two across." 

Then the man who makes the charge rises up, and replies : " Thou 
sayest thou art honest, thou art upright. If I have charged thee 
falsely, and if I do not beat thee, in remaining longest under water, 
take my wife and live with her, take my kyee-zee and carry it away, 
split me in two and cut off my head." 

Then in the presence of the friends of each party they go down 
into the water ; and a person puts a board over the heads of the two 
men as they stand together, and puts down the heads of both into 
the water at the same instant. The man that comes up first to the 
surface, is regarded as the guilty party ; and he pays a kyee-zee, if he 
has one. If he has none, his friends pay it for him ; but if he has 
neither kyee-zee nor friends, he is put to death, as he adjudged him- 
self before taking the ordeal. 

Another ordeal is to ascend a Steraiilia tree after it has been strip- 
ed of its bark, and is very slippery. But I have never known it to 
be used. 

Adultery and Fornication. — When adultery or fornication has been 
committed, the elders decide that the transgressors must buy a hoo- 
and kill it. Then the woman takes one foot of the hog, and the man 
takes another, and they scrape out furrows in the ground with each 
foot, which they fill with the blood of the hog. They next scratch 
the ground with their hands and pray : " God of heaven and earth, 
God of the mountains and hills, I have destroyed the productiveness 
of the country. Do not be angry with me, do not hate me ; but have 
mercy on me, and compassionate me. Now I repair the mountains 

148 Dwellings, works of aft, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

now I heal the hills, and the streams and the lands. May there be 
no failure of crops, may there be no unsuccessful labours, or unfortunate 
efforts in my country. Let them be dissipated to the foot of the 
horizon. Make thy paddy fruitful, thy rice abundant. Make the 
vegetables to nourish. If we cultivate but little, still grant that we 
may obtain a little." 

After each has prayed thus, they return to the house and say they 

have repaired the earth. 

If one is a widow and the other a widower, no fine is required of 
them, but if one is the wife of another man, the adulterer is required 
to pay a fine, and he is not allowed to live with the woman till the 
fine is paid; but after the fine is paid, they are allowed to live 
together ; and the husband takes the money, and with it, they say, 
procures another wife. He is regarded as having obtained a divorce 
from the adulteress, and is at liberty to marry again. If a woman has 
committed adultery with the husband of another woman, then she 
must pay a fine ; and after the fine is paid the injured party is 
considered as divorced and can take another husband, if she chooses. 

Adultery, or fornication, is supposed to have a powerful influence 
to injure the crops. Hence if there have been bad crops in a village 
for a year or two, and the rains fail; the cause is attributed to secret 
sins of this character, and they say the God of heaven and earth is 
angry with them on this account ; and all the villagers unite in 
making an offering to appease him. 

Persons possessed of poisons.— Poisoning is not uncommon. The 
Karens purchase their poisons of the Shan traders that travel among 
them. One of the most common is described as a yellow powder, which 
resembling turmeric is easily mixed with the food of the victim 
without danger of detection. This is probably yellow orpiment, the 
yellow sulphuret of arsenic. 

Another poison is a root, perhaps the root of Gloriosa superba ; but 
the most virulent, the one that produces death the quickest is said 
to be in little black grains, and is supposed by the Karens to be the 
o-um of a tree ; which must be a mistake. 

° It is said that the hairs of the whiskers of a tiger, if eaten with the 
food produce death. They are represented as producing coughing and 
vomiting of blood. 

1868.] Dwellings, icorl-s of art, laws, Sfc of the Karens. 149 

Some persons are said to keep poison fangs in their possession for 
the purpose of killing people. These they thrust into the foot marks 
of the person they wish to kill, who soon finds himself with a sore 
foot, and the marks on it, as if bitten by a dog. The sore becomes 
rapidly worse and worse till death ensues. 

Others are represented as having a poison stone, in the shape of a 
man's hand, which is called the hand of a demon. This is applied to 
the image of the person to be killed. An image is made of clay, and 
placed on the variegated leaf of a plant of the -inger family ; and the 
stone hand is then thrown at the small clay image which it breaks to 
pieces. This is supposed to represent the destruction of the person 
represented ; who immediately sickens and dies. It is essential to 
success, however, that the operator sit on watch over his image three 
days and three nights. If he goes to sleep in that time, his labour 
is all in vain ; and he will wake up witli a bit of flesh between his 
teeth, and become possessed of a demon ; so it is about as dangerous 
an experiment to the operator, as to the one operated upon. 

Now it is considered unlawful for a man to have such poisons, real 
or imaginary, in his possession. If found on a man, he is sometimes, 
by the voice of the people bound and spread out in the sun three days, 
and after destroying his poisons, he is made to swear the most solemn 
oaths that he has no more ; and will never procure more ; or he is 
sold off into slavery. If he has been guilty of poisoning, or supposed 
to have poisoned any one, it is considered a meritorious deed to put 
him to death. 

Cursing.— Cursing is, with the Karens, an organised mode of punish- 
ment for crimes that cannot be reached in any other way. 

When a man will curse another deliberately, he goes on to the 
verandah of his house, and curses him three evenings in succession. 
On the third evening, he takes an expiring faggot, an addled egg, 
and the last droppings of the dishes, which are usually given to the 
pigs, and he says : " May his life expire, like this dying faggot ; 
may he be destitute of posterity like this addled egg ; and may his 
end be like this refuse of the dishes." 

68. Geography and Statistics. — The most southern limit of the 
Karens is in the province of Mergui, north of Latitude 12° ; and they 
are found, in an uninterrupted line to beyond lake Nyoung Yue in 


150 Dwelling worU of art, laws, Ife. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

Kbdrt Latitude 21°. I have followed up the line myself into 
Karenee • and have met with Taru Karens from the region near 
Nyo g *- ^port says they are found mueh farther north 
olthey have not yet heeu verified. On the west they extend 
to the Lean hills in Longitude 92°, and on the east^ to the 
Bemivities of the mountains on the right side of the Menam m ahou 
Longitude 100°. Thus they are known to he scattered over nun, 
decrees of Latitude, and eight degrees of Long.tude. In ta Ro- 
per at least, the wild tribes on the east side of the Menam are not 
Karens; for the late Dr. Jones of Bangkok furnished me with a 
small vocabulary of the language they spoke, and I found it wholly 
diverse from the Karen. The name of the people which he gave 
me was KM, and Yule has Ka-huas on his map, near the Cambodia 
river, who are probably the same people. 

69 Population.-The Karen population of British Burmah, ac- 
cording to Col. Phayre's last report is 363,756. The Red Karens are 
estimated at 210,000, which makes upwards of half a million, lor 
Burmah Proper, Siam, and the Shan States we have no data what- 
ever on which to estimate their numbers, but we may hazard a 
conjecture that they amount to nearly half a million more ; and thus 
we have a million of Karens south of China. It is not probable 
that there are more ; for Dr. Williams ascertained, while in Bamo, 
that the Ka-khyens in that neighbourhood are identical with the 
Singhpos ; and I have seen Paloungs, from the cast of Tagoung 
who assure me there are uo Karens in their neighbourhood. The 
tribes in the Irrawaddy valley, north of Tagoung, appear to be 
allied to the Tibetan nations ; while the Karen relationship is 
more with the Chinese. Their languages prove this. 

70 The Karen population is certainly not on the increase. In 
1831 when I went to Tavoy, the Government census made the Karen 
population of the province about five thousand ; and in 1862, the 
Deputy Commissioner, Captain Stevenson, reported it at a little less 
than five thousand. In the interval of thirty-one years, several 
villagers have immigrated into the district from Siam, and one or 
two from Yeh, but I am not aware that one has left the province 
in that time. The most then that can be said for the Karen 
population of Tavoy is, that it is about stationary. 

1868.] Dwellings, u-orlcs of art, laics, Sfc. of the Karens. 151 

In Toungoo the births and deaths, for the last four years among 
the Christian population, show a slight increase of deaths over the 
births, which brings us to a similar result.* These examples, it 
must be observed, are from localities where there have been neither 
wars nor famines in the period under review, and where the people 
have had all the advantages of living under the protection of the 
English Government, and have had the help of Missionaries to 
furnish them with considerable medicine, and medical advice and 

71. In the Yuneselon valley, where there have been wars and 
consequent scarcity of provisions, the population has been very 
greatly reduced within a quarter of a century ; and in Toungoo, 
while I know of many villages that are reported as having been much 
larger than they now are, I know not one that was said to have in- 
creased, or that has apparently done so under my own observation. 

72. The people appear to be living as they have always lived. Still, 
the southern Karens have traditions of some of their observances, 
having been introduced by a man called Mautan ; and they have not 
been universally adopted. There too they burn their dead, which 
they regard as a modern custom. Tradition says they formerly buried 
as the Toungoo Karens do now. 

74. There is no tendency to union of races. They have an aversion 
to marrying out of their own tribe even among themselves. Still, those 
who live near the Burmese, do occasionally form connections with 

75. Social Relations. — The relations of the Karens to the civilized 
nations around them, are either antagonistic, or that of tributaries. 
The Burmese and Takings brought all under tribute in their terri- 
tories, excepting a few tribes, and parts of tribes in Toungoo, and 
the neighbourhood, that have succeeded in maintaining an uncertain 
independence subject to occasional raids upon them by the Burmese, 
who burnt and destroyed everything before them. In return, if a few 
scattered Burmans fell among them, they seldom escaped with their 
lives. It may be remarked in passing that bad as the Burmese 
government is, the Karens, that have been subjected to it, are more 
thrifty, more civilised in every respect, and live more comfortably, than 

* See Toungoo News Sheet, October, 1864. 

152 Dwellings, tvorks of art, laws, Sfc of tie Karens. [No. 3, 

those who have ever maintained their independence; which goes to 
prove that a bad government is better for a people than no government. 
Among themselves, every tribe is antagonistic to each other. In 
the south, where there are Pwos and Sgaus, one fought against the 
other In the Mergui district, the Pwos are not now more than half 
as numerous as the Sgaus, but the numbers of the two tribes are said 
to have been formerly about equal ; the present difference being the 
result of their wars; and before the English took possession of the 
country, the Sgaus were preparing for another onslaught on the 

'inToun-oo, the Bghais and Pakus have maintained, from time 
immemoriaCa relation to each other, much like that of the French 
and En-lish of past centuries ; regarding each other as natural 
enemies ; and the Bghais being the most addicted to war, were 
usually the attacking party ; while the Red Karens in the distance, 
more powerful than either, looked impartially on both contending 
parties and plundered each as convenient opportunities offered. 
While these wars were going on in the east, the Bghais had another 
enemy to contend with in the Gaikhos, on the north, with whom a 
petty warfare has been ever maintained. Besides the wars of nations 
and tribes, each village, being an independent community, had always 
an old feud to settle with nearly every other village among their own 
people. But the common danger from more powerful enemies, or 
having common injuries to requite, often led to several villages uniting 
together for defence or attack. 

Karen Free Masonry, -There are established forms of making 
covenants of friendship, by which each party pledges himself to the 
other to be his friend ; and to aid and support him in all circumstances 
throughout life. There are three grades. Mghe, Tho, and Do. The 
strongest, and most sacred is the Do. The obligations of the Tho are 
less than' those of the Do; and of the Mghe less than the Tho. 

When two persons wish to become related to each other, so as to 
become Dos ; the one who is at home takes a hog, or a fowl, and 
cuts off the hog's snout, or the fowl's bill, and rubs the flowing 
blood on the front of the legs of the other, and sticks on them some 
of the feathers or down of the fowl. Then they consult the fowl's 
bones, and if they give a favourable response ; they say ; " We will 

1868.] Dwellings, ivorks of art, laws, Sfc. of tlie Karens. 153 

grow old together ; we will visit each other's houses, we will ascend 
each other's steps." 

The visitor next kills a hog or fowl, and performs the same rites on 
the other. On consulting the fowl's bones he says ; " If the fowl's 
bones are unfavourable, we will die separate, we will go separate, we 
will work separate ; we will not visit each other's house?, we will 
not go up each other's steps, we will never see each other but for a 
short time." 

If the response is favourable, the two have entered into the rela- 
tion of Do, and consider themselves pledged friends, bound to help 
eaeh other as long as they live, in any way that they may require 
assistance ; and they no longer call each other by their proper names, 
but by that of Do. In seasons of famine or scarcity, a Do helps his 
colleague to the extent of his ability ; and if a man is abused, and 
evil spoken of, his Do defends him, saying ; " That man is my 
Do, and to speak evil of him, is to speak evil of me. I do not wish 
to hear it." 

Many multiply their Dos in different villages, so that wherever they 
go, they may be sure of hospitable treatment ; and if their enemies 
plan a foray upon them, and the project becomes known to a Do, they 
are immediately informed of it. 

It is said the Dos very rarely quarrel, but remain faithful to each 
other, and the institution seems to exert a very favourable influence 
in wild Karen society. It may be compared to Masonry without its 

Intercourse by Sea. — Though the Karens have had no intercourse 
by sea with other nations, yet those near the sea-board have some 
stories that seem to indicate a knowledge of the existence of Ceylon 
under the name of Salie, the name by which Ptolomy designated the 
inhabitants of Ceylon. One story says : 

" The elders relate that anciently there was a white foreigner who 
went and traded in a city called Phu-Sa-lie ; and the inhabitants 
of Phu-Sa-lie are upright. When the white foreigner arrived at 
Phu-Sa-lie, they had heard of the Karens, whom they called elder 
brother Paku, and the Karens in return, called them younger brother. 
They took the pods of the black and red cotton plants, and scalding 
to death the insects in them, they prayed thus ; ' If these reach our 

154 Dwellings, works of art, laws, 8(c. of tie Karens. [No. 3, 

elder brother, may they not die ; may every seed vegetate ; but ii 
planted on the ways before reaching him, may they die, and none 
spring up ' They then took the cotton pods, and gave them to the 
Captain of the ship, saying to him. ' Take and deliver these to our 
elder brother Palm.' 

« When the Captain of the ship, the white foreigner, got back to 
his own country, he thought to himself; 'We will multiply tins 
cotton, and afterwards carry it to its place of destination.' So 

he planted it, and it all died. 

"Subsequently he went trading again to Phu-Sa-lie, and he was 
asked if he had carried the cotton seed to elder brother Paku. He 
told them honestly that he had not, that wishing to multiply them, 

he had planted the seeds, and all died. 

« Phu-Sa-lie said : « We will try you again. Deliver what we give 
you now, or never come to this place again.' Then they gave him a 
o-olden book for the Karens, and a silver book for the white 
foreigners, but charged them not to open either on the way. The 
Captain of the ship took the books and departed, but when half way 
on his return, the ship's crew insisted on opening the book designated 
for the white foreigners, and after refusing three times, he complied 
with their wishes. The book taught them how to obtain food and 
drink. If they did thus, the consequences would be this ; if they 
did so, the consequences would be that. 

« Then the ship's crew said ; ' If our book is so good, how much 
better the Karens' must be' ! and they insisted on opening it. To 
this the Captain of the ship resolutely refused to consent ; so they 
killed him, cutting off his head, and throwing him into the sea. 
Then they opened the book, and found it taught that people should 
never die.' Then they determined to retain the book, but the ship 
and all the crew were lost in the midst of the sea, and they never 
reached their own country again. 

« The body of the murdered Captain, however, floated back to the 
place whence he departed, and the king of Phu-Sa-lie, being on a 
tower by the sea shore, saw something in the water in the distance, 
and he ordered his servants to go and see what it was. They returned 
and reported it to be the body of the ship Captain that had taken 
away the books, and that it had floated up to the landing-place. The 

1868.] Dwellings, ivories of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 155 

king commanded ; < Go call him to my presence.' The messengers 
went, and in accordance with the king's command, they said to the 
corpse. ' Arise quickly ! The king calls thee.' He immediately 
arose to life and went before the king, who said : < Did I not send 
thee with the Karens' book. Why hast thou returned ?' The Captain 
replied : ' My Lord, the sailors asked to see the book, and when I 
refused, they plotted together and unanimously determined to cut off 
my head and kill me. If your majesty doubts it, please look at my 
neck.' He showed his neck, and all were convinced of the truth of 
his statement. The king said : ' Remain here at present. Thou 
shalt return hereafter.' " 

76. Treaty, Offensive and Defensive. — When two or more villages 
wish to enter into a condition to support each other against any enemy 
that may arise against either ; they assemble together, and kill an ox 
or a buffalo, and make a feast. At the close of the feast, the elders 
take counsel together and say : " Now we speak to each words of 
peace. Now our children shall marry together. You shall take wives 
of us, and we will take wives of you. We are not other peoples, we are 
brethren. If our enemies come, we will not separate ourselves ; but 
we will pursue them together till we kill them ; and if we cannot 
catch them, we will make war upon them, and make reprisals. May 
we ever support each other, and always be of one heart." 

Mode of Warfare.— The Karens never declare war. The great 
principle of Karen warfare, is to take their enemy by surprise. Nor 
is war waged ostensibly between one village and another. There is 
always an individual at the head of every war, on whose account the 
war is made, and who acts as the general, but never goes to the fight 
himself. When he deems it a favourable time for his purpose he 
kills a hog, or a fowl, and he takes a bit of the heart, and a bit of the 
liver, and a bit of the entrails ; and after mincing them up with salt 
he rolls the mixture up in a leaf. This he calls tying the heads of his 
enemies, and after finishing his preparations, he prays : '^Lord of the 
heavens, Lord of the earth ; Lord of the mountains ; Lord of the hills, 
mayest thou put down the inhabitants of that village ! Make them 
forgetful, make them to forget themselves, help us, we beseech thee." 

He then gives the roll to two men who have been engaged for the 
service, and says to them ; " I send you to spy out the road, go 

156 Dwellings, toorks of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

look. Is the village easy or difficult to attack? Has it caltrops 
planted around it or not ? Look accurately. Go up into the village 
and sleep with the people; and if any one invites you to sit with 
him, take out this roll and mix up its contents privately will their 
rice and curry. It will tie their heads. I will tie their heads with 
it; when they eat, they will forget themselves; and then we wil 
go and attack them. And because they have eaten tha which tic 
their heads, they will forget to seize their swords and spears, and 
before they can recover themselves, we will grasp their arms, and 
overcome them, and kill them." , . I 

When the spies return, they probably say :" These people have . 
not planted a single caltrop. There is no difficulty about the vil age 
whatever. If we go and attack it, we shall take it, and kill all the 

Pe Then the head of the war sends out his people to collect volun- 
teers for his foray. The matter having been arranged before hand, 
fortv or fifty come from one village, and forty or fifty from another, 
and when all the fighting men assemble together, if they amount : 
to a couple of hundred, it is quite satisfactory, and they are feasted 
at the village to which they have been called. 

Before handing round the whiskey, the head of the war pours out 
S ome slowly on the ground and prays: « Lord of the seven heavens 
and the seven earths, Lord of the rivers and streams, the mountains 
and hills, we give thee whiskey to drink, and rice to eat. Help us 
we entreat thee. We will now go and attack that village. We have 
tied the heads of the inhabitants. Help us. Make their minds forget- 
ful • make them to forget themselves. That they may sleep heavily, 
thai their sleep may be unbroken, let not a dog bark at us, let not a 
hog grunt at us. Let them not seize a bow, a sword or a spear. 
And may the Lord help my children and grandchildren, that are 
going to attack this village, and deliver them from all harm May 
they overcome their enemies and not be lost. May they be delivered 
from the bow, the sword, and the spear." After the prayer, the 
elders drink part of the whiskey, and it is then circulated freely among 

the company. 

The head of the war next takes a fowl and after killing it, 
consults its bones as to the success of the war, if commenced then. 

1868.] Dwelling 8 , works of art x laws, Sfn. of the Karens, 157 

Before the examination, he says; u Fowl, possessor of superhuman 
powers, fore-endued with divine intelligence, thou scratchest with 
thy feet, thou peckest with thy bill, thou goest unto Khu-hte 
(king of death), thou goest unto Tlm-ma (monarch of death,) thou 
goest to Shc-oo, (the brother of God), thou goest into the presence 
of God ; thou seest unto the verge of heaven, thou seest unto the 
edge of the horison. I now purpose to go and attack that village. 
Shall we be hit, shall we be obstructed ? If we go, shall we sutler, 
shall we die by the bow, shall we be pierced by the spear, shall we 
weary ourselves, shall we exhaust ourselves ? If so, reveal thyself 

If the omens are unfavourable, he dismisses the troops and each one 
returns to his home, to wait for a more auspicious opportunity. When 
he calls them again, he proceeds as before; and on consulting the 
fowl's bones, prays ; " We will go and attack that house. Shall we 
overcome, shall we utterly destroy? Shall we escape being hit by 
the bow, and speared by the spear ? Shall we not stumble on any- 
thing ? If they will not resist us, but their lives be destroyed, their 
village come to utter destruction, then, fowl, reveal thyself favourable." 

If the bones give the desired response, the elder that reads it, says : 
" The bones are good. If we go, we shall meet with no disaster. 
We shall seize and kill the whole ; and if any should remain, they 
will not be able to resist us." 

Then the head of the war leaps up and calls out exultingly to his 
troops, that they will certainly be victorious. He says ; " Soldiers, 
par not, nor be anxious. Go fight and be strong. If two or three 
of you are killed, I am your Lord. If in the battle a spear is broken, 
bring me the handle ; if the barrel of your musket drops out, bring me 
the stock. I will replace everything. If one or two are killed, 
bring their bodies to me, I will clothe them, I will give them 
shrouds and pay their value." 

He calls for two to volunteer to be first to go up the ladder into 
the house first, and these he addresses ; " You are a hunting dog, you 
are a wild boar. If you succeed, you are worthy of a gong, and you 
shall have it ; you are worthy of a buffalo, and you shall have it. 
If you cannot succeed, if you are killed ; let not those you leave be- 
hind ask a buffalo of me, let them ask a fowl. Let them not ask of 


158 Duellings, works of art, laics, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

me a silk garment on account of your death. You say you are bold, 
you say you are fearless. You go the first, you return the last. 
Therefore, if our enemies follow, and you run away and become 
terrified, and anything happens to the people, you are responsible." He 
closes with the declaration that he will prosecute the war till he 
overcomes, whatever may be the resistance they meet. 

The troops then go off singing war songs, of which the following is 

a specimen. 

War Song. 
I go to war, I am sent ; 
I go to fight, I am sent. 
Clothe me with the iron breastplate, 
Give me the iron shield. 
I am not strong, may I make myself strong, 
I am weak, may I make myself powerful. 
I go with a multitude, many persons : 
We will go to the house, the foot of the steps : 
AVe will fire muskets and holloa, 
The people come with wives and children : 
Unsheath the spear, draw the sword ; 
Smite the neck, spear the side ; 
The blood flows purple. 

I go to war, I am employed ; 
I go to fight, I am employed. 
Employer gave me whiskey to drink ; 
I drank till I am dizzy. 
We march in order, like white ants ; 
We cross a stream, and trample it dry : 
We arrive at the foot of the house, 
We reach the foot of the ladder : 
We go up into the bedrooms ; 
Blood flows like a stream of water : 
The blood flows down under the house. 
The mother cries herself to death. 

The great hawk flies over the house, 
Pounces down on the chief's red cock : 

1868] Dwelling*! works of art, hues, $c. of the Karens, 159 

The great hawk sweeps around the house, 

Carries off its prey at the foot of the steps ; 

Seizes the chief's white cock. 

The great hawk flies away, 

Leaving the chief behind weeping. 
When the expedition readies the house to be attacked, a party rushes 
into the house killing all the men they meet, while the rest surround 
the house from below. These intercept all that endeavour to escape, 
and receive in charge women and children that they wish to bring 
away alive, and bind them. If the inmates resist, the house is fired, 
and the people who leap out to escape the flames are killed or taken 
prisoners. They kill without regard to age or sex. Infants are 
always killed ; as they say they would die if carried away. Children 
are often massacred with the utmost barbarity. Their hands and te it 
are cut off, and their bodies hacked into small pieces. Adults are 
often emboweled, split in two, their ears cut off and put in their 
mouths ; and it is not uncommon to bring away the jaws of their 
victims as trophies, as the North American Indians bring away scalps. 
Sometimes, after the house has been burnt up, they sow the seeds of 
vegetables on the ashes, to indicate the utter destruction they have 

On the return of the expedition with their captives, when they 
come within hearing of the village from which they were sent, they 
blow loud their war trumpets, and the villagers know by the peculiar 
call, that they are returning victors. On their arrival, they place all 
the captives in the hands of the head of the war, who feasts his troops 
and then dismisses them to their several homes. 

The head of the war keeps the captives a considerable time, when, 
if none of their friends come to redeem them, he sells them off to 
other districts for oxen or buffaloes if practicable, that he may have an 
ox or a buffalo to give to each village that came to his aid. 
Treatment of Prisoners. 
Captives are often ill-treated, beaten, wounded, and occasionally 
killed. When they are brought in bound and fettered to the head of 
the war, he sometimes addresses one thus : " I did not begin this war. 
You killed my father, you killed my mother ; you have cut off my head, 
made my tongue to protrude. You have made the blood to flow to the 


Dwelling works of art, laws, $c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

handle of the cleaver, to the sheath of the spear; you *"-*£ 
the how string, you have broken the spear. You have made my father 
come to corruption, my mother to rottenness. You have exasperated 
me you have made my anger to rise. I have not attacked you without 
reason; there was a righteous cause. You have dried up the waters, 
you have made the land barren, the grain unproductive, the barns 
empty You have angered the God of heaven, you have provoked 
the Lord of the earth. You have stopped the rains, and made the 
dry season irregular. You must now redeem yourselves, you must 
pay money, yon must give kyee-zees. If you do not furnish your price 
you must become shaves and die slaves.'' 

When captives are sold, it is always difficult to obtain buyers for 
elderly people at any price ; but men and women from thirty to forty 
rears of age will sell for one hundred rupees each ; and young men 
Ld young women for three hundred. Girls and boys between twelve 
and fifteen years of age are considered the most valuable and are 
purchased at rates as high as four hundred rupees each. Children of 
three or four years of age fetch thirty or forty rupees a piece. Prices, 
however, are variable. When I was in Karenee, two Shan women 
were brought in by some Shans, and sold for fourteen rupees each 

Redeeming Captives. -When part of a village attacked escapes they 
usually endeavour to redeem the prisoners that have been taken before 
they are sold away to strangers. For this purpose, an elder belonging 
to a neutral village is hired to go and buy off the captives. 

When the messenger comes to the head of the war, and explains 
his object; if acceptable, he takes a hog, and cuts off Us snout, 
and with the blood that flows from it, he besmears the legs of the 
messenger, which is the sign that he makes him his friend and he 
says he will receive him as an ambassador of peace, and he shall make 
peace between the belligerent parties, and they will become brethren 


After being well entertained that day, lie is dismissed the next 
morning with the legs and head of the hog that had been killed ; and 
the sight of these, when he returns, is regarded as legal proof that his 
mission has been accepted in good faith; and that definite arrange- 
ments may be made for the redemption of each captive, if they do 
not quarrel about the price, which they sometimes do. When every 

1868.] Dtrcllin<js. works of art ) Jaws, Sfc. of Hie Karens. 101 

thing has been arranged satisfactorily, filings are made from a sword, 
a spear, a musket "barrel and a stone, and a dog is killed, these 
filings are then mixed with a part of its blood, and with the blood of a 
hog and a fowl ; and the whole is put into a cup of water. This is 
called the " peace-making water." Then the skull of the dog is 
chopped in two, and one takes the lower jaw, and suspends it with 
a string around his neck; the other party takes the part of the 
skull containing the upper jaw, and hangs it around his neck in like 
manner. They next take in hand the cup of " peace-making water," 
and say ; " We will now make an end of the feud. Hereafter, we 
will not attack each other ; we will not devour each other's property 
any more, we will become brethren, we will marry into each other's 
families. We will entertain no hatred, no malice ; we will not 
backbite each other, but we will be happy in each other down to the 
generations of our children and grandchildren ; and our children 
shall not quarrel, but live in harmony." "If you agree to this," 
says each party addressing the other, "and will agree to live in 
accordance with this agreement for ever, unto the generations of our 
children and grandchildren, then drink of the peace-making water." 

After drinking they say : " Now that we have made peace, if any one 
breaks the engagement, if he does not act truly, but goes to war again 
and stirs up the feud again, may the spear eat his breast, the musket 
his bowels, the sword his head ; may the dog devour him, may the 
hog devour him, may the stone devour him ! When he drinks 
whiskey, may it become in him the water that oozes from a dead body, 
when he eats the flesh of a hog may that hog become the hog of his 
funeral rites." 

After these imprecations, they drink again, and the captives are 

As they go away a salute of muskets is fired, and a shower of 
arrows is sent after them, typical of the power of the dismissing 

Treaty of Peace. — Sometimes when there have been feuds between 
different villages, and the inhabitants have settled their difficulties, 
both villages assemble together, and enter into a treaty of peace. 
Having selected a large and durable tree for a witness, they assemble 
around it, and each party cuts a deep notch in the tree. When the 

162 Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

" peace-making water" is prepared and drank, and the imprecation 
spoken, two elders rise up, spear in hand, and address the people 
saying, " The cause of action is finished this day. Hereafter act in 
harmony, associate with each other as brethren. Hereafter if any 
one brings up a cause of contention, this tree is witness against him. 
If the elders die, the notches in this tree will remain as evidence 
against him ; and let this spear spear him. He shall be fined a 
chatty of silver and a cup of gold." 

Beyond this notch in a tree, no monuments of peace or war are 
known to exist. 

Weapons of War. — Karen weapons of war are the bow and arrow, 
spears and javelins, small spears that they throw at an enemy ; swords, 
matchlocks, and old muskets. For defence they use breastplates 
and shields, they plant pointed bamboos rising a few inches above the 
ground around their houses, which, for the lack of a more appropriate 
name, I called caltrops. 

History. — The first historical notice we have of the Karens is from 
the pen of Marco Polo in the 13th century. Malte Bran, on the basis 
of Marco Polo's travels, says : " Thus the^country of Caride is the south- 
east point of Thibet, and perhaps the country of the nation of the 
Cariaines ; which is spread over Ava." 

This statement is confirmed by old Bghai poetry, in which we find 
incidentally mentioned, the town of Bamo, as a place to which they were 
formerly in the habit of going to purchase axes and bills, or cleavers 
as they now do at Toungoo. When this poetry was composed, they 
must have lived five hundred miles north of their present locality. 

The Bghais have also traditions of a people corresponding to the 
Seres of antiquity, who lived below them, towards the mouths of the 
rivers*, which goes to show that they formerly occupied a more 
northern region than they do at present. 

The Sgaus have traditions that they came from a country north of 
the Shans, and had to cross what they call " the river of running 
sand," which I have suggested may be the great desert between 
China and Tibet, which Fa Hian also designates the river of running 

* See Toungoo News Sheet, August, 1864. 

1868.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 163 

It is not known, however, that the Karens are mentioned by any 
European writer from the days of Marco Polo to the mission of Col. 
Symmes to the court of Ava, at the close of the last century, who 
devotes a page to them in his book ; and though his account of them 
is not applicable to the younger Karens, yet it is substantially correct 
of those in the neighbourhood of Rangoon, of whom he spoke. 

Gaihho Tradition.— The Gaikhos trace their genealogy to Adam, 
and make thirty generations from Adam, to the building of the tower 
of Babel, at which time they say they separated from the lied Karens. 
The Sgaus call Adam and Eve Tha-nai and E-u, but both the Gaikhos 
and the Red Karens denominate them Ai-ra-bai, or E-rai-bai, and 
Mo-ra-mu or Mo-ren-mcu. The antiquity of this Gaikho genealogy 
seems to me very doubtful ; but I give it, as I have received it. 
Kai-kie, the son of Adam, bears some resemblance to Cain, but the 
other names have nothing like them in the Bible. 

The first man and woman created were Ai-ra-bai and Mo-ra-mu • 
and Ai-ra-bai begot Kai-kie, 

„ Kai-Kie n Plu-dau, 

» Plu-dau „ Plau-yu, 

„ Plau-yu n Po-pau, 

» Po-pau j; Kan-phlen, 

„ Kan-phlcu n Kabau, 

» Ka-bau |f Ka-die, 

„ Ka-die 99 Ka-dau, 

„ Ka-dau j} Htan-mai, 

„ Htan-mai n Plieu-sliai-du-khu 

„ Pheu-Shai-du-khu „ Yu-mu-du-htvve, 

„ Yu-mu-du-htwe J5 A-pha-sau-preu, 

„ A-pha-sau-preu „ A-pha-htu-hta, 

„ A-pha-htu-hta n A-pha-htu-ke, 

„ A-pha-htu-ke „ A-pha-pe-do, 

„ A-pha-pe-do n Thie-plau-a-pliau-hta, 

„ Thie-plau-a-phau-hta „ Lau-wa-a-pha-htu-ke, 

„ Lau-wa-a-pha-htu-ke „ Dwie-tha, 

» I>wie-tha n Pro-ka-phau-ka, 

„ Pro-ka-phau-ka „ Ka-so, 

» Ka-so „ Pra-so, 

164 D.elUnp, mrlcs of art, laws, *«. of the Karem. [No. 3, 

and Pra-so te S ot Yan-pon-lie, 

Van-pen-lie » The -P tan > 

„ The-phau » ***-W, 

■<r „ Pra-den-he, 

,, Kan-pyu, » 

Pra-den-lie » Kle-pha-man, 

„ Kle-pha-man ,. Kle-pha-vie, 

„ Kle-pha-vie „ Kle-pha-oo, 

„Kle-pha-oo „ Pan-dan-man 

lathe days of Pan-dan-man, the people determined to build a 
pagoda that should reach np to heaven. The place they suppose o 
I somewhere in the country of the Bed Karens, with whom th y 
represent themselves as associated until this event. When the pagoda 
was half way np to heaven, God came down and confounded the 
language of the people, so that they could not understand each oth m. 
Then he people scattered, and Than-mau-rai, the father o the 
Gaikko tribe, came west, with eight chiefs, and settled » the valley of 

^Tlaren Tradition.-TU Bed Karens say they were driven 
from a place called Ho-htay-lay in the neighbourhood of Ava, sixteen 
or seventeen generations ago, and preserved an imperfect genealogy 
tree0 f the Accession of their chiefs from that period 
seventeen generations ago would take us back to about A. D 1400 
1 that was the period when Ava was founded, winch | 

with the tradition. 

Seventeen generations ago, they relate, they were governed by a 
n„een This lady once discovered a beautiful snver flower that 
had sprung up out of the earth in the forest. The people recognised 
the hand of God in giving it to them, and danced around rt, and 

W0 When P this became known, the Burmese came down on the Karens 
to obtain possession of the silver flower. In the war that ensued, the 
Oneen was killed, and the Karens fled south to the country of 
Lngoo, where they say they built a city. B«t the Bnrmese followj 
them up, and after a residence of one year in Toungoo they fled 

each to the region which they now occupy. 
'l)r Richardson who visited Eastern Karenee obtained from the 

people another tradition, in which they represented themselves as 

1808.] Dwellings, works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 165 

coming originally from China with a large invading force, and when 
the Chinese were driven back, the Red Karens were left behind. It 
was about the period referred to above that Burmese history states 
Ava was beseiged by a large Chinese force ; which is another coincidence 
adapted to make the truth of the sixteen generations plausible. 

When the Red Karens came to their present locality, they found 
the country inhabited by Shans, whom they drove out. The first 
chief that came to the country was Than-krie, or Than-htsgen. 

The descendants of Than-krie reigned for eight generations, but 
there is no record of their names. In the eighth generation, the 
people were joined by the descendants of a brother of Than-krie, under 
Kha-ma Kha-thya, and they usurped the government. 

The genealogy of Kha-ma is traced thus : 

" Kha-ma Kha-thya begot Ric-men Sa-su, and 
Rie-men Sa-su begot Phan-bya." 

This Phan-bya neither eat rice nor drank spirits. He lived on 
yams and fruit; and assumed the character of one possessed of 
miraculous powers. He said he could see into the invisible world, was 
skilled in dreams, understood deep things, and could prophecy things 
to come. The people conferred upon him the title of San-bwa. 

" Phan-bya begot Tho-ray," and Thoray eat rice, so the title 
of San-bwa was not conferred upon him. 

" Tho-ray begot Bu-phan, and Phan-bya." 
Like their grandfather, Phan-bya, neither of these brethren eat rice ; 
and both were made San-bwas, ruling apparently in conjunction! 
Bu-phan died without issue ; but 
" Phan-bya begot Bu-ray." 
In the days of Bu-ray there was no San-bwa again, for he eat and 
drank like ordinary people. 
" Bu-ray begot Ya-yan." 
Ya-yan did not eat rice, so he was made San-bwa. 

" Ya-yan begot Rie-ray." 
There was no San-bwa again in the days of Rie-ray. 

" Rie-ray begot Phan-bya." 
Phan-bya eat no rice, so became a San-bwa ; but he did not live long. 
The record says he died young, and that he was contemporary with 


166 Dwellings, works of art, laws, <yc. of tie Karens. [No. 3 

Kepho, the present San-bwa of western Karenee who succeeded him. 
How he eame to the government does not appear, hut there is strong 
presumptive evidence that he was a usurper, and probably lulled the 
San-bwa. Kepho has no genealogy to show, but leaps back sixteen 
generations and says he is the descendant of the first chief Than-knc, 
hut produces no evidence to sustain his pretensions. 

Ke-pho eat rice and drank spirits till he was thirty years of age, 
when he abandoned them and has lived a vegetarian ever since. 

Kepho's people close the genealogy saying : " So at last the descen- 
dants of Than-krie became San-bwa in the person of Kepho ; and 
Phan-bya who was the first San-bwa prophesied and said : ' Hereafter 
the descendants of Than-krie will rise to be San-bwas. Then there 
will he great happiness; and when they become San-bwas do not 
oppose them.' These words have been fulfilled, for the Ta- ya, the 
descendants of Phan-bya do not oppose the present San-bwa, Kepho ; 
hut they observe the prophetic words of their ancient San-bwa, and 

receive him." 

The division of the Red Karens into two tribes, eastern and western, 
has been usually regarded as a modern event, and began with the 
father of the present ruler of Karenee, but this tradition throws it 
back several generations. 

Six generations ago Man-pheu appeared among the Red Karens. 
« He was a Burman who quarrelled with the King of Burmah, and 
was driven away from Ava, and came and dwelt among the Red 
Karens ; where he succeeded in making himself a ruler. 
" Man-pheu begot Man-kay, and 
Man-kay begot Bu-phan." 
Bu-phan took upon him the prophetic character, neither eat rice 
nor drank spirits, and became a San-bwa. According to some accounts 
this Bu-phan was the first ruler of Eastern Karenee, and was a son of 
the King of Ava who fled from his father in disgrace. 
" Bu-phan begot Hto-ray, and 
Hto-ray begot Tan-ya, and 
Tan-ya begot Ya-hta." 
Ya-hta is the present ruler of Eastern Karenee, and the man that 
protects Shan-loung. 

1808.] Dwettinfa works of art, laws, Sfc. of the Karens. 167 

This genealogy, as given above, is probably inaccurate, being the 
first ever obtained, but it may serve as a ba*is for future correction. 

Tounyoo Tradition. — Thirty years ago I met with a tradition in 
Tavoy, that the Karens had formerly a city at the north, called 
Toungoo. On coming here, I found the Karens in the confident 
belief that the first city in Toungoo was built by a Karen. This 
tradition is in a measure confirmed by a Burmese history found in 
the Kyoungs. It is therein stated that about the year A. D. 1298, 
a teacher at the town of Htieling said to one of his pupils called 
Karen-ba : " If you go south, you will become a great man." He 
went south, and took up his abode in the south-east of Kaylen, 
naming the place, " Karen City." 

His name signifies " Karen father," and the Karens claim him for 
one of their nation, which some Burmans admit, while others say it 
was a name bestowed upon him, because he treated the Karens like 
a father. He subsequently united with two Burmans, the history 
states, the sons of a former ruler in Toungoo, that the king of 
Martaban had defeated and carried away captive. The three jointly 
founded the red city of Toungoo, A. D. 1281. The elder brother of 
the Burmans was killed by the younger, A. D. 1317. The youn- 
ger survived seven years, dying, A. D. 1324. Karen-ba then 
reigned alone, but the son and widow of the younger Burman 
were discovered in a plot to assassinate Karen-ba, and they were both 
put to death, lie reigned epiietly eighteen years longer, and died 
A. D. 1342. This is the last record of Karen-ba in the Burmese 
books ; and though there is nothing incredible in his being a Karen, 
yet there is no evidence to show that the Karens had any part in the 

The Karen traditions are pure myths, without a particle of historic 
truth. They say that the present city of Toungoo, which they 
regarded as the largest city in the world excepting Ava, was built by 
a Karen called " Tan-oo Shan," which signifies, " Ruler of Toungoo," 
and he had a wife called Khai-pa, but known in tradition under the 
name of Sa-mu-wa, signifying " White Lady." 

Soon after Toungoo was built, the King of Ava came down and 
fought against ^it, and killed Tan-oo Shan. His death is attributed 
to his not listening to his wife. While a personal contest was going 

168 Dwellings, works of art, laws, &c. of the Karens. [No. 3, 

on between the Toungoo ruler and the king of Ava, the White Lady 
called out to her husband : " Smite him on the neck with your sword 
and then hit his head with the hilt, and his head will fall off." 
Tan-oo Shan was paying no attention to his wife, and did not hear ; 
but the King of Ava was more attentive and caught the words, and 
tried the experiment on Tan-oo Shan, when his head fell to the 
ground, but it still retained life enough after it was cut off to ex- 
claim : " Toungoo is mine, and when the appointed time arrives, I 
will return again, and take possession of it with white and black foreig- 


What became of the " White Lady" is not clear from the above 
legend ; but from a single verse that I have met with, it would seem 
she was neglected and went away, for it is said : 

a Sa-mu-wa, we did not believe her, 

Sa-mu-wa, we did not obey her : 

She returned to her former home. 

And long have we looked for her return." 

Another prose tradition says: " Anciently Tan-oo Shan, and Ava 
Shan contended with each other and fought. Tan-oo Shan was a good 
man but Ava Shan was fierce and killed him. Before he died, he 
promised and gave commands and said : " I do not die for ever." He 
promised that in seven generations, he would return again to Toungoo 
and look after the city he had built. And the elders charged their 
children, generation after generation: "When our Tan-oo Shan died, 
he said he did not die; he only removed towards the mouth of the 
river' below j and that when seven generations, seven ages were 
completed, he would come up again." Hence the elders commanded 
and said : " If people say the Tan-oo Shan has appeared, and he comes 
from the east, or the north, or the west, wherever he may be, do not 
believe him, do not follow him. He is not our Tan-oo Shan. But 
when people say the man has come from below, from the mouth of the 
river $ that is indeed our Lord, the Tan-oo Shan risen again and 
returned When you hear that he comes up with his wife and children 
and followers of white and black foreigners, that is our Tan-oo Shan. 
Go look at him. Go to him quickly. And look at his wife, Sa-mu- 
wa Is she white? If she dresses in red or black, or yellow, or 

1868.] Additions to the knowledge of Silk. 109 

variegated, it is not Sa-mu-wa, it is not the wife of our Lord Tan-oo 
Shan. Look at her accurately. If she be white and dresses in white, 
she is the veritable Sa-mu-wa ; and he is the true Tan-oo Shan." 

Additions to the knowledge of Silk;— by Captain J. Mitchell 
Superintendent of the Government Museum, Madras. 

[Received 9th October, 18G5.] 

In the year 1859, I had occasion to examine with the microscope 
several kinds of raw silk, and I then discovered that the silk of A ntherea 
paphia, commonly known as Tussah silk, had a very peculiar structure, 
differing entirely from that of the several species of Bornbyx. 

My duties, up to a very recent date, left me no time for original 
research and the Tussah silk was consequently put aside. It was not 
however, forgotten, and I have taken advantage of the leisure afforded 
by a holiday to endeavour to elucidate the structure of the filament. 

The silk of Bornbyx is cylindrical or nearly so. It is translucent 
and, apparently, homogeneous. The larva spins a double filament ; 
the two filaments, being laid side by side like two fine glass rods, are 
held together by a gummy cement which is soluble in water. The 
silk of Antherea papliia is flat, and appears to be composed of a number 
of opaque rods placed side by side, the intervals between the rods 
being filled in by a translucent cement, very difficult to dissolve.— 
The filament is evidently compound. Under certain conditions of 
illumination, it bears considerable resemblance to one of the coarser 
bands of Hobert's Test Plate. 

This very peculiar appearance of the Tussah filament, is readily 
seen with a quarter or half inch Achromatic ; but the demonstration 
of its compound structure, in that exact way that will alone satisfy 
the demands of science, is a more difficult matter, on account of the 
insolubility of the cement which binds the elementary, or primary 
filaments together. Macerating the silk in water for upwards of a 
month did not separate them, alcohol did not do so. Acetic acid 
mixed with alcohol appears to promise well ; but the only way in 

17 o Additions to the hnoivledge of Silk. [No. 3, 

which I have yet been able to effect a separation is by tearing the 
silk gently with fine bent needles. In this way, small portions have 
been opened out, and the compound nature of the filament placed be- 
yjond a doubt. I have been able to measure the diameter of the 
filaments, not very accurately, however, on account of their trans- 
parency, but the finest do not exceed 35^0 o th of an inch * 

It is scarcely prudent to speculate upon the kind of organ by which 
this silk is produced, there is, however, reason to believe, that the silk 
issues in the form of a hollow, or ribbed cylinder, of which the 
opaque ribs are the primary filaments, and the interspaces the cement. 
Such a cylinder, while in a soft state, would collapse, as soon as the 
central support was withdrawn, and its application to a leaf, or a 
part of the cocoon already spun, would cause it to be flat. This of 
course is only surmise, and is only given as a hint to any one who 
may have the means and inclination to pursue the enquiry. It can 
only be demonstrated by a careful preparation of the spinning organs 
of the caterpillar which, if I have guessed rightly, will be found in 
the form of a ring of minute apertures set round a central papilla. 

The silk of the Actias selene is flat like Tussah silk, and from its 
fibrous appearance, there can be little doubt that it also is compound. 
That of Attacus atlas appears to be cylindrical, it is, however, finely 
grooved on the surface, and is in all probability a compound structure 

like the other two. 

I have examined several kinds of silk, and have invariably found it 
to consist of two filaments, simple or compound, as the case may be,: 
placed side by side. I mention this because in all the works save one, 
to which I have been able to refer the silkworm is said to spin a 
single thread. The exception is " Adam's Essays on the Microscope." 
Edition of 1798. It is there correctly stated that the filament is 

18G8.] A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah &c. 171 


—■by Peter A. Minas, G. 31. C. B., Honorary Assistant Surgeon; 
in Civil Medical charge of the Hissar District. 

[Received 10th April, 1866.] 

In connection with the recommendation of Dr. J. Fayrer, regarding 
ethnological exhibition, I have compiled the accompanying laconic 
sketch of the tribes of Bhutteanah and Hurrianah. In it is embodied 
all the information that I could collect during my leisure hours. It is 
a mere attempt and naturally very short, but it may guide others 
who will have an opportunity of visiting the same districts, and who 
are desirous to work out their ethnology. 


Origin.— .The origin of this tribe is blended into obscurity, but the 
following is the traditional account : that one, Oogur Sein, a Powar 
Rajpoot of the Chundcrbansce division, took for a wife an Ahirif 
woman ; she bore him 17 sons, and each son became the head of a tribe. 

Division into Classes.— The Baniahs are divided into 6 goths\ viz. 
Aghorwall, Mahasurree, Uswall, Khuttree, Mahar, and Rorah. 

The Aborigines of Agroha,— a village 12 miles north of Hissar— 
the descendants of Oogur Sein are spread far and wide, each as 
a distinct tribe, and one cannot intermarry with the other. 

The Aghorwall is considered the highest in order, and the Rorah the 
lowest, for the latter eat meat and drink spirits. 

Each caste has its purihit.§ The Aghorwall can become Surrowgee, 
a sect very austere in the ceremonies of religion ; they do not eat or 

* The MSS. of this paper was accompanied by a series of photograms, 
representing members of the various tribes. It would be too costly to reproduce 
them, but the original copies are deposited in the Archives of the Society, and 
can be inspected by any one interested in the subject.— Ed. 

^ ' j&\ — ^}"€1^, a caste whose business is to attend to cows ; a cowherd caste. 
Wilson, in his glossary, gives a full account of this tribe. 

X tij$ — JTR, pedigree, species, caste, or tribe. 

§ ^^^J — ^TTf^TT, a family priest, who presides at the performance of reli- 
gious ceremonies. 

172 A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah^ &c. [No. 3, 

drink after sunset ; avoid injuring or destroying insects or animals, 
as far as possible. 

KaMt.— Settled. 

Habitat.— The Baniahs are scattered over every village in the 
North- Western Provinces, and in the largest commercial towns of 
Bengal and the Punjab. The cities of Sirsa and Hissar are chiefly 
inhabited by them. 

Occupation.— The chief pursuit is commerce. 

Religion.— Hindus, and followers of Vishnu. 

Character.— Sly, submissive and very parsimonious. Peaceful, 
timid, and particularly usurious. Intelligent, can read and write, and 

enterprising in trade. 

Die t.— Vegetables, milk, and clarified butter, and confectionanes. 

Narcotic .—Only tobacco is smoken in hukas. 

Longevity— About 60 years. 

Physical Conformation.— Some have dark, others light yellow or 
coppery complexion. Many shave their heads, and wear a chonti ;* 
others allow their hair to grow. They also shave their beard and allow 
their moustache to grow. Some are spare built, but the richer class 
are generally embonpoint. Their average height is 5 feet 4 inches. 

Dress. DhoteeJ turban of red colour, but of yellow spotted with 
red, is worn in the spring season, and chudder ; on public occasions, 
silk, plain or brocaded, velvet shawls, &e. are used. Young lads are 
seen covered with ear-rings, neck chains, armlets, &c. As a mark 
of distinction, both social and religious, a circular, and several trans- 
verse marks are made on the forehead with sandal wood paste, and 

B agrees. 

tsj^— TOTft 

Origin—The origin is obscure. The Bagrees are allied to Jauts. 
Division into Classes.-Theie is no division of this tribe known. 
Habit.— Migratory. 
* &^— %f€t, a tuft of hair left at the top of the head, and all the rest 

is shaved off. 

t 3y^_ wft, cloth worn round the waist, passing between the legs 

and fastened behind. 

1868.] A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &c. 173 

Habitat.— They are chiefly seen towards the desert tract of 
Bicaneer territory, but are also found in the Bhutteanah district from 
Jamaul to Bicaneer, and also in the Hissar district. 

Occupation. — Agriculturists, and they also let cattle on hire. 
Religion. — Hindus . 

Character. — Peaceful, timid, and industrious in their field avoca- 

Diet.— Vegetarian. Although animal food is not prohibited, yet 
they refrain from its indulgence for penurious purposes. Amongst 
this class, except millet seeds— lentil— no other kind of food is relished; 
this is either eaten separately or mixed, the latter mode is preferred 
during the hot season only, and is called rabri* which is prepared by 
mixing with water a sufficient quantity of salt, and boiled. It is 
eaten by the rich either with ghee, or, by the poor, with lussee.f 

Longevity, — About 80 years. 

Use of Narcotics. — The Bagrees smoke tobacco by fixing a tawa% 
or ghutteeah in a chillum, then cover with lighted dried dung of camel 
or cow. They also use the country spirit, and take it medicinally in 
Catarrhus, Pleuritis, Pneumonia, and after confinement. 

Physical Conformation.— -They are of a dark complexion, slender 
in form, hair black, and wear moustache and beard. 

Dress, — The males wear dhotee, white turban, mcrzai, and a 
chudder. The females wear ghugrah§ and chudder of wool, either 
black or red coloured, with a narrow border of some other dye, but 
generally dotted red, and ungeeah|| after marriage. 


sJ y H>— vi ft. 

Origin. — A portion of the inhabitants of Jesselmeer emigrated 
during the reign o( Allahoodeen Garee, King of Delhi, and settled in 
a place, where a bhat\ only resided, — and in compliment to the bard, 
the place was denominated Bhatneer, - and called themselves Bhattees. 
Here they formed a powerful colony, and continued to be governed 

* iSjil)— ^R#l, pap, or porridge. f (S ^J — ^JT, milk > whey. 
X iP ? a tile. § l*«-£&^ petticoat or skirt. 
|| Lx&lj boddice or stays. ^ ol$J ViJrf a family bard. 


174 A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &c. [No. 3, 

under the authority of the kings of Delhi. They extended their 
power, and at last secured the tract of land, which derived its name, 
and retains to this day after them, Bhutteana. 

The Bhuttees are also called Pachaddas, which word is a mere 
corruption of Pacheemabad, meaning, inhabitants or people of the 
West, so designated by the inhabitants of Delhi. 

Division into Classes.— The Bhuttee caste is divided into 2 thohs* 
viz. Kulloka and Bhanaku ; these are sub-divided into Joiah, Men- 
dival, Luckwarrah, Bherayka, and Wuttoo. 

They first settled on the banks of the Sutledge, and finally located 
at Sookchain, a village 11 miles north of Sirsa. One of their chief 
Jodh, settled in a village which was named after him Jodhka ; Begoo 
established another village after his name. 

Originally, a Chowhan Rajpoot was the first of the Bhanaka party, 
who settled in Bhutteanah district during the time of Nabob Nussoor 
Khan, the 11th in descent, and established 3 villages viz. Khyrika, 
Boodhabhana, and Bunseedhurree. 

There are altogether 7 villages now existing in the Sirsa pergunnah 
of this clan, a few in the Roree pergunnah, but the majority live in 
the Putteealah states. Besides the above mentioned, there are other 
subdivisions viz. Jhorurs, originally Rajpoots, who came from Bhut- 
tenda, the Khurrul, Jugrah, and Goodharah. 

The previous habit of Bhuttees.— It is said that the Bhuttee popula- 
tion has much diminished since the establishment of British rule, as 
the pursuits of husbandry are not in accordance with their taste. 
Those that remain have now quietly settled clown as cultivators, but 
are far from being industrious. 

The old people speak of the ancient times with great exultation, 
alloyed with regret, when they could muster two or three hundred, 
make raid into the neighbouring foreign states, return with a hundred 
head of cattle, which were immediately divided, and then disperse 
with the ill-gotten booty with extreme delight. 

Habitat.— The Bhuttees are now found residing near the banks of the 
Ghuggur, and Choyea in the Sirsa district, also in the Hissar district. 

Present occupation.— Agriculturists ; but formerly known for their 
marauding propensities. 

# ^..^3-— "ijT^T divisions, parties. 

1868 ] A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &c. 175 

Religion. — Maliomcdan. 

Character.— Indolent formerly, but are now inclined to earn their 
livelihood by a reluctant field labour. 

Diet. — Animals and vegetables. 

Use of Narcotics. —They smoke tobacco in a leathern hooka. Those 
who live on the borders of Bicaneer, indulge in the use of opium. 

Longevity. — About 80 years. 

Physical Conformation.— Dark brown complexion, wear the jet 
black hair down to the shoulder, do not shave the whiskers nor 
moustache ; low in the mental scale, and of inferior capacity ; and the 
average height 5 feet, 9 inches. 

Dress.— Tho males wear large turbans of white cloth, a tlujmund* 
or tyhwnd of coarse cloth or coloured loongee, an ungerkha sometimes, 
and a chudder thrown over all. The females wear until married a 
leoorlecf and after marriage ungecah, glmgrah, with large red prints, 
and a chudder thrown over the body, covering the head also. 


Origin,— Traditionally, the Jauts are the offspring of a Rajpoot 
father, and of an inferior caste of mother — a Sooder. 

Division into Classes.— Jauts are divided into several goths, viz. ; 
Bynewall, Goodharas, Sohos, &c. They are of two descriptions, the 
Dehsee or settled, and Bagrees or wandering. The former has no real 
caste, but is only a modified Rajpoot. 

Habitat.— Bhutteanah and Hissar districts. This tribe is also seen 
in Kurnaul, but there many have become Mahomedans. 

Habit. — Peaceful and settled. 

Occupation.— This class confines itself to agricultural pursuits, and 
may enlist themselves in the Infantry or Cavalry regiments. 

Religion.— Hindus. They pray to Ram, their chief object of devo- 
tion. Their widows are not allowed to return to their own family 
but are married to their next brother-in-law, or the nephew. 

Character. — Hard working, truthful, and very thrifty. They make 
good soldiers, being brave, and not much troubled with caste prejudices. 

* - r v *V, a broad flowing sheet extending to the ankles and tied at the waist. 
t <*sb^} waistcoat or jacket for females. 

176 A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &c. [No. 3, 

Jtfe*.— They principally live on cereals and vegetables ; sometimes 
eat goat meat. The Sikh Jauts eat better and live well. 

Use of Narcotics.— -Some Jauts serving as peons in the Jehsul Police 
&c add churras to the tobacco they use for smoking. The higher 
class use in the proportion of 1 seer of tobacco leaf, to 4 chittacks of 
goor, and well pounded together. Opium is also used by this class, 
particularly those residing towards the boundary of Bicaneer territory. 
They also, without hesitation, drink country spirits. 

Longevity. — 60 years. 

Physical Conformation.— -Coppery complexion ; iris dark ; conjunc- 
tiva yellowish ; they are tall, erect, manly, and robust ; their limbs 
are well shaped ; features regular, countenance placid and dignified. 

tfress.— The men wear lengota* or kutch, koortapf and hhesh or 
chudder, white or coloured turban. The females use chudder, koortee, 
trowsers and ghugrah. The last is generally dyed red or yellow and 
is either striped or dotted. 


Origin.— Having been driven out of the Jyepoor territory by 
Sahabooddeen of the Ghoree dynasty about Sumbut 1234 (A. D. 117 
the Rajpoots took possession of all the district now comprising Hissar, 
Hansee and Bhewannee pergunnahs. 

Feroze Shah in 1371 first began to convert them by force, with more 
or less success, till the time of Aurungzeb, but this effort was relin- 
quished on the decline of the Mahomedan power. 

The independence of the Rajpoots of course was always in inverse 
ratio to the power of the Dehli potentates. All the Jatu tribes of 
Bhewannee revolted in 1809, and the town was stormed, and taken 
by the British troops. 

The Rajpoots— Hindus and Mussulman converts— still remain in 
the proportion of 75 villages or about one quarter of what they 
'formerly consisted of. 

Division into Classes.— It is needless here detailing that the Raj- 

* G/iJ, a small narrow slip of cloth passed between the thighs and tucked 
into a waistbelt before and behind, 
f &*$ a jacket or waistcoat. 

18G8.] A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &c. 177 

poots or llaj-pootras, form one of the highest castes of Hindu religion, 
belonging to the prince or military order. 

Habitat.— They are spread over the Hissar district, their principal 
residence being Bhewannee, Rysoo, and Dhymull. They reside also 
in the Bhutteana district, chiefly on the borders of the Bicaneer 

Habit.— Mostly cultivators. As a class they are brave and proud. 
Occupation.— Although particularly fond of land, yet they are in- 
different agriculturists. They furnish few men to the Irregular 
Religion. — Hindu; Ramchundra is their chief object of worship. 
Character.— Domineering, and careful of what they call izzut. 
They are generally addicted to highway robberies, and cattle-thieving ; 
careless of money ; decidedly brave. 

Diet.— They eat vegetables and all sorts of animals, and pork with 
delight, but not beef. 

Use of Narcotics.— They smoke tobacco, and use opium freely, 
particularly those living near the Bicaneer territory. They do not 
hesitate to imbibe fermented liquors. 
Longevity. -About 60 years. 

Physical Conformation.— -Dark, or fairish; iris dark, anclthe con- 
junctivae pretty clean ; tall, well formed ; having regular features, and 
well limbed. 

Dress.— Usually a red turban is used, white ungerkha, and dhotee 
of various colours, but they are partially red. 


Origin.— Rahee or Raheen, a denomination said to have been de- 
rived from a Punjabee word signifying a gardener, or tiller of the 
soil, and it is said to be so styled from the following circumstance : 
The town and citadel of Dach, having fallen into the hands of certain 
parties who had besieged it, they issued orders for a general massacre, but 
the labourers, cultivators, and artizans were to be exempted ; hereupon 
the Rahees who bore arms resorted to a device, by which their lives 
were spared, each threw away his weapon, and in its stead carried on 
his back a plough, or some implement of husbandry, and hence the 
appellation which up to this day they bear. 

178 A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhutteanah, &e. [No. 3, 

It appears that the territory comprised between Bhutneer in the 
Bieaneer territory, and Futteeabad in the Hissar district, was xnhahxt- 
ed from the earliest time by a set of people known under the general 
name of Kahees, one portion of whom is said to have emigrated from 
Sindh, and another from Jesselmeer. In its prosperous state this 
tract contained 1860 villages, with a corresponding population addicted 
to agricultural and pastoral pursuits, but in consequence of constant 
depredations, at a later period by the Bhuttees, and the anarchy and 
confusion that resulted, the greater part of the population were led 
gradually to leave the country, some emigrated into Bareilly and 
others settled in Pasya. 

Division into Glasses. — None. , 

Habitat -This tribe is to be found near the banks of the Sutledge 
and Ghugger streams; in different parts of the Punjab, and also m 
the Bohilcund district. 

Habit— Strictly cultivators. 

Occupation.-lheir principal occupation is husbandry, hut they are 
prone to follow any form of agricultural pursuits. 
Religion.— Mahomedan and Hindu converts. 

Character.-Vocile, religious, but were migratory before to evade 
persecution, hence the reason of their being so scattered. 

Diet.-lhe Mahomedan portion enjoy animal and vegetable tood, 
but the Hindus avoid the former. 

Use of Narcotics.— They smoke tobacco only. 

Longevity.— About 50 years. 

Physical Conformation.— The same as the Bhuttees. 

Dress. — Ditto ditto. 


Origin.— They are Bajpoot Mussulmans. - J 

Division into Olasses.-They are divided into 3 tribes, Jaut, Sutrolah 

"St-Hissar district-, and their chief villages are Bullealee, 
Bas, and Loharroo. 

Mabit.— Cultivators. 

Occupation.-Yond of agriculture, but they are poor, many prefer 

taking service in the Irregular Cavalry. 
Religion,— Mahomedans. 

1868.] A short sketch of the Tribes of Blmtteanah, Sc. 179 

Character.— Brave but violent, and proud of their honour, to which 
they cling tenaciously. 

Diet. — They live on animal and vegetable food. 

Use of Narcotics. —The y smoke the huka only, and abstain from the 
use of spirituous liquor. 

Longevity.— About 55 years. 

Physical Conformation.— Complexion varies much from dark to 
coppery ; iris chiefly dark, and the conjunctivae frequently yellowish ; 
active and full of fire. They are erect, tall, manly and robust ; their 
limbs well shaped ; their features regular, and countenance dignified, 
stem, with an air of heroism and bravery. Their hair raven, and 
flows down to the shoulders. Average height 5 feet 11 inches. They 
are on the whole a very superior set of people to look at. 

Dress.— Their usual dress is white or red turban; red dopattas, 
trowsers, merzai, and chudder. 


Origin.— -Sprung into existence about A. D. 1485, or about 50 years 
before the foundation of the Sikh religion. Its founder was Jambajee 
of Peepassur in Bicaneer. They are the followers of Vishnu. 

Mode of Worship.— Theiv mode of worship is to present offering at 
the shrine, and uttering prayers whilst bathing. Its tenets are to 
abstain entirely from animal food, to bathe before meals, and to marry 
none but those of their own persuasion. It is contained in a book 
called Jamhajce Jca banee, meaning Jambajee's discourse. They salute 
each other by expressing neom-salam, i. e. } I salute you most respect- 
fully, the rejoinder is Jambajee 7co, signifying, May your salutation be 
acceptable to Jambajee. They convert others by shaving off the chonti. 
They bury their dead bodies in a cow- yard, or close to their place of 
residence. Their great temple is at Sameerah Dhul in Bicaneer, from 
which place it is said their first leader took his flight to heaven' 

Habitat.— They inhabit Hissar, the neighbouring district of Sirsa ; 
the adjoining foreign territories, and also portions of the North- Western 

Habit.— Principally cultivators. 

Occupation.— Besides using agriculture, they are also good carpen- 
ters, and carriers or trainers of camels. 

180 A short sketch of the Tribes of Bhdteanah, &c. [No. 3, 

Religion.— Hindus, worshippers of Vishnu. 
Character.— Civil and industrious. 

Diet-Ctee&j vegetables. They do not toueh meat, and as far as 
possible they never allow any animal or bird to be slaughtered or shot 
in their neighbourhood. ~m.„ 

J7 S e 0/ iW^.-The Vishnus use no narcohcs. They ne. he 
smoke, nor drink any fermented liquor. Such is their aversmn that 
they consider it a sacrilege to allow fire from then- hearth foi the 
purpose of smoking. 

Longevity.— About 60 years. 

PWcaZ Co»/o™«rf «.-Rather dark, hut yellow predommating. 
The iris dark or grey, sometimes greenish. The conjunctivae generally 
yellowish. Average height 6 feet, 

IW-The males wear coloured chudder of wool or he* a pugre , 
mrgerkha and dhotee. The females use coloured woollen dhablah 
generally of purple colour, and red border, and they always wear 


Origin.— Allied to the Bhuttees. 

HaW^-BunkB of the river Sutleclge in the Bhutteana distnc , 
also in the Ferozepore, and Montgomery districts, and in the Bhawul- 

pore territory. 

Habit.— Settled and fond of agriculture. 

Occ^o..-Indolent previously, but now they are mclmed to be 


Religion.— Mahomedan. 

Character.- Submissive and industrious. 

Diet.— Animal and vegetable food. 

Use of Narcotics.— They smoke the huka only. 

Longevity.— About 80 years. _ 

Physical Cb„/on^.-Complexion light brown, black flowmg 
hair iris black, wear thick beard and moustache ; some are well built, 
tall/strong and able-bodied. Average height 5 feet, 10 inches 

i> ms ._Turban, dhotee or tymund, and chudder, generally checked, 
or striped white and blue. 

* lsJ - ^T> blanket or kambal J*f— grw^r. 





No. IV.— 1868. 
The Adjustment op the Hindu Calendar ;— by Babu Pratapa- 


[Received 27th May, 1867.] 

Owing to certain causes, presently to be explained, calculations of 
the Hindus regarding the year are in error. Their calendar in cer- 
tain points presents a state of things that existed some centuries ago. 
It is necessary that such corrections be introduced in the elements of 
their calendar as will make its indications consistent with reality. 

The Hindu year is determined by two consecutive conjunctions in 
longitude of the sun with the star /? Arietis. Almost all nations 
of antiquity have commenced their year from this moment. 

By the existing Bengal Calendar, the initial moment of the year is 
placed on the 13th of April, about seven days earlier than the real 
conjunction, making the subsequent eleven transits of the sun, the 
eleven San7crdntis, seven days too early. 

The initial point of the year has retained in its name the idea of its 
coincidence with the equinoctial point, a point now removed twenty- 
one days from the star. The following simple solutions of spherical 
triangles will show that the ecliptic conjunction of the sun with /? 
Arietis the Acvini Yogatara of the Hindus happens between the 20th 
and 21st of April in 1867. 

From the Nautical Almanac we have for /? Arietis JR = U. 47w, 
17s. which expressed in degrees of arc = 26° 49' 44". 


182 The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. [No. 4, 

In the same Ephemeris the North declination on the 13th of April 
is 20° 9' 17," the obliquity of the ecliptic being 23° 27' 15". ^ 
Then DN + <o = 43° 36' 32" and »»M. = 3° 17' 58". 
Hence N. P. D. = 69° 50' 43". 

= 116°49'4" 58 2i 6Z 

|(a + y8) = 21°48'16". 

i( a — fl)= 1°38'59". 

I(a + S Co.Log.Cos 0-03223 

}.lg log- Cos., 999982 

| ^ ._ Log. Cot 9-78888 

Log. tan., 9-82093 

WA+B - ) 33° 30' 30" 

!._/S).„ Log. sin., 8-45930 

lla + % Co. Log. sin., 043082 

lit... L«>§- Cot, 9-78888 

2 . 

i (A _B) = 2°48'Log.tan., 8-68900 

B 30° 42' 30" 

59° 17' 30" 3ft. 57m. 6s. 

Hence by the Nautical Almanac the conjunction is between the 
20th and 21st April. The Hindu calculations, however, referring the 
conjunction to the 13th of April, make the year begin at the wron r 

^InThe above rough calculations Acvini is assumed as identical witl 
B Arietis The Suryasiddhanta gives the polar longitudes of stars n 
a very curious and arbitrary way. The author mentions certan 
numbers as bija or root for each star, which numbers multiplied M 
the constant 10 will give in minutes the polar longitudes of the 
asterisms. The following are the bijas or roots for Acvini and 
Bharani, 48, 40. Multiplying the bija for Acvini by the constant 
10 we get 480' or 8° the bhdga or position of the asterism in its por- 
tion of its polar longitude. 

Now let 7T = Polar Longitude. 

w = Obliquity of the ecliptic. 

a __ inclination of the declination circle of the star to the 

given in 

1808.] The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. 183 

4> = Polar Longitude. 
A = True Longitude. 

g^. Cot w = tan a. 
sin a sin <f> = sin A. 
tan A. Cot a = sin /*, the quantity to be added or subtracted from <f> 
to give A. 

Position in its portion or hhdga, 8° 

Polar Longitude, go 

Polar Latitude, jqo 

From the above we deduce the following by formula for Acvini. 

Lat 90° UN 

I^ng 11° 59' 

This is the position of Acvini according to the Hindu Tables and 
astronomical works. This position of the junction star refers us back to 
the fifth century A. C. In each case, to reduce the distance w 
Flamsted's Catalogue for the Vernal Equinox of A. C. 560, we h 
subtracted 15° 40' from the longitude there given. 

The following, however, are the real position of a and /? Arietis by 
European calculations. 

Longitude of /? Arietis at about 560 A. C, 13° 56' 

Latitude, go 2g' i^- 

Longitude of a Arietis, 17° 37' 

Latitude, 90 57/ ^ 

Comparing these we find that the position of Acvini coincided 
more with that of /? Arietis than with that of a Arietis. The Hindus 
used very rude instruments of observation, and an error of even a 
degree is allowable in their calculations. 

The retrograde motion of the equinoxes together with an error in 
determining the exact length of the year has brought on this difference 
in their calendar. 

The Hindu year, like all solar sidereal years, begins at the moment 
of the sun's entrance into Acvini, the first asterism of the constella- 
tion Aries, and ends with the moment the luminary leaves Piscium 
to re-enter Acvini. Such a method of determining the length of the 
year accompanied by the following easy but ingenious distribution of 
the fractional parts of a day has saved the Hindu year from the error 
which was an element in the European years before .the Julian correc- 

184 The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. [No. 4, 

tion. The Hindu civil year differs from the astronomical as regards 
the fractions of a day. An error, however, in exactly determining the 
value of this fraction will, following the Hindu method, soon be so 
accumulated as to necessitate the introduction of a correction that the 
calculations may agree with actual phenomena. Considering the 
backwardness of the Hindu Philosophers to profit by recent investiga- 
tions accompanied by want of that habit of verifying calculations by 
observations, which Bacon's philosophy alone can teach, it is natural 
that the Hindu year will represent a state of things that does not 

really exist. 

The motion of the equinoxes in space, though observed in the 
western world by Hipparchus so early as B. C 136, was not known to 
the Hindus in A. C. 400, the earliest date assignable to the Surya 
Siddhanta from the longitudes of stars there noted. A theory of 
libration of the equinoxes 27° either side of the first point of Aries is 
stated in certain Siddhantas, and others again calculate a complete 
revolution of the points, but in no astronomical work of the Hindus 
is any use made of such oscillation or motion. No work corrects its 
calculations according to the precession of the equinoxes, though the 
Surya Siddhanta gives a rule for determining the numerical value of the 
same, and instructs the students to introduce the bija necessary for the 
motion of the equinoxes. 

As stated before in reckoning civil time, fractions of a day are re- 
jected. "When the fraction is less than 30 Ghadis (half a Hindu day) 
the civil year or the month is reckoned as beginning one day later than 
the astronomical. The year consisting of 365.24486231177907 days, 
365 whole days are deducted from it, the fraction, 24486231177907 
being carried to the next year forms 365*4897246235814 days. 
From this again the whole number of 365 days being deducted for 
the second year leaves a fraction to which the value for another year 
being added gives 3657345869353371 days. This sum exceeds 
365*5 days and therefore the year is made to commence one day later. 
Deducting the fractional residue '73... from 366 days and the remain- 
der -26541406466279 being again deducted from two tropical years 
(of 7304897246235514 days) leaves 730-22431055889535. Deduct- 
ing from the above for the 4th and 5th years (730) we carry the 
remainder -2243105889535 of a day to the 6th year. 

1868.] The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. 185 

Thus the Hindus bring forward the year one whole day every fourth 
year nearly or 289 days in 1192 years. The system involves the 
error of the Julian year, which outruns the Hindu solar year (as well 
as the European solar year with the Gregorian correction) by nearly 
10' 44" or two days 23' 33" in 400 years ; 

The annual variation of the equinoxes is according to the Surya 
Siddlmnta about 54". The position of the initial point of the year 
with reference to the equinox on the 13th of April, 1867, is found 
from the following proportion given in the Siddhanta. 

(1577917828 clays) the number of days in a great Yuga is to (600) 
the number of revolutions in it, as (1814605) the sum of the days 
elapsed since the last epoch of conjunction, is to the number or frac- 
tion of revolutions elapsed. This is Rev. 248° 23' 59".7. The 
hhuja or sine of this, is its supplement 68° 23' 59". 7 for reducing the 
supplement to an arc of 27°, which is done by multiplying it by 3 and 
dividing by 10, we get the ayandnga, the actual distance of the initial 
point of the sphere from the equinox 20° 31' 11" 9. 

One of the apparent reasons for the Surya Siddhanta's not introduc- 
ing this correction in the calculations is, because the author of the work 
supports the theory of libration. The colures therefore falling back 
with respect to the fixed stars in round numbers 50" annually, the 
Hindu system slowly advances beyond the true vernal equinox. 

The initial point of the year is called the MaUvishuva mesha 
Sankrdnti, the vernal equinoctial transit of the sun to Aries. As 
shown before, this moment is no longer the equinoctial point, but is 
removed from it by a period of about 22 days. To this period adding 
the distance of the present initial point from p Arietis as calculated 
before, seven days, we get the actual distance of the fi Arietis from the 
equinox, the difference between the sign and the constellation Aries. 
The numerical value of this is about 30 and, assuming 50" in round 
numbers being the numerical value of the precession of the equinoxes, 
we find that about 2260 years before the present time, the Hindu year 
began with the vernal equinox, and the ecliptic conjunction of the 
sun with Acvini happened at about the same time, or 300 B. C. is 
the latest period to which the Hindu observations can be referred. 
It is well to add that such determination of the dates of the Surya 
fciddhanta, and the Hindu observation depends decidedly on partial rea- 

186 The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. [No. 4, 

soning. All attempts towards accuracy even of centuries must be futile 
and imperfect. Arguments stated above establish nothing besides what 
is evident If the Hindu calculations were as accurate as those of 
western science, we could then have safely assigned the above given 
dates to Hindu observations. The above proves that 393 B. C the 
initial poiut of the Hindu year coincided with the first point of Aries 
and the vernal equinox. Beyond this, we have no reasonable ground 
to advance. The Hindu observations may have commenced centuries 
earlier and the then existing rough methods of observation may have 
led the credulous Hindu astronomer to believe that the equinox and 
the first point of Aries were one and the same; when in reahty the 
equinox may have happened on the 4th or 8th day of Van&kha. 

That the Hindu year formerly began about the vernal eqmnox, and 
that the moment of such beginning of the year coincided with the mo- 
ment of the ecliptic conjunction of the sun with Acvini, or that he 
sign and the constellation Aries coincided at a former period with the 
initial moment of the Hindu year, is unquestionably proved by the 
Hindu name for that moment, the sun is said to be then in the 

asterism Acvini. . 

Had no errors entered into the calculations of the Hindus, their yea. 
would then have commenced at the present century on the 21st o 
April instead of the 13th. The Mahavishuva Sankranti then would 
have 'differed from the vernal equinox exactly by that amount by 
which the sign Aries differs from the constellation Aries But as rt 
is it involves a double error, and leads one to suppose that about 500 
years before the present time, the first day of the Hindu year was 
brought to coincide with the first point of the constellation Aries 
(fl Arietis) and that since then, owing to the motion of the equinoxes, 
the initial moment of the year has retrograded 7 degrees Such a 
supposition is the only explanation that can at present he offered 
regarding this anomalous position of the initial pom of he ye»l 
now that the first of Vaicakk is placed between the points with whi h 
it coincided when the constellations were formed, and m which it should 
be i£ the calendars had received proper corrections. The values o he 
^ or corrections subsequently added to the Hindu tables as calculated 
Z Mr. Burgess in his notes to the Surya Siddhanta, refers us to the 
16th century after Christ. Making due allowance for errors of Hindu 

1868.] The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. 187 

calculations, this may well be transferred to a century, when Java 
Sinha, it is said, translated the Logarithmic Tables into Sanscrit and 
introduced many corrections into the Hindu Science of Astronomy 
But the exact date of the correction of the Hindu year cannot be 
ascertained before the Sanscrit works of Jaya Siiiha are brought to 

The table shows the Hindu months with the corresponding English 
months at two different epochs. 
Precession of the equinoxes 0° 0' 0". Precession 3° 10' 

Va.eakha, r March and April, April and May ' 

Jyaishtha, b April and May, M wd JnM 

Ashadha, n May and June, JlIne all( , j. 

fravana, a J une md J nlVj Jnly ^ _ 

Bhadra, h J„ ly .ndAnguat, Ali&ngt alu , g 

Acvma, m August and Sept., Sept. and Oct. 

Kart.ka, - Sept. and Oct., Oct. and Nov 

^grahayana, n. Oct. and Nov Nov. and Dec 

Pausha, t Nov. and Dec, Dec . am , Jan 

Magna, y, Dec. and Jan, Jan . an( , ¥ ^ 

Pndguna, S Dec. and Feb, Feb am) ^ 

^A P ^ a Feb - andMarCh ' March and April. 

in A C. 538 when the Hindu year commenced with Vaieakha in 
Apvini the sun . longitude was 0° 0' and that of the moon 2° 12' 

That the year should begin in one of the equinoxes or solstic'es is 
very natural, they are the four principal points in the heavens The 
commencement of the year from the vernal equinox dates from great 
J ; T The ~ ° f «<™ b*- ^th the vernal equinox 

1 xr or r ; The Hindu year > howeve '-' - -2* — 

be c an wrth the wmter The derivation of the name A'cvina 
peaks a htstory. A 9 vini being the first of the 27 asterisms and 
.one supposed by the Hindus to be coincident with the sign Aries 
■determmes the beginning of the yea,. The month having a full 

C°e n of TT Hsm , is called AVina - The con J' Hnction - ^ 

tude of the three, the moon, the sun and the asterism may naturally 
N looked upon as the starting point of heavenly motion. The ex- 
Wanatmn given by Amara Sinha, the lexicographer, that the month 
'« the full moon happens in Acvini is A'cvina clears all doubt 

188 The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. [No. 4, 

It is rather improbable that the Hindus would wait for a conjunction 
of the three to hegiu their observations. Amara Sinha's explanation 
quite negatives all sueh suppositions, as it is impossible that the moon 
Lad have the same longitude with the sun and be sti 1 a full moon. 
To eorreet then the Hindu Almanac, so as not to violate the Hindu 
idea of Mahdvishuva mesha SankrdnU is utterly impossible. _ The year 
ffiU st be made to begin at one or the other of two points. It is 
proposed therefore to begin the eivil year from the vernal equinox or 
the sign Aries. Though this method enforces the change of the order 
of the asterisms making Revati ({ Piscium) the first and Acvim 
the second, we have yet the advantage conferred by European calcula- 
tion to support our view. On the other hand, the change of the beg.nmng 
of the year from the vernal equinox to the 13th of April, is a strong 
recommendation for bringing the initial point of the year to the moment 
of ecliptic conjunction i. e. on the 21st of April. A change of the 
order of the asterisms is not new to the castras. Knt.ka (r, Tauri, 
Pleiades) now third, formerly occupied the position of Acvim. _ 

The Hindu calendar is now in one view 22 days in advance, and in 
another about 7 days behind the real state of things *«•£*■£ 
to eiect 21 days from the month Ghaitra and thus to bring the 
IZtoLsl ^ *ack to the equinoxes. 8£- -ova- 
tion or correction of the calendar, involves serious difficulties _the 
olrvaUve habit of the Hindu mind and the confusion in a politic 
"f view of the dates of payment of rents, & c„ are serious, but 

"^Hiirclulations, owing to the errors of tables made up 
Borne centuries past are all defective and need correction. But these 
are secondary to the correction of the year. 

To sound the Hindu opinion on the subject, a circular in Sa.«n 
was issued by me in October last. There I have quoted most authori 
Tt "passages showing that such change of the beginning of the yea 
on a count of the precession of the equinoxes is not contrary to th 
1 With a Hindu, authority of the f astra is the only argument 

Taroend a partial translation of the principal points of the Sanscrit 


The Dharma gastras say— ^ c 

1868.] The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. 189 

" that at the beginning of Aries (Vaicakha) presents of flour and of 
jugs filled with water are to be made to Brahmanas." 

This ceremony is now performed on the 12th of April. Some doubts 
as to the propriety of performing the ceremony Ghatotsarga on this 
date having arisen, Professor Bapu Deva of Benares was addressed on 
the subject. The errors of the Hindu calendar were pointed out in the 
letter, and he was requested to give his opinion on the proposition of 
changing the beginning of the Hindu year from the 13th of April to 
the real mesha Sankranti, or the vernal equinox.* 

The proposed change of the beginning of the year from the 13th of 
April is not contrary to the ^astras. Suiya Siddhanta, the highest 
authority in questions of Hindu astronomy, acknowledges in the fol- 
lowing, that time effects great changes in calculations. 

" (0 Maya,) hear attentively the excellent knowledge (of the 
Science of Astronomy) which (the) Sun Himself formerly taught to 
the saints in each of the Yugas." 

" I teach you the same ancient science which was formerly told by 
(the) Sun Himself. (But) the difference (between the present and 
the ancient works) is caused only by time, on account of the revolu- 
tion of the Yugas." 

Vacishtha says — 

^ \» 

An examination of the Puranas will show at once that the Castras 
and the ceremonies are changed in time, the gods, and the ceremonies 
(*nT%TWTix) of the Vedas are now forgotten. 

The Rig Veda mentions the 27 stars as being married to the moon 
and the astronomical phenomena recorded there, show that the vernal 
equinox happened in Krittikd and the autumnal, in Radha or Vicakha 
(y Libras). 

• His favourable reply with the original letter of query was noticed in the 
original circular. J 


190 The Adjustment of tie Hindu Calendar. [No. 4, 

Araar Singha states that the equinox and the Yishuva are syno- 
nyms. So does the lexicographer Hemachandra. 

The above authors in naming the twelve months of the year, begin 
from Agrahayana (near the winter solstice). 

Laughakshi on the authority of Somakara Kalpa Sutra begins the 
year four days before the full moon of Magha. 

In the 9atapatha and Sankhayana Brahmanas we see the year 
begin on the full moon of Phalgiin. 

A TtfTtP^ qiWl ^TOTO WW Klfal I" 
The astronomy of the Rig Veda begins the year on the light fort- 
night of Magha, and ends on the dark half of the month of Pausha. 

Authorities were quoted from the Goladhyaya of Bhashkaracharya, 
the Surya Siddhanta, the Soma Siddhanta, the (Jakaiya Sanhita, the 
Laghuvacishta Siddhanta, A'ryabhatta, Varaha Mihira and Brahma 

1868.] The Adjustment of the Hindu Calendar. 191 

Sphiita Siddhanta to show that these authors admit of and give rules 
for determining the value of the precession of the equinoxes. 

The position of Agastya (Canopus) given in the Vishnu Purana 
and in the Parasara and Garga Sanhitas show that the asterisks have 
moved from their original position in the heavens. 

^l^^gi^ **Wi lU^Trf Weft *f%r%T ?mm I 
^»3ff%R ^3^J ^rf UrJ^ ^xfa ■SVmt I 

Tf?f mi II 

The retrograde motion of the equinoxes has brought a change of 
the seasons — Vaicakha and Chaitra constituted the spring of former 


Lastly the practical proof of the effects of the errors in calculations 
is given by directing the Pandit to observe the heavens just after 
sunset in the month of Vaicakha. 

192 The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4 

The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam ;-ty Key. 
C. H, Hesselmeyer. 
[Received 26th August, 1867.] 
The Himalaya mountains, so far as they form the northern boun- 
dary of Assam, are inhabited by two distinct races of men. Originally, 
probably one and the same race, they seem to have undergone a 
change sufficiently marked to authorize their being considered at the 
present moment, as two distinct races. 

The mountaineers who occupy the eastern half of those frontier- 
hills seem to be original occupants, or first arrivals, and to have 
retained their original habits and customs. Those who live to 
the west, appear to belong to a later period of immigration, subse- 
quent to their descent from Central Asia. When they drove out 
from before them the first occupants, say the Dimasa and Boro, or 
Lalong, now living in the plains of Assam, they seem to have come 
in contact with a certain degree of civilization which effected that 
change both of feature and habits and customs which is so striking 
to the beholder. 

The last mentioned of these two races are the people commonly 
called Butias or Butanese— this name applying to all the various 
and numerous tribes who belong to the same race. These, however, 
having served our purpose thus far, we may leave for the present, 
while we turn our attention more in particular to their less civilized 
brethren to the east. 

Unlike the Butias, these possess no common name. The region 
they occupy, is fully as large as Butan, and equally as interesting. 
Indeed, little as we know of the people, the country they occupy, is 
still less known : as much a terra incognita, in fact, as the interior of 
Africa. The few Europeans who have crossed the frontier, have barely 
done more than skirted this unknown region : none have ever pene- 
trated to the snowy range ; none ever crossed its entire width from 
Assam to Tibet proper. All we know about the country and 
its inhabitants, we have learnt from the latter, who are, however, not 
in all cases reliable informants. Until, therefore, a Livingstone or 
a Wilcox will undertake to traverse its cane-bridged mountain 

1868.] The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 193 

torrents, its snow-capped heights, and brave leeches, dum-dam and 
cannibal Abors,— in order to confirm or otherwise, the statements of 
native informants,— we shall have to rest satisfied with our present 
stock of information. 

From all, then, we have hitherto been able to collect, it would appear, 
that that portion of the Eastern Himalayas which lies between the 92° 
40' and 95° 30' East Long., or between the eastern boundary line of 
the country of the Tauwang and Kampa Butias, and the Dibong 
river,— having Assam on its south, and Tibet proper on its north 
side,— constitutes the home of four peoples, known to the inhabitants 
of Assam by the names of Aka, Miji, Dana, and Abor. 

Three of these tribes, the Aka, Miji and Dafla, occupy the hills on 
the southern side of the backbone of the Himalayas, the snowy range. 
The water of their rivers flows down into Assam direct. I make 
use of the expression direct, because I thereby wish to explain the 
more immediate proximity of their mountain-homes to Assam ; for 
properly speaking, the rivers that run down the northern slopes of 
the snowy range pour their waters likewise into the same big river 
which passes through Assam, viz. the Sampo of Tibet. The Abors 
alone, in some of their northern clans, are said to dwell on both sides 
of the snowy mountains, and they are thus in intercourse both with 
Tibet and Assam. 

The seats of these four principal tribes may be defined as follows : 
commencing from the west or the frontier of Butan we come first 
upon the Akas. Their country is situated so as to have Assam on 
the south, Butan on the west, the Miji territory on the north, 
and the Dafla east. The Buruli river forms the boundary of the 
Aka and Dafla country, or rather hills. The Mijis again have 
Butan to the west, and probably north, but the Buruli river 
running round the northern side of their country until it enters 
Butan, the Daflas to the east, and their friends and neighbours, the 
Akas to the south. 

The Daflas like the Akas have the valley of Assam for their 
southern limit, the Akas and Mijis, with the Buruli river interven- 
ing, on their west, and the Abors both north and east,— the Subon- 
siri river running up between the hills of the Abors and Daflas. 
Then the Abors themselves occupy the whole of the remaining ex- 

194 The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

tremity of the eastern Himalayas. They inhabit all the country 
Wing between the territories of the Dallas on the southern face of the 
Lwy range, and the Kainpo-Butias on the northern ace of he 
same snowy ridge; Tibet on the north, Assam on the south and the 
Mishmi-tribes on the east, the Dibong river forming the hue of 
demarcation between the villages of the Abors and Mishmis 

Of all the four tribes above enumerated, the Abors are by far the 
most important, both as to their numerical strength and then- war-Ukc 
propensities, as well as through the extent of the. terntory. 

In the present communication I shall restrict my remarks to one of 
the tribes only, namely— 

The Akas. 
The Akas or Angkas live on hills of moderate height, the highest 
probably not exceeding 6,000 feet, in the angle formed, as before 
Ironed, by Assam and Butan. Three to four days chmbmgv 
thickly wooded hills, nearly pathless, stumbling up the diy bed ot 
STbotuB and other less important watercourses, thickly strown with 
ge ulders, clambering up the steep faces of rocks, hodmg on y 
a cane-rope bring the traveller to the small settlement of the Akas. 
ZZ lephL-hunte. follow up the bed of the Buiuh nver 
Uto« a smaU light boat along with them, which they hit over the 
l^fl, and s°o reach the Aka country. There is, however, a ette 
road but somewhat circuitous. This road takes the traveller fust to 
Butan to the settlement of the Sat-rajas due north, after a march o 
lut four days, and then goes on ^^J^ 2 
which you reach in another two days. This is a ioaa w 
women and children, and their ponies travel. • 

The name Aka, or Angka,-even Angka-is given to them by their 
n eignbonr: ; th^ themselves do not use it, but speak of themselves as 

^Hrusso do not pretend to he aborigines oi the country they 
now inhabit. They are unable to tell where the rea horn of then 
TZ ■ TbPv metend to have been inhabitants of the plains. Out 

^ north of Bilath, but were driven out from thence by Knshna 
and Boloram. 

1868.] TJ,e mil-triles of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 195 

^ The language of the Aka, however, tells a tale, and so does their na- 
tional character. Their language contains more words which can be 
traced to the valleys south of the Patkoi range, joining the Shan and 
Munipuri countries, than words indicating a closer affinity with the 
Dafla and Abor tribes. They differ mentally and physically from 
their mountain neighbours to the same degree. 

The truth seems to be, that the Hrusso entered Assam about the 
same period when the far more numerous and daring Ahoms burst 
from their hills into the valley. Probably the Akas^ preceded them, 
and having been driven from place to place, they finally settled on the 
hills where they now still live. As to numerical importance, the 
Angkas would barely deserve any notice at all. They do not number 
more than one thousand souls. 

This handful of hill people live in two detached villages. The 
greater one is inhabited by Akaa who have earned for themselves 
the sobriquet of cotton thieves, or Kapas-chor. The smaller is 
peopled by a less offensive clan called the Hazarikhuka, or breakfast- 

There is a third class of Angkas spoken of by the people of the 
plains who go by the name of Angka Miris. Old maps have them 
located beyond the snowy range on the Tibet side. But by all ac- 
counts, these Angka Miris live to the east of the Kapas-chor Angkas. 
The Miris of the plains who are in the habit of hunting for elephants 
deny having ever heard of Angka Miris. Further enquiry, however^ 
may enable me to throw more light upon this tribe. 

The importance which attaches to the Akas is first the had name 
which they bear among the people of the valley, who inhabit the tracts 
of country bordering on the Aka hills. For the Akas, few as they are in 
number, make up for this deficiency by being bold and daring robbers 
and cut-throats. Next in importance is their situation between the people 
of the valley of Assam and the powerful and very numerous clans of the 
Miji tribe. The Mijis, it would seem, are not in the habit of visiting 
Assam, except only one small chief ; but they highly prize the silk 
and cotton cloth the Akas are able to procure from the' plains, and for 
which these demand from the Mijis exorbitant prices. As a third 
cause of their importance may be adduced the fact that, although 
powerless themselves, they know how to make themselves formidable, 


The mil-tribe, of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

though the influence they manage to exercise over £*£f£ 
countless hosts they would be able without much difficulty to lead 

families, would be the more appropriate one to use ; yet each of these 
petty clans has a chief whom they style Kaja, like then: newborns, 
the Butias,-not Gam, like their other neighbours, the Daflas. 

Thl elans are so small, that they find room each ,n a hou, by 
themselves. Some elans number only thirty souls, £»£*£ 
one hundred, and according to the number of mma e « the zed 
each house The most numerous elan boasts of a chief, who but 

^Tknown among the Assamese, and the neighWng hiUmen 
and no doubt the Bengal Government too has earnt to know 
Hsnanre. This is Tagi Baja. ™s man has succeeded m obtmn 
the hegemony over all the Kopas-chor Akas, and as he exercise, 
gat tnuenle over the Mijis also, he is able to intim ida te h 
Lt of the Aka people, and thus may be said to he the head of all the 

H The Hazarikhuka Akas live in three clans on a separate hill from 

the Tali's people. 

Internal feuds are numerous. It is a matter of no rare occurren , 
to see clan against elan, i. e. family against family enhst the ard 
the Mijis and cany on a miniature warfare. 

The Hrusso use the cross-bow and poisoned arrows ; a h h 
S pear for the purposes of throwing, and a narrow swo abou 
four feet long. They manufacture their own arms; the i on and 

^however they "buy in Assam. They use nerthe^hreld nd 
helmet. Their tactics are simple; like all the ^ hill- tatas^j 
rely upon sudden surprise, they lie in ambush and fall upon then foes 

"Issamese Buruas of the days of the native rulers used the Akas 
for purposes of revenge and intrigue. And it was through the party- 
spirit of one of the Buruas, or governors of Chardoar m the days ot 
Gaurinath, the last real king of Assam, that the Akas obtained the 
privilege of levying pieces of Eria silk (Bambyz), and cotton cloth 
from every household in the Balipara mehal, which they continue to 
do unto this day. The only occasion on which the Akas have come 

1868.] The Hlll-trlhcs oflthe Norfhern Frontier of Assam. 197 

into hostile collision with the present government of Assam, occurred 
some twenty-five years ago when their daring raids led to the capture 
of the young Tagi Raja and, after his liberation, to the massacre of 
the garrison of a stockade close to the pass which leads into their hills. 

All attempts to punish this bold and blackguardly act remained 
unsuccessful, at last the little war seems not to have been carried on 
with much spirit, and matters between the Hrusso and the British 
Government were left in statu quo. 

Since that revengeful and treacherous act, however, the Akas have 
been content to levy their silk and cotton pieces, and to accept lis. 
860 of black mail per annum, without any further deeds of robbery 
and murder. 

They now pay their annual visit to Assam in the months of Feb- 
ruary and March ; take their due ; make their purchases in iron, steel 
and brass vessels, in beads and other articles of luxury, and, after the 
above mentioned levying of cloth, return the way they came. 

The Aka, though uncivilized, is not devoid of religious ideas. 
He has no written castras or religious books of any kind, it is true ; 
he has no system of religion and knows nothing of caste. But the 
Aka fears the high mountains which tower aloft over his dwelling, 
and from the snow-clad sides of which leaps the thundering avalanche j 
he fears the roaring torrents of the deep glen which interposes be- 
tween him and his friends beyond ; and he fears the dark and dense 

jungles in which his cattle lose their way. 

These dark and threatening powers of nature, he invests witli 

supernatural attributes. They are his gods. Thus there is Fuxu, 

the god of jungle and water ; Flran and Siman, the gods of war, and 

Satu, the god of house and field. 

Over all these gods the modern Aka places Hori Deo, a Hindu deity. 

This is an innovation, introduced by Tagi Raja after his imprisonment. 

For whilst a captive, he became a disciple, as it were, of a Hindu 

guru, who in his turn obliged Tagi, by giving security for his new 

convert's future good behaviour. 

All these gods have their little temples or rather puja-huts, which 

contain representations of them, some are said to be of silver and gold. 

These latter most probably would turn out to be Buddist images, 

obtained from the Butias. 


198 The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

Near the puja-houses lives the Deori or sacrificing priest. He is 
always chosen from among the other Akas by divine tokens, it does 
not matter whether he is a bachelor or married. This Deon has to 
perform the daily worship for all the people, and on all specxal occasions 
he has to sacri8ce the requisite number of mithuns, cows goats 
fowls and pigeons. Geese and ducks there are none to be found in all 
the settlements of either Aka or Miji. The Akas entertain some 
crude notions of a state of punishment and reward after death. 

To follow an Aka through his domestic and pubhc life I shall have 
to begin with the erection of the dwelling-house. The Hrusso cannot 
build a house where he pleases, for the spot on winch he mends to 
erect his future dwelling must first be ascertained to be a lucky spot. 
The Deori therefore has to be consulted, animals slain as sacrifices, 
and the place pronounced to be propitious. Then the felling of timber 
and the collecting of the other building materials may he proceeded 
with. All having been collected, Fuxu receives his offerings, part ot 
which consist in a portion of the building materials. 

The house itself is generally very substantially constructed. It is 
built on piles from 5 to 7 feet above the ground; boarded and com- 
fortably walled in, with carefully planed planks, in this respect resem- 
bliog the houses of the Kassias. The roof is thatched with a land o 
broad leaf, and on account of the strong winds, mats are firmly, b^ 
neatly, fastened all over it. The houses of the Dallas and Abors, 
including other hill-tribes besides, are less substantially constructed. 

All the members of one family or clan, including the slaves, live 
nnder the same roof. The size of an Aka dwelling varies therefore 
with the size of the family. The house of Tagi Raja is 200 feet long 
and 40 feet broad, a long row of separate compartments running the 
whole length of the building. 

No earthen vessels are used by the Aka for household purposes. 
Thev possess huge copper jars to hold the water supplies of the family, 
and 'for cooking and eating, they use the brass pots and plates which 
they obtain in the Tezpore bazar. 

The copper jars are not procured by them in Assam, but most likely 
bartered from the Mijis, who again must have brought them from 
Butan. The granaries and stables are always built at some distance 
from the dwelling house for fear of fire. 

1808.] The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 199 

The Akas are polygamists : they can many as many wives as their 
means allow. A marriage among them is contracted in this wise : 
The parents or relatives select the future wife from among the female 
friends of the family, those friends may be either Aka or Miji, for 
Mijis and Hrusso intermarry. On the day appointed for the wed- 
ding, the services of the Deori are again called into requisition ; partly 
with a view to obtain the favour of the gods, but chiefly, I guess, 
in order to provide an abundance of meat for the hundreds of 
guests who are to partake of the marriage- feast, and for whom great 
numbers of mithuns, cows, goats and fowls have to be killed. The 
festivity, *. e. the eating and drinking— for the Akas, like all hill- 
people indulge in ardent spirits— are to last at least five days and 
nights uninterruptedly. 

The nuptials having thus been duly initiated, the bride and bride- 
groom are placed by the Deori beneath the canopy, formed of a piece 
of cloth spread out over them, he then winds another piece of cloth 
round both, thereby indicating their union, and this ceremony over, 
they are declared to be man and wile. 

At the birth of a child, again sacrifices are brought, but no distinc- 
tion is made between the sexes : a girl is considered as much a bless- 
ing as a boy ; the murder of female infants, therefore, is fortunately 
not known amongst them, although they welcome the birth of a 
son with the same degree of joy, with which such an event is hailed 
among far more civilized nations. 

In like manner are the gods to be propitiated when the ground 
is hoed and the seed sown, and also at harvest-time. 

Seasons of sickness too require the services of the Deori, for the 
Aka is not in the habit of resorting to medicines of any kind to effect 
a cure. If a Hrusso falls ill, fowls &c. are offered to Fuxit, and the 
patient is mesmerised ; but should this prove unavailing, matters are 
left to the good pleasure of Fuxu alone. 

The dead among the Akas are not burnt, but buried. A grave is 

dug four to five feet deep and the body reverently deposited therein. 

' Then a share of all his valuables is placed by the side of the dead, 

I including his spear, bow and arrows. Next a platform is raised over 

| the body to keep the earth from falling upon it, and finally the grave 

is filled in and over it a small stockade of bamboos and sticks erected. 

200 The Hill-trihes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

and- Hindu fashion-a piece of cloth is spread out over the whole. ^ 

The Aka, although given to loot and robbery, is yet no idler : he is 
a great agriculturist. Unlike the Butias, the Akas import no gram 
from Assam, but subsist on the fruits of their own labour. They 
cultivate the fine plateaux on the backs of their broad hills, and some 
of those smiling valleys that stretch themselves out between their hills, 
miles in length and width. 

They hoe the ground and beat the surface fine ; then pierce holes 
with a pointed stick, and drop into each hole 3 to 4 grains of rice 
(dhan). Their rice -crops they declare to be as good as, if not superior 
to those of the best parts of Assam. Beside the common kinds of 
rice, they cultivate a kind of grain, called Dafla-dhan, of a small size 
but growing in numerous clusters ; it is a grain, in fact, resembling 
millet. Also vegetables of the same description as those which are 
found in Assam, and pulses of various kinds are cultivated by the 


There are, however, neither cotton, nor hemp and flax-plantations, 
to be met with ; the only fibre used by them and the Mijis, as well as 
all the other hill-tribes, is that derived from the rind of a tree known 
in Assam by the name of Odal, and used for nets and ropes. Th 
consequence is, that the women of the Akas neither spin nor weavi 
but rely for their cotton cloth on the plains, as already mention* 
Nor do they breed the silkworms known to the Assamese. Thoug 
they covet the Eria Bor-Kapors of Assam, and the finer silk dhuties,. 
yet they have never taken the trouble of introducing the silkworm 
into their hills. 

The Akas keep large flocks of mithuns or mithans, and cows— 
their flesh is eaten, but the milk of mithuns, cows and goats they 
never touch. They breed pigs and rear fowls and pigeons in great 
numbers, but geese and clucks are forbidden to them by the gods. 

The Hrusso pride themselves on being better feeders than any of 
the other hill-men. They eat the food of civilized people ; never 
touch the flesh of dogs, or elephants, or other objectionable animals. 
They indulge in the use of opium and tobacco— in fact, the pipe 
seldom leaves the mouth of an Angka man or woman. Such a pipe 
is generally a bit of bamboo with a reed inserted into it at a right 
angle. Now and then, however, Tibetan pipes of composition metal 

1868.] The Hill-triles of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 201 

may be seen in use amongst them. They likewise chew betel which 
they obtain in the plains, but tea as a beverage is not in use among 
them, although they keep up a constant intercourse with their Butan 
neighbours. The well-known ardent drink however-a species of 
beer, called Mod— prepared by all the aborigines of Assam and its 
frontier hills, the Akas too drink to excess. 

The dress of the Angka has nothing national, or nothing that conld 
distinguish them from other hill-men that border on Assam, except 
the profusion of Eria cloth wound round their bodies in all manner of 
ways, and a kind of half-trousers which consist in a piece of Eria cloth 
tied in such a fashion beneath the knee, as to allow the fringes to hang 
down over the ankles. When they move, the ample folds of this 
kind of legging, keep swinging and flying about their feet, and thus 
this piece of garment seems to answer admirably the purpose for which 
it is intended, namely to keep off the leeches and stinging insects, 
such as the musquitoes and the dum-dam. 

As a head-dress the Aka often wears a kind of ring-cap or crown 
made of cane, three inches high with one or two tall feathers in front. 
However the felt-caps of the Butias are as commonly met with, while 
those who claim the rank of a raja sport rings or crowns such as those 
alluded to, only made of thin wood instead of cane, and covered with 
embossed silver. Tagi himself, however, never appears in the plains 
without his Tibetian hat of japanned wood of a bright yellow with a 
glass-knob on top, and a blue silk damask robe of state, of Chinese 
manufacture, but rather faded. All are fond of beads, and they wear 
them in profusion. Thus dressed up, they appear on state occasions 
only, the long sword at their side, and one or two minor weapons for 
cutting besides. When at home, the Aka looks more the savage, and 
dispenses with most of his garments. But winter is severe, and then 
he appreciates the neighbourhood of Assam, and the cloth of the 
rayats of Balipara. 

In appearance, the Angka bears the same family-likeness with the 
other Turanian hill-tribes ; he is a well-made and strongly built man, 
with more of daring and defiance in his look than the Dana or even 
the Naga. 

He is ignorant of the art of reading and writing, and though 
he covets the productions of art which Assam and Butan supply, 

202 The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

including Tibetian oil-paintings of Buddhist deities, yet does 
he look down upon books. The offers of opening a school in their 
villages, have repeatedly been made to Tagi, but as often politely 
refused. Tagi dreads the approach of the schoolmaster to his hills, 
for he knows, that with the schoolmaster there would come a different 
code of morals and ethics ; and he fears, that the English will succeed 
the schoolmaster, and thus put an end to Tagi, and the selfish aims 
of the Angka people, as regards the Mijis and the inhabitants of the 
Balipara Mehal. 


Showing the Orthoepy of the Dialects spoken hy the Hill-trioes of 

a. =: Father, 
o. = all. 
a. = ever. 

e. = may. 

i. = be. 

o. = no. 

6. — deux, Er. ; or bose, Ger. 

u. = too. 

ii. = tw, Er., or iiber, 


f. or ph. = Father, or 

1 Philosojjhy. 

g, = go and give. 
h. = house. 

k. = cat. 

s. = so. 

z. = zeal. 

th. = th&lev in German. 

ch. = church. 

j. =joy- 

x. = hoch, Scotch, or gleich, German. 

v. == very. 


Hrusso or 







... ... 


1868.] The Hill-trihes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 203 










fifty, . 



of me, 


of us, 


of thee, 


of you, 


of him, 

they, . 

of them, 





mouth, . 






belly, . 




Hrusso or Angle a, 

'xi or ksi. 

erh or 'rr. 
'nyo or no. 
nathi or nadci. 


jo or joe. 
pho or pfo. 

phu or pfu, 

204 The Hill-tribes of the Northern 


silver, .., ... 


Mother, ... 


Sister, ... ... 


woman, ... 


child, ... ••• 


daughter, ... 




god, ■•• ••• 

sun, ... ... 


star, ... ... 


water, ... ... 


horse, ... ... 


dog, ... .-• 


cock, ... ... 

duck, ... ... 

ass, ... ... 


g°> - 


sit, ... ... ■ 

come, ... 

heat, ... ... 


die, ... ... 

Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 

Hrusso or Anglca. 


chaue or tsanue. 
riue or roue, 
biidzibi or 

1868.] The Hill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. 








for, ... 


behind, ... 








alas ! 

father, ... 

of a father, . . . 

to a father, 

from a father,... 


of fathers, 

to fathers, 

from fathers, . . . 

a daughter 

of a daughter, 

to a daughter, 

from a daughter, 


of daughters, ... 

to daughters, 

from daughters, 

a good man, 

a good woman, 

a bad boy, 

Hrusso or Angka. 

dziba or jiba. 

godzoe or godzue. 













ah ! all ! kinia ! dunia ! 



















angasa mikzi. 


206 The Rill-tribes of the Northern Frontier of Assam. [No. 4, 


a bad girl, 
good, ... 


high, ... 




horses, . . . 


bull, ... 









I am, 

thou art, 

he is, 

we are, ... 

you are, 

they are, 

I was, 
thou wast, 
he was, 
we were, 
you were, 
they were, 
be, ... 
I may, 
I shall, 
I should 
Ibeat, .. 



Hrusso or Angha. 

nimie mikzi. 


angie uh. 


angie linjue. 



fugra angie. 
, emini angie. 


ombu angie. 


fullu angie. 
, sulo. 

sulo angie. 

. kissiemie. 


na eidu. 

ba du. 
, i or fo dua. 
, ni eidu. 
. jo or ze du. 
. nadu. 
. na duso. 
. ba duso. 
. i or fo duso. 
. ni duso. 
. jo or ze duso. 
. na duso. 
, . adaue. 

,. na danie. 

. gue. 

. na giimbi. 

1868.] The mil-tribes of tie Northern Frontier of Assam. 207 

thou beatest, . . . 
he beats, 
we beat, 
you beat, 
they beat, . . . 
I may, 


I shall, 
I should, 
I am, 
I was, 
I shall be, 

!go, ... ... , 

thou goest, ... 
he goes, 
we go, 

you go, ... ... 

they go, 

I went, ... 

thou do, 

he do, ... ... 

we do, 

you do, ... 

they do, 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 

How many sons are there in your 

father's house ? .. 

The son of my uncle is married to 

her sister, ... 
How far is it from here to Kashmir ? 

I have walked a long way to-day, 
In the house is the saddle of the 

white horse, ... 

Put the saddle upon his back, ... 

Hrusso or Angka. 
ba giimbi. 
i or fo giimbi. 
ni giimbi. 
jo or ze gii. 
na gii. 

na ffiinie. 

na giida. 

na khanie. 

ba khanie. 

i or fo khanie. 

ni khanie. 

jo or ze khanie. 

na khanie. 

na khabse. 

ba khabse. 

i or fo khabse. 

ni khabse. 

jo or ze khabse. 

na khabse. 

Banini hathi aue ? 

Fugra oddia khiniavo ? 

Bo iniase isa kinia duvo ? 

Avo essau eniu eniimi ksidani. 
Aio bege Kashmir khiinia 

radavo ? 
'Yo angiera dim doui. 

Fugra gro dsimie duma nie. 
Dsimie niva. 

208 On the Birds of lie Goona District. [No. 4, 

English. Hrusso or AngJca. 
He is grazing cattle on the top of 

the lull - Semifu khakus, done fu. 

He is sitting on a horse under that Shoni elo fugra idsuze nuna 

tree, ... r5da - 

His brother is taller than his sister, Enumise eama pshiifada. 

The price of that is two rupees and 

a. lialf ... Tokar pukse adulia. 

On the Birds of the Goona District; by George King, M. B., 
Assistant-Surgeon, Mavwar Political Agency. 

[Received 10th March, 1868.] 

Goona is a small station in Central India on the Agra and Bombay 
mail road, 200 miles south of Agra. It is situated in the territory of 
H. H. the Maharajah of Gwalior, and in a very thinly populated and 
comparatively little known part of the country. Having been attach- 
ed from the months of March to December of the past year, to one of 
the regiments of Central India Horse stationed there, I took the op- 
portunity of noting the birds of the surrounding district, thinking 
that a list of them might have some interest with respect to the 
geographical distribution of species. Not having remained a full year 
in Goona, the list subjoined is necessarily incomplete in respect of 
some of the migratory species, especially of water-fowl and waders, 
and I feel sure that an observer resident there for several years, would 
be able to add the names of many occasional visitants and very local 


Every care has been taken in the identification of the species given, 
and the names of none have been inserted on hearsay. I have the 
authority of the sportsmen of the station for believing that the names 
of Bed Spur-fowl, the Indian Bustard, the Golden Plover, the Kulan, 
the -European Bittern, and the Barred-headed Goose, might have been 
added, as occasionally occurring in the district, but not having my- 
self shot or seen specimens, I have excluded them. The book chiefly 
used in identifying the species has been Dr. Jerdon's admirable 

1868.] On the Birds of the Goona District. 209 

u Birds of India," a book which puts within the easy reach of every 
resident of India, the means of pursuing the study of a most delightful 
branch of Natural History. 

Goona is too unimportant a place politically or commercially to 
give its name to a district, but I have used the term " Goona District" 
as a convenient designation for the tract of country lying between the 
rivers Scinde on the east, and Parbutty on the west, and bounded on 
the north and south by lines connecting these two streams, 10 miles 
distant from the station in either direction. Although I believe the 
fauna of this district to be typical of that of a much wider area, I 
profess in the present paper only to give a list of the birds found 
within the limits just indicated. 

In respect of climate and physical features, the Goona district may 
be taken as a type of the north-western part of Central India. Pass- 
ing south from Gwalior, which is very little higher above the sea 
than Agra, the land gradually ascends, until at Goona a height of 
about 1400 feet is attained, and the elevation increases towards the 
east and south in the directions of Saugor, Bhopal and In do re, 
while towards the west, the country slopes gently until the sandy 
plains of Eastern Rajpootana are reached. The surface of this part 
of Central India is undulating and hilly. Few of the hills, however, 
rise more than 400 or 500 feet above the plain, and the majority are 
much lower. They are mostly rounded or flat-topped, and many are 
thickly strewed with loose stones. In the rains they are green to 
their summits, and the lower slopes of most are clothed with a dense 
growth of bushes and low trees. The geologic structure of these 
hills is chiefly laterite, a term rather vaguely applied to a reddish- 
brown deposit, which varies in character from masses of hard though 
often cellular rock* of a jaspery appearance, to beds of loose angular 

The valleys and plains are covered with deep black soil, interspersed 
here and there with mounds and slopes of reddish gravel and sandy 
earth, the debris of laterite. Scattered over the country there are a 
considerable number of small natural lakes and streams, many of 
which, though much reduced in size, retain some water during the 
hot weather. 

* Probably trap. 

210 On the Birds of tie Goona District. [No. 4, 

The climate gradually increases in moisture south of Gwalior, and 
at Goona the rainfall is from 40 to 50 inches. Though the 
hot weather may be said to be comparatively mild, the draught is 
sufficiently great to burn up all herbaceous plants, except those grow- 
ing near water. The rains extend from the middle of June to Sep- 
tember, and towards the end of that month the cold weather birds 
begin to appear. 

Cultivation is the exception in these regions. Here and there all 
through the jungle are scattered small hamlets, each with its little 
patch of cultivation, but on all sides of these oases there stretch 
thousands of acres of grassy plain and bushy downs, over the remoter 
parts of which even the village buffaloes and goats never stray. 
Grain-feeding birds are therefore not numerous, and the country is a 
bad one for small game. 

The prevailing trees and bushes are JButea frondosa, Acacia Catechu, 
Buchanania latifolia, AEgle Marmelos, a Diospyrus and several species 
of Zizyphus, with Garissa Garandas in the moister valleys ; and the 
prevailing grass is that known as " spear-grass," a term including 
several species of Apluda and Andropogon. I always found that 
spear-grass gives cover to extremely few birds of any kind, and indeed 
I was often struck by the scarcity of animal life in the jungle gener- 
ally. Near villages there are Tamarind, Peepul, Banyan, and Mowa* 
trees, but there are very few gardens. 

The subjoined list includes the names of 21 Raptorial species. Of 
the two larger carrion-feeders given the Black Vulture (Otogyps calvus) 
and the Common Brown Vulture (Gyps Bengalensis)—ihe former is 
by far the more common, and the latter does not occur at all during the 
hot weather. Of the predatory species that arrive in the cold weather, 
the first to come are the various species of Circus, and Ealiastur 
Indus. Circus cyaneus, Linn., a bird which in India does not usually 
extend to the plains, is inserted on the strength of a single female bird 
which I shot near the Parbutty river early in December. Towards 
the end of October, Poliornis teesa arrives in large numbers, and is by 
far the commonest bird of prey during the cold season. Previously to 
October, I did not observe the tawny eagle (AquOa fulvescens) but 

* Bassia latifolia, from the flowers of which a spirit is distilled. 

1868.] On the Birds of the Goona District. 211 

during that and the succeeding months I noted a good many, and in 
November I found two pairs breeding in tall trees near a village. 
The common kite (Milvus Govinda) is a permanent resident. I have 
not seen it recorded anywhere that this bird bathes* in water, but 
this I once saw one do. I was unfortunate in procuring owls, and 
I feel sure that there must be others in the district besides the 
two that appear in my list. 

The Insessorcs are of course the most numerous group. These in- 
clude 85 species. Of swallows, H. filifera and daurica are about 
equally common, and both reside in the district during the hot weather 
and the rains, as well as in the cold season. H.Jilifera breeds in the 
district, for although I never found the nest, very young birds were not 
uncommon in April and May. Cotyle concolor and Cypselus affinis are 
also permanent residents and breeders. I found nests of the former 
containing young, in the walls of an old fort early in September. 

The only Hornbill inhabiting the district is the Meniceros bicorms, 
and that is very common, but it occurs only in the cold weather. Of 
Tockus gingalensis, I saw but one individual, which I shot. It occur- 
red early in April, and was a sickly bird in very bad plumage and 
evidently a straggler. 

The rose-ringed Paroquet (Palcsornis torquatus) is extremely numer- 
ous at all seasons. During the hot weather, a colony of many 
hundreds established themselves in a clump of Tamarind trees near 
the village of Goona. These quarters, however, were occupied only 
during the night, for regularly every morning, after much preliminary 
chattering, the whole flock betook itself, in parties of from twenty to 
thirty, to the jungles, returning again about sunset in like manner 
but flying at a greater height. 

Taccocua affinis, the only species of the genus in the list, is not 
uncommon in the district. It frequents low bushy jungle when 
feeding, but perches on trees. I have frequently met with it asso- 
ciating with flocks of the common blue Pigeon near wells. 

With the cold weather, large numbers of two species of Pratincola 
(P. caprata and P. Indica) appear. Saxicola cenanthe also comes, 

* The bathing may be almost daily witnessed on the Calcutta maidan, during 
the cold and hot weather. (Ed.) 

212 On the Birds of the Goona District. [No. 4, 

though not in abundance. In marching westward from Goona to 
Rajpootana, I was much struck by the change in the common species 
of Saxicoline birds. The two Pratincoles just mentioned continue 
numerous as far west as Kotah and Boondee, but there they begin 
to be replaced by Saxicola leucoroides, a bird I never saw near Goona. 
Towards Deolee S. deserti begins to appear, and in Marwar, both this 
species and P. leucoroides are as common as the two Pratincolas, com- 
mon at Goona, are scarce ; and a still more western species, namely 
P. leucomela, is found in small numbers. 

The occurrence of the common Starling so far south as Goona, 
has not often been noted. It is by no means common there, unless 
indeed flocks arrive subsequently to December. In January last, 
I saw near A j mere large numbers both of this species and of Pastor 
roseus, and both are numerous in Marwar. I observed only a single 
flock of *P. roseus near Goona. It contained a number of young 
birds, and arrived early in September, but remained only a few days. 
Rain crops (which ripen in the early part of the cold weather) are by 
no means largely cultivated in the district, and I fancy this bird 
chiefly frequents districts where, as in Marwar, a great extent of land 
is laid down in these cereals. 

The rasorial group is represented by only 10 species, and of these 
the only one very common is the Peafowl, which being sacred, is pro- 
tected and even fed, and consequently lives much about villages. 
The scarcity of other species is no doubt owing to the small amount 
of cultivation, and the number of carnivorous mammals abounding in 
these wild regions. 

Of Grallatores there are 36 species. The two lapwings, the red 
and yellow-wattled, are very, and about equally, common. To the 
westward, the latter gradually disappears, and in Rajpootana it is re- 
placed by Chettusia gregaria. 

Twenty- two species of Natatores occur in the district. As 
rule, ducks and geese are but winter visitants in India. Two, how- 
ever, remain in the tanks near Goona all the year round. These 
are that pretty little goose Nettapus Goromandelianus (the cotton 
teal of sportsmen), and the whistling teal, Dendrocygna aiosaree. 
I have no doubt these two species breed, but I never succeeded 
in finding their nests. The rainy season was introduced 

1808.] On the Birds of the Goona District. 213 

year at Goona by a storm of wind and rain, which filled in a day 
many tanks and nullahs that had been dry for months. The storm 
was succeeded by a week of cloudy but dry weather, during which 
the newly filled tanks were frequented by large flocks of the two 
species just mentioned, and also by smaller parties of Anas poecilo- 
rhyncha and Sarcidiomis melanotic ; at the same time perfect crowds 
of Buphus coromandus and Threskiomis melanocephalus were collected 
by the grassy banks of a nullah, which had not been dried by the 
hot weather sun. In a few days all had gone, [except a few of the 
cotton and whistling teal which, as just mentioned, remained during 
the rains] and I did not observe a single individual of any of them 
until the cold weather had begun. These sudden movements were, 
I dare say, an episode in some general migration. 

List of Birds of the Goona District, 
Otogyps calvus, Sco t j. 
Gyps Bengalensis, Gmel 
Neophron Ginginianus, Lath. 
Lithofalco subbuteo, Linn. 

■ Ohicquera, Daud. 

Tinnunculus alaudarius, Briss. 
Micronisus badius, Gmel. 
Aquila fulvescens, Gray. 
Eutolmaetus Bonelli, Teimn. 
Poliornis teesa, Frankl. 
Circus cyaneus, Linn. 

■ Swainsonii, A. Smith. 

cineraceus, Montague. 

melanoleucos, Gmel. 

asruginosus, Linn. 

Haliastur Indus, Bodd. 
Milvus Govinda, Sy/ces. 
Pernis cristata, Cuvier. 
Elanus melanopterus, Daud. 
Bulaca ocellata, Lath. 
Athene Brama, Temm. 


214 On the Birds of the Gouna District. [No. 1, 

Hirundo rustica, Linn. 

filifera, Stephens. ■ 

erythropygia, Syhes. 

Ptinoprogne concolor, Sykes. 
Cypselus affinis, Gray. 
Caprimnlgus Asiaticns .Lath. 
Merops viridis, Linn. 
Coracias Indica, Linn. 
Halcyon Smyrnensis, Bodd. 
Alcedo Bengalensis, Gmel. 
Ceryle rudis, Linn. 
Meniceros bicornis, Scop. 
Tockus gingalensis, Shaw* 
Pala?ornis torquatus, Bodd. 

rosa, Bodd. 

Picus Mabrattensis, Lath. 
Xantbotema Indica, Lath. 
Cuculus micropterus, Gould. 
Coccystes melanoleucos, Gmel. 
Centropus rufipennis, Illiyer. 

Taccocua affinis, Blyth. 
Aracbnecbtbra Asiatica, Lath. 

Upupa epops Linn. 
Lanins labtora, Sykes. 

erytbronotus, Vigors, 

Hardwickii, Vigors. 

Tephrodornis pondiceriana, Gmel. 

Graculus Macei, Less. 

Pericrocotus erythropygius, Jerdon. 

Dicrurns macrocerus, Vieill. 

Tchitrea paradisi, Linn. 

Leucocera pectoralis, Jerdon. 

Cryptolopha cinereocapilla, Vieill. 

Cyornis banyumas, Horsf. 

Petrocossypbus cyanens, Linn, 

Pyctorbis sinensis, Gmel. 

*868»] On the Birds of the Goona District. 215 

Dumetia albogularis, Blyth. 
Malacocircus terricolor, Hodgs. 

Malcolmi, Sykes. 

Chatarrhoea caudata, Dum. 
Pycnonotus pusillus, Blyth. 
Oriolus Kundoo, Sykes. 
Copsychus saularis, Linn. 
Thamnobia fulicata, Linn. 

Cambaiensis, Lath. 

Pratincola caprata, Linn. 

Indica, Blyth. 

Saxicola cenanthe, Linn. 
Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieil. 
Orthotonus longicaudata, GmeL 
Prinia socialis, Sykes. 

gracilis, Frankl. 

Cisticola scliaenicola, Bonap. 
Drymoipus inornatus, Sykes. 

longicaudatus, Tirkell. 

ueglectus, Jerdon. 

Phylloscopus Indicus, Jerdon. 
Motacilla Maderaspatana, Briss. 

Dukhunensis, Sykes. 

Budytes viridis, Gmel. 
Zosterops palpebrosus, Temm. 
Machlolophus xanthogenys, Vigors. 
Corvus culminatus, Sykes. 

splendens, Vieill. 

Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. 
Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 
Sturnopastor contra, Linn. 
Acridotheres tristis, Linn. 
Temenuchus pagodarum, Gmd. 
Pastor roseus, Linn. 
Ploceus baya, Blyth. 
Munia Malabarica, Linn. 
Estrelda amandava, Linn. 

21G On the Birds of lite Goona District. [No. 4, 

Estrelda formosa, Lath. 

Passer Indicus, Jard. and Selby. 

flavicollis, Franlcl. 

Euspiza luteola, Sparr. 
Melopbus melanicterus, Gmelin. 
Mirafra Assamica, McL. 

erytbroptera, Jerd. 

Ammomanes pbamicura, Franlcl. 
Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. 

Calandrella bracydactyla, Temm. 

Spizalauda deva, Syhes. 

Alauda gulgula, Franlcl. 

Crocopns pboenicopterus, Lath. 

Columba intermedia, Strickl. 

Turtur Cambayensis, Gmel. 

Suratensis, Gmel, 

risoria, Linn. 


Pterocles fasciatns, Scop. 

exustus, Temm, 

Pavo cristatus, Linn. 

Francolinus pictus, Jard. and Selby. 

Ortygornis Ponticeriana, Gmel. 

Perdicula Cambayensis, Lath. 

■ Asiatica, Lath. 

Coturnix communis, Bonat. 

. Coromandelica, Gmel. 

Turnix Sykesii, A. Smith. 


Sypbeotides auritus, Lath. 
Cursorius Coromandelicus, Gmel. 
Aegialitis Philippensis, Scop. 
Lobivanellus Goensis, Gmel. 
Sarciopborus bilobus, Gmel. 
(Edicnemus crepitans, Temm. 
Esacus recurvirostris, Cuvier. 

1868.] On the Birds of the Gonna District. 217 

Grrus Antigone, Linn. 

Gallinago scolopacinus, Bona p. 

gall inula, Linn. 

Rhyncheea Bengalensis, Linn. 

Philomachus pugnax, Linn. 

Actitis glareola, Gmelin. 

- ■ ochropus, Linn. 

— — hypoleucus, Linn, 

Totanus glottis, Linn. 

stagnatilis, Bechst. 

fuscus, Linn. 

Himantopus Candidas, Bonn at. 

Metopidins Indicus, Lath. 

Leptoptilos argala, Linn. 
Mycteria Australis, Shaw. 

Ciconia leucoccpliala, Gmelin. 
Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

purpurea, Linn. 

Herodias alba, Linn. 

garzetta, Linn. 

Buplms Coromandus, Bodd. 
Ardeola leucoptera, Bodd. 
Butorides Javanica, Horsf. 
Nycticorax griseus, Linn. 
Tantalus leucocephalus, Gmel. 
Platalea leucorodia, Linn. 
Anastomus oscitans, Bodd. 
Threskiornis melanocephalus, Linn, 
G-eronticus papillosus, Temm. 

Sarcidiornis melanonotus, Penn. 
Nettapus Coromandelianus, Gmel. 
Dendrocygna awsuree, SyJces. 
Casarca rutila, Pallas. 
Spatula clypeata, Linn. 
Anas pcecilorhyncha, Penn. 
Chaulelasmus streperus, Linn. 


On the Birds of the Goona District. [No. 4, 

Dafila acuta, Linn. 
Querquedula crecca, Linn. 

circia, Linn. 

Aythya ferina, Linn. 

. nyroca, Guldenst. 

Fuligula cristata, Ray. 
Gallinula chloropus, Linn. 
Podiceps Phillipensis, Gmelin. 
Sylochelidon caspius, Lath. 
Hydrochelidon Indica, Stephens. 
Seena aurantia, Gray. 
Graculus Sinensis, Shaw. 

Javanicus, Horsf. 

Plotus melanogaster, Gmel. 





(Nos. I to IV.— 1868.) 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, anticiuaries nhi!nlno™.c „ i 
ot science in different parts of Asia, will commit SffSSSSSTto^W™ 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It w ntaZish If < f 

Sir Wm. Jones. 







Blaneord, W. T, Esq, F. G. S. ^Contributions to Ind 
Malacology, No. IX ^Descriptions of new Diplom- 
matin* from Darjeeling and the Khasi Hills 7* 

Gastrell, J. E. Col. ;-Table of mean monthly 'readings and 

hourly variations of Barometer, Calcutta, 1856—1865. 
Gastrell, J. E. Col. ; -Diagram of monthly mean curves of 
Barometer and Thermometer, wet and dry bulb, and of 
rainfall, Calcutta, 1856—1865. 
Godwin-Austen, H. H. Capt. ;-Figures of the species of 
Diplommatina, Benson, hitherto described as inhabiting 
the Himalayas, Khasi Hills, and Burmah, & c . ; (with 

plates I-IV), g3 

Godwin- Austen, H. H. Capt. ;-Notes on the Pangkong lake 

district of Ladakh, from Journal made in 1863, 84 

Godwin-Austen, H. H. Capt. ;-Notes on geological structure 
of the country near foot of hills in the Western Bhootan 
Dooars (with plate V), -p^ 

Gosha, P. Oh., Babu, B. A. ;-The adjustment of the Hindu 

Kalender. lfil 

Hesselmeyer, C. H., Kev. ;-The Hill tribes of the Northern 

frontier of Assam, 192 

King, G., M. B. ;— On the birds of the Goona district, ... 208 

Macnamara, C, M. D. ; _On the intimate structure of mus- 
cular fibre, 71 

Mason,]?, Kev. D.D.;-0n dwelling works'of Art.Lawsi&c.' 

of the Karens, -t 2 5 

Minas, P. A., Hon. Assistant Surgeon ;— A short sketch of the 

tribes of Bhutteanah and Hurrianah, 171 


Mitchell, J., Capt. ;— Additions to the knowledge of Silk, ... 169 
Stoliczka, F., Ph. D. ;— Ornithological Observations in the 

Sutlej valley, N. W. Himalaya, 1 

Surveyor-General; Abstract of hourly meteorological observa- 
tions taken at his office, Calcutta, from September, 1866 to 
July, 1868. 


Plates 1 — 4. Figures of species of Diplommatina (see pp. 77 — 84) 
Plate 5. Map of a part of Bhootan, (see p. 117). 


Page 3, line 5, from bottom for rnoena read meena. 
19^ 8, „ „ for Cryle read Ceryle. 

40 & 41 for Patrincola read passim Pratincola. 
69 line 2, from bottom for leucopthalma, read leucophthahna. 

for stagnalis read stagnatilis. 

for whieh read which. 

for arrows read arrow. 

for exceptinal read exceptional. 

for ( . ) after the word grades read ( ; ). 

for P before the word leucoroides read S. 

for P. „ „ ,, leucomela read 8. 
bottom for Leucocera read Leucocerca. 

for Graculus read Graucalus. 

for Arachnechthra read Arachnothera. 

In the " Table of the mean monthly readings and mean hourly variation of 
the Barometer, in the Surveyor- General's Office, Calcutta, for the ten years, 

9 p.m.") r— -004 "J /■+ -004 

i w ; -J 10 p. m. y for }— -008 C read ) + -008 

•005) (.+ '005 




















































of species and genera described or mentioned in this volnme. 
W. B. The names of new species and genera are marked with an asterisk. 

Abies excelsa, 8. 
Acacia Catechu, 210. 
Acer, 8. 

Adonis aestivalis, 8. 
Aegle Marmelos, 210. 
Alnus elongate, 8. 
Andropogon, 210. 
Apluda, 210. 
Betula Bajpaltra, 8. 
Buchanania latifolia, 210. 
Butea frondosa, 210. 
Caltlia palustris, 8. 
Caragaena, 7. 
Cedrus Deodora, 8, 10. 
Convolvulus arvensis, 9. 
Diospvrus, 210. 
Epilobium angustifolium, 9. 

„ roseum, 9. 
Euphorbia antiqua, 7. 
Euphrasia officinalis, 9. 
Ficus indica, 11. 

„ _ religiosa, 7, 11. 
Fraxinus, 8. 
Gloriosa superba, 148. 
Ilex, 8. 

Juglans regia, 9. 
Juniperus excelsus, 5. 

„ squammosus, 7. 

Musa, 7. 

Myricaria elegans, 8. 
Pavia indica, 9. 
Picea Webbiana, 8. 
Pinus excelsa, 7. 

„ Gerardiana, 8, 11. 

„ longifolia, 11. 

>, Smithiana, 8. 
Polemonium cceruleum, 9. 
, Quercus, 8. 
Ranunculus acris, 8. 
Taraxacum officinale, 9. 
Taxus baccata, 8. 
Thlaspi arvense, 9. 
Ulmus Himalayensis, 9. 
Zizyphus, 210. 


Cyathopoma Deccanense, 83. 
Diancta, 81. 
*Diplommatina Austeni, 81, 83. 

>, Blanfordiana, 80, 83. 

>» constricta, 81. 

» costulata, 83. 

diplocheilus, 79, 80, 

» exilis, 84 

83>J Fairbanki (Nicida), 

» folliculus, 83, 84 

gibbosa, 78, 80, 83. 
Ifuttoni, 78, 83. 
labiosa, 80, 83. 

»» Martensi, 81. 

» nana, 84. 

# » Nilgirica(Nicida),82. 
^ » nitidula ( „ ) } 82. 

oligopleuris, 82, 84. 
» pachycheilus, 78, 80, 

»> polipleuris, 81, 83. 

# » pullula, 83. 

g2 » Pulneyana (Nicida), 

# » Puppensis, 84 

# » scalaria, 79, 83. 

» semisculpta, 78, 83. 

» sperata, 84. 

Lymna?a, 91. 
*Nicida, 83. 
Pisidium, 91. 
Planorbis, 91. 
Pterocyclos Troscheli, 78. 


Actia selene, 170. 
Antherea paphia, 169. 
Attacus atlas, 170. 
Bombyx, 169. 


Abrornis xantbosbistos, 47. 
Accentor altaicus, 52. 
„ Huttoni, 53. 
„ modularis, 53. 
„ rubeculoides, 53. 
,, stropbiatus, 53. 
Accipiter gularis, 13. 
„ nisoides, 13. 
„ nisus, 13. 
,, virgatus, 13. 
Acridotberes tristis, 56, 215. 
Actitis glareola, 69, 217. 
„ bypoleucos, 69, 217. 
„ ocbropus, 70, 217. 
Aegialitis Pbilippensis, 216. 
„ pyrbotborax, 69. 

Aegitbaliscus erytbrocepbalus, 52. 
Aetbopyga Gouldise, 23. 

„ miles, 23. 

Agrodoma sordida, 49. 
Alauda gulgula, 64, 216. 
„ leucoptera, 64. 
„ triborbyiicba, 64. 
Alaudula Kaytal, 64. 

„ pispoleta, 64. 
Alcedo Bengalensis, 19, 214. 
Allotrius melanotis, 50. 

„ xantbocblorus, 50. 
Alsocomus Hodgsomi, 65. 
Ammomanes pboenicurn, 216. 
Anas leucopbtbalma, 69. 

„ poecilorbyncba, 217. 
Anastomus oscitans, 217. 
Anser indicus, 70. 
Antbus cervinus, 49. 
Aquila cbrysaetos, 15. 
„ fulvescens, 213. 
„ pennata, 16. 
Aracbnotbera asiatica, 24, 214. 

„ magna, 23. 

Arboricola torqneola, 69. 
Ardea cinerea, 217. 

„ purpurea, 217. 
Ardeola leucoptera, 217. 
Artamus cucullatus, 78. 
Astur palumbarius, 13. 
Atbene Brama, 213. 

„ cuculoides, 17. 
Aytbia ferina, 218. 
„ nyroca, 218. 
Budytes citreoloides, 48. 
,, Rayi, 48. 
,, viridis, 48, 215. 
Bulaca ocellata, 213. 

Bupbus coromandus, 217. 
Buteo canescens, 16. 
Butorides javanica, 213. 
Cacabis cbukor, 69. 
„ grseca, 69. 
Calandrella bracbydactyla, 64, 216. 
Callacantbis Burtoni, 61. 
Calliope pectoralis, 45. 
Caprimulgus asiaticus, 19, 214. 

„ indicus, 19. 

Carduelis caniceps, 61. 
„ elegans, 61. 
Carpodacus erytbrmus, 60. 
Casarca rutila, 70, 217. 
Centropus rufipennis, 214. 
Cepbalopyrus flammiceps, 52. 
Ceriornis melanocepbala, 67. 
Certbia familiaris, 25. 

„ Himalayana, 25. 
Ceryle guttata, 19. 

„ rudis, 19,214. 
CbaBmorornis fuliginosa, 43. 

„ leucocepbala, 44. 

Cbatarrbaaa caudata, 39, 215. 
Cbaulelasma streperus, 217. 
Cbelidon Casbmiriensis, 17. 

„ urbica, 17. 
Cbetusia gregaria, 69, 212. 
Chrysomitris spinoides, 61. 
Ciconia leucocepbala, 217. 
Circus ceruginosus, 213. 
„ cineracens, 16, 213. 
„ cyaneus, 213. 
„ melanoleucos, 213. 
„ Swainsonii, 213. 
Cisticola scboenicola, 215. 
Coccystes melanoleucos, 23, 215. 
Colabates sulpburea, 48. 
Columba intermedia, 66, 216. 
„ leuconota, 6Q. 
„ rupestris, 66. 
Copsycbus saularis, 40, 215. 
Coracias garula, 19. 

indica, 19, 214. 
Corvus corax, 54. 

„ culminatus, 215. 
„ intermedins, 54. 
„ splendens, 54, 215. 
„ tibetanus, 54. 
Corydala BAcbardi, 48. 

„ rufula, 48. 
Coturnix communis, 69, 216. 
„ coromandelica, 216. 
Cotyle riparia,_ 17. 
„ rupestris, 17. 


Crocopus phcenicopterus, 216. 
Cryptolopha cinereocapilla, 28, 
Cuculus canorus, 22. 

„ micropterus, 214. 
„_ poliocepbalus, 23. 
Culicipeta Burkii, 47. 
Cursorius Coromandelicus, 216. 
Cyanecula suecica, 45. 
Cyornia ruficauda, 29. 
Cypselus acuticauda, 18. 
affinis, 18, 214. 
„ apus, 18. 
„ australis, 18. 
„ leuconyx, 18. 
„ melba, 18. 
», pacificus, 18. 
„ vittatus, 18. 
Dafila acuta, 218. 
Dendrocitta Himalaynna, 55. 

rufa, 55, 215. 
Dendrocygna awsuree, 212, 217. 
Dicrurus longicaudatus, 27. 
j, macrocercus, 214. 
Drymoipus inornatus, 215. 
„ lonfficaudatus, 215. 

» neglectus, 215. 

Elanus melanopterus, 213. 
Ernberiza cia, 57. 
„ fucata, 58. 
„ pithyornis, 58. 
» pusilla, 59. 
„ Stewarti, 58. 
„ Stracheyi, 57. 
Erytbropus vespertinus, 13. 
Erythrosterna leucura, 32. 
Esacus recurvirostris, 216. 
Estrclda amandava, 215. 

» formosa, 216. 
Eumyas melanops, 29. 
Eurycercus, 45. 
Euspiza luteola, 216. 
Eutolmaetus Bonelli, 213. 
Ealco peregrinus, 12. 
Francolinus pictus, 216. 
vulgaris, 68. 
I -fcregilus graculus, 55. 
.»» Himalayanus, 55. 
Fringillauda memoricola, 63. 
*Pringillauda sordida, 63. 
Fulica atra, 69. 
! Euligula cristata, 218, 
\ Galerida crystata, 65. 
Gallinago gallinula, 217. 

» scolopacinus, 70, 217. 
), solitaria, 70. 


Gallinula Burnesi, 69. 
214 - » chloropus, 69, 218. 

Gallophasis albocristatus, 68. 
Gallus moris, 130. 
Garulax albogularis, 37. 
Garulus bispecularis, 55. 

,, lanceolatus, 55. 
Gecinus squammatus, 21. 

w striolatus, 21. 
Geocichla unicolor, 35. 
Geronticus papilosus, 217. 
Glaucidium Brodiei, 17. 
Grarulus j.'ivnni.-us, 218. 

„ sinensis, 218. 

Grammatoptila striata, 36. 
Graucalua Macei, 214. 
Grua antigone, 217. 
Gypaetua barbatus, 12. 
Gyps Bengalensis, 210, 213. 
„ lulvus, 12. 
,, indicus, 12. 
Halcyon fuscus, 19. 

,, Smyrnensis, 214. 
Haliastur Indus, 16, 213. 
Hemichelidon fuliginosum, 28. 
Henicurus maculatus, 17. 
„ nigrifrons, 47. 
„ Scouleri, 47. 

Herodias alba, 217. 

„ garzetta, 217. 
Hesperiphona icteroides, 59. 
Heterura sylvana, 49. 
Hierococcyx sparveroides, 23. 
Himantopus candidus, 217. 
Hirundo daurica, 17, 21] . 

erythropygia, 17, 214. 
„ filifera, 17, 214. 
„ rustica, 17, 214. 
Horornis fuligini venter, 46. 
Hydrobata asiatica, 33. 

„ Casbmiriensis, 33. 

sp. ? 33. 
Hydrochelidon indica, 218. 
Hydropbasianus cliirurgus, 69. 
Hypotriorchis chiquera, 13. 
„ severus, 13. 

„ subbuteo, 13. 

Hypsipetes psaroides, 39. 
Janthia cyanura, 44. 
Lanius arenarius, 27. 

„ erytbronotus, 26, 214. 
„ Hardwickii, 26, 214. 
„ labtora, 214. 
Larvivora cyana, 44. 
Laticilla, 45. 



Lerva nivicola, 68. 
Limosa oegocephala, 69. 
Leptoptilos argala, 217. 
Leucocerca albofrontata, 28. 
„ fuscoventris, 28. 

„ pectoralis, 214. 

Linota brevirostris, 62. 
„ montium, 62. 
*Linota pygmsea, 62. 
Lithofalco Cbiquera, 213. 
„ subbuteo, 213. 
Lobivanellus Goensis, 70, 216. 
Lophophanes melanolophus, 52. 

„ rufonuchalis, 52. 

Lopbopbaims Impeyanus, 67. 
Loxia Himalayana, 60. 
Macblolopbus xanthogenys, 52, 215. 
Malacocircus Malcolmi, 215. 
. „ terricolor, 215. 

Mareca penelope, 69. 
Megalsema caniceps, 22. 
„ Hodgsoni, 22. 

„ lineata, 22. 

„ virens, 22. 

Melophus melanicterus, 216. 
Meniceros bicornis, 211, 214. 
Merops apiater, 19. 
,, viridis, 19. 
Merula albocincta, 35. 
„ boulbul, 35. 
„ castanea, 35. 
Metopidius indicus, 217. 
Metoponia pusilla, 61. 
Micronisus badius, 213. 
Milvus govinda, 16, 213. 
Mirafra Assamica, 216. 
„ cantilans, 64. 
„ erytbroptera, 216. 
Montifringilla Adamsi, 62.^ 

„ baematopygia, 62. 

Motacilla Dukbunensis, 215. 
„ Maderaspatana, 215. 
„ personata, 48. 
Munia malabarica, 56, 215. 
*-Munia similaris, 56. 
Muscicapula sestigma, 32. 
„ ciliaris, 32. 

„ leucosbistos, 32. 

„ rubecula, 32. 

„ superciliaris, 32. 

Muscipeta Ducbalui, 27. 
Mycberia australis, 217. 
Myopbonus Temminckii, 33. 
Myzauthe ignipectus, 24. 
Nemoricola indica, 48. 

Neophron Ginginianus, 12, 213. 

„ percnopterus, 12. 
Neopus Malayensis, 16. 
Neornis flavolivacea, 46. 
Nettapus Coromandelianus, 217, 
Nucifraga cariocatbactes, 55. 
„ bemispila, 54. 
„ immaculata, 54. 
„ maculata, 54. 
Numenius arquata, 69. 
Nycticorax griseus, 217. 
Oedicnemus crepitans, 216. 
Oreocincla mollissima, 36. 
Oriolus galbula, 39. 

„ Kundoo, 39, 215. 
„ melanocephalus, 39. 
„ Traillii, 40. 
Orocestes cinglorhyncbus, 34. 

„ erytbrogastra, 34. 

Ortbotonius longicaudata, 215. 
Ortygornis Pondiceriana, 216. 
Otocompsa lcucogenys, 39. 
Otocornis longirostris, 64, 
Otogyps calvus, 210, 213. 
Otus vulgaris, 17. 
Palaeornis Alexandri, 19. 
rosa, 20, 214. 
„ sbisticeps, 20. 

torquatus, 20, 214. 
Palumbus casiotis, 66. 
Parus cinereus, 52. 

,, monticulus, 52. 

Passer cinamomeus, 57. 

„ flavicollis, 216. 

„ indicus, 57, 216. 

„ montanus, 57. 

Pastor roseus, 56, 215. 

Pavo cristatus, 67, 216. 

Perdicula asiatica, 216. 

„ Cambayensis, 216. 
Pericrocotus erytbropygius, 214. 

„ speciosus, 27. 

Pernis cristata, 213. 
Petrocossypbus castaneocolbs, 34 
„ cyaneus, 34. 

„ saxatilis, 34. 

Pbasianus Wallicbii, 68. 
Pbilomacbus pugnax, 217. 
Phylloscopus affinis, 46. 
„ indicus, 215. 

„ n. sp. ? 46. 

„ trocbilus, 46. 

„ viridanus, 46. 

Pica bottanensis, 3. 
„ caudata, 3. 

Picus brunneifrons, 20. 
„ Himalayanus, 20. 
„ Mahrattensis, 214. 
„ major, 20. 
Pipastes arboreus, 48. 

„ maculatus, 48. 
Piprisoma agile, 24. 
Planesticus atrogularis, 35. 
Platalea leucorodia, 217. 
Ploceus baya, 215. 
Plotus melanogaster, 218. 
Pnoepyga longicaudata, 32. 

M squammata, 32. 

Podiceps cristatus, 69. 

„ Phillipensis, 218. 
Poliornis teesa, 213. 
Pomatorhinus erythfogenys, 37. 
Pratincola atrata, 40, 211, 213. 
„ indica, 40, 211, 213. 

m ferrea, 41. 

Prinia gracilis, 215. 
„ socialis, 215. 
Proparus vinipectus, 50. 
Propasser rhodocblamys, 60. 
„ rliodoclirous, 60. 

Pterocles exutus, 216. 

„ fasciatus, 67. 

Pteruthius erythropterus, 79. 
Ptinoprogue concolor, 214. 
Pucrasia melanocephala, C8. 
Pycnonotus pusillus, 215. 

„ pygaeus, 39. 

Pyctorhis sinensis, 36, 214, 
Pyrrhocorax alpinus, 56. 
Pyrrhospiza punicea, 60. 
Pyrrhula erythrocephala, 59. 
Pyrrhulauda grisea, 216. 
Querquedula circia, 218. 

„ crecca, 69, 218. 

„ glocitans, 69. 

Reguloides chloronotus, 47. 
„ occipitalis, 46. 

j, proregulus, 47. 

„ trochiloides, 46. 

Regulus cristatus, 47. 

„ Himalayan us, 47. 
Rhynchsea Bengalensis, 70, 217. 
Ruticilla cceruleocephala, 42. 
„ erythragastra, 42. 
„ phoenicura, 42. 
„ rufiventris, 42, 215. 
Saxicola deserti, 42, 212. 
„ leucuroides, 41, 212. 
„ cenantbe, 41, 215. 
„ picata, 41. 


Sarcidiornis melanotus, 217. 
Sarciophorus bilobus, 216. 
Scolopax rusticola, 70. 
Seena aurantia, 218. 
Sibia capistrata, 38. 
Siphia leucomelanura, 32. 

_ i, strophiata, 32. 
Sitta Himalayensis, 25. 

„ leucopsis, 26. 
Siva strigula, 50. 
Spatula clypeata, 217. 
Sphenocercus sphenurus, 65. 
Spyzalauda deva, 216. 
Staehviis pyrrhops, 36. 
Sterna hirundo, 69. 
„ javanica, 69. 
Sturnopastor contra, 215. 
Stumus unicolor, 56. 

„ vulgaris, 56, 215. 
buya criniger, 45. 
S\ Uiparus modestus, 51. 
Sypheodites auritus, 216. 
Syrnium nevarense, 16. 
„ nivicolum, 16. 
Taccocua affinis, 214. 
Tantalus leucocephalus, 217. 
Tarsiger chryseus, 45. 
Tchitrea paradisi, 27, 214. 
Temenuchus pagodarum, 56, 213. 
Tephrodornis, 49. 
Tephrodornis Pondiceriana, 214. 
Tetraogallus Himalayensis, 68. 

>, > tibetanus, 68. 
Thamnobia Cambayensis, 40, 215. 

„ fulicata, 315. 

Tharrhaleus, 53. 

Threskiornis melanocephalus, 217. 
Tichodroma muraria, 25. 
Tinunculus alaudarius, 13, 213. 
Tockus gingalensis, 214. 
Totanus calidris, 69. 
„ fuscus, 217. 
glottis, 217. 
„ stagnatilis, 70, 217. 
Trochalopteron erytbrocephalum, 37. 
„ lineatum, 38. 

„ variegatum, 37. 

Troglodj^tes Nipalensis, 32. 
Turdulus Wardii, 35. 
Turdus Hodgsoni, 36. 
„ viscivorus, 36. 
Turnix Sykesii, 216. 
Turtur aurita, 66. 

„ Cambayensis, 66, 216. 
„ bumilis, 67. 


Turtur meena, 66. 
M orientalis, 66. 
„ risoria, 67, 216. 
„ rupicola, 66. 
„ Suratensis, 67, 216. 
TJpupa epops, 26. 
Urocissa cucullata, 55. 
M flavirostris, 55. 
„ occipitalis, 55. 
„ sinensis, 55. 
Vanellus cristatus, 70. 
Vivia innominata, 21, 

„ minuta, 22. 
Xantholsema indica, 22, 214. 
Xemma brunicephala, 69. 


Yunx torquilla, 22. 
Zoothera monticola, 33. 
Zosterops palpebrosus, 51, 215. 

Equus hemionus, 5. 
Lynchus europseus, 5. 
Moschus moschiferus, 5. 
Mustella erminea, 5. 
Ovis ammon, 5, 106. 

„ nahura, 5. 
Ursus tibetanus, 5. 
Yulpes ferilatus, 5. 
montanus, 5. 

Additional Errata in Mr. Theobald's Catalogue of Reptiles, pub- 
lished as an Extra Number of the Journal, (No. CXLVI.J* 

Page 50, from top omit lines 33, 34. 

Page 51, line 9, from top/or DOSYPELTIM] read DASYPELTID^. 

„ „ line 13, „ „ omit and read Psammophis, Boit . 

„ „ line 14, „ „ omit the first five words. 

„ „ line 18, „ „ omit and read P. Condanarns, Merr. 

„ „ line 13 to 27 from top transpose to page 59, after line 4. 
Page 59, line 5, from top omit. 

Page 67, line 6, „ „ for parsicips read ' parviccps. 
Page 72, line 22, „ „ for oustel read obi lined. 

„ „ line 30, ,, „ for kote read kingdom. 
Page 73, line 29, „ „ for MAC LELLANDII read MAC CLEL- 
Page 74, line 5, „ „ for Eeiey read Reilley. [LANDI1. 

Page 76, line 6, „ „ for neligrensis read Ncelghcrriensis. 
Page 78, line 16, „ „ for verus read berus. 
Page 80, line 5 from bottom, for HOPLOBACTRACHUS read HOP- 

Page 81, line 2 from top, for Tomnopterna read Ibmopterna. 
Page 82, last line for five read fine ; Engystoma et seq. in another line. 
Page 88, line 1, from top for skeleton read skeletons. 
„ „ line 5, „ „ for Mausueia, Emys read Manoubia emys. 

„ „ line 11, „ „ for Ceana read Coxaxa. 
„ „ line 25, „ „ for Secolopis read Leiolepis. 
Appendix page ii, line 16 from top, for hoisting read twisting. 

* These corrections are printed on a separate sheet, which is intended as an 
addition to the Extra-Number of the Journal, not forming an essential part of 
this volume. 











{Published hij order of the Council of the Asiatic Society, Bengal] 





The printing of this Catalogue was commenced in 1865, shortly 
after the receipt of Mr. W. Theobald's MSS. ; but in consequence of 
the difficulties experienced in correcting proofs, and also in conse- 
quence of insufficient instructions regarding the execution of the 
plates having been at first issued, a delay of nearly three years has 
occurred in its publication. This delay is greatly to be regretted, 
because many new species and genera of reptiles are described in this 
paper. The dates of publication have accordingly to be rectified. 
The Catalogue has been printed by order of the Council, and is now 
issued as an extra number of the Journal. 

The Nat. Hist. Secretary, 

Asiatic Society, Bengal. 
Calcutta, June, 1868. 

{In the Press.) 

For " Gunther" read passim " Gunther." 

Page 9 line 18, from above for - causticly" read « caustically. 

for « Dum et Bib." read « Dum. et Bib. 
below omit " (Vide Plate.)'" 
above for « 26 P. tentori" read « 26 P. TENTORIAL 

for "P. Smith, Guratfier" read "P. Smithii, Gim- 
„ omit " A" after « 3." 

for " 195 inches" read " 194 inches." 
for " Weigmann" read " Wiegmann." 
transfer « , " from before after the word " longi- 
« n 34 , « Gecko Harriett®, Tytler, MSS " see Journal 

" 8 ° 5 " " Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1865, Vol. XXXIIL, 

p. 548. 
>} 33, „ 13 „ » for "Gray" read "Grey." 

59 5 j} „ for " Merrcm" read " Merrem. 

' 6 for " Thaiel tmio" read " Thaiet-mio." 

" \l I 10 " ^ transfer"," rafter before the word "scales." 
" J *Q '., for " Trig" read « Trig; 



3, 32 



,3 10 



„ 5 



,3 28 



,3 16 



„ 6 



„ 1^ 



,3 6 

omit " , " after " Tropidolremus." 

76, „ 29 

76, „ 31 

80 6 ■ „ for "Weigm." read" Wiegm. ' 

8l' ' 6 „ below ; the name « P. FritJw." ought to be printed m 
' " Koman capital letters, as it designates a 

newly named species, not, I presume, 
identical with the previous one. 

88, „ 9 from above for "Panoohur, tectura" read « Pakgshura 


88 19 }> for " candal" read " caudal." 

{In the Plates.) 

On the fourth plate omit '■ No. 27" after the name of the species « •Pang. 

shwa Bmithii, 


The present Catalogue originated in tins wise- 
Having, at the commencement of the rains, to return to Cal- 
cutta on duty from Rangoon, where I had been paying some 
attention to the Reptiles of the country, I determined to seize the 
opportunity offered to me, of examining the types of those 
species described by Blyth from Birma and Tenasserim, and 
any other specimens in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, which might enlarge my knowledge of the Reptiles of 
the Province. 

Finding that Dr. Anderson, Curator of the Indian Museum, 
was engaged in a searching enquiry into the state of the 
collections, I offered to compile a Catalogue of the Reptiles 
in the Museum, and thereby, to some extent, lighten his labours. 
My offer being cordially acceded to by Dr. Anderson and the 
Council, the present work is the result, and I trust that it will 
not only clear up some erroneous identifications, but be the 
means of directing attention to the comparatively poor collection 
which the Museum possesses of Indian reptiles, when it should 
have a much finer one. 

The list of desiderata is so very extensive, that I trust many 
large accessions may be looked for, when members of the Society 
and others, scattered throughout the length and breadth of this 
glorious land, only know what is required of them. With this view \ 
I urged that this Catalogue should be published as an extra num- 
ber of the Journal, that by its circulation to members, the wants 
of the Museum might become more generally known. 

In the preparation of this Catalogue, I have had the inesti- 
mable advantage of following ' Dr. Gunther's Reptiles of British 
India/ which I may be said to have taken as the basis of my 
own, though I have not slavishly followed it, when I thought an 


alteration in arrangement or nomenclature desirable ; as, for in- 
stance in the case of the genus Eumeces, to which Gunther refers 
no less than sixteen species, hut respecting which assemblage I 
have preferred adhering to the arrangement in Gray's Catalogue 
of lizards in the British museum, as at once an easier and more 
natural classification. . 

Then a-ain, I have removed the important family of Homa- 
lopsidK from their place next the Oolubrid*. to their more 
natural location alongside of the Hydrophida, The Homalop- 
skhe may be thought to have relations with the Aquatic Colu- 
bridae, but these can only be said to be aquatic in the sense of 
more particularly affecting the vicinity of water than other snakes, 
whether for food or delectation ; but a fondness for water is not 
peculiar or restricted to them, as numberless other snakes the 
true Colubri, the Cobras and Bungari, &c. equally delight m 

water and its vicinity. 

Between the Hydrophida and Homalopsidee on the other 
hand the connexion is much stronger and, so to speak, more 
organic The Homalopskte are true water snakes, rarely seen on 
land ; and being viviparous, are, like the Hydrophida,, not com- 
pelled to resort to the land for the deposition of eggs. Some ot 
the species too, if not most of them, affect tidal waters, and are 
equally at home in salt and fresh water. The coloration too of 
some such as Hipistes, is essentially that of the Hydrophid* ; and 
Hipistes, being moreover a marine as well as a river species, 
seems to' form a natural link between the two families. 

The curious genus Xenopeltis I have placed next to Python, 
for no better reason, perhaps, than that it is as much in place 
there as any where. The brilliant metallic lustre which both dis- 
play during life, far surpasses what I have remarked m any 

other snakes. 

Several new genera will be found described in the fol- 
lowing pages, and some new species. Two species I have re- 
moved from Ablabes which Gunther includes, but my reasons 
are I think, sound. If such and such a character is of importance, 
and constantly used as a generic character, as the presence or 

Prefetch. v 

absence of keels, the number of rows of scales, the suppres- 
sion of some of the normal plates of the head, & c . &c, how 
can we consistently ignore these characters in the case of 
some genus which we want to make the receptacle for forlorn 
unappropriated species ? Some of the genera of Colubrid» 
are established on very shadowy characters, Herpetoreas for in- 
stance ; yet in Ablabes, Gunther includes species, affording ex- 
cellent characters for separation, and which in fact demand sepa- 
ration. Species are included in it with two, three or four 
frontals, smooth scales or keeled scales, and from 13 to 17 rows 
of scales. I by no means think, that it would not be a gain, where 
practicable, to enlarge the generic definition, so as judiciously 
to include closely allied forms merely excluded by some trivial 
character ; such a process is, I think, wanted, but it requires 
caution to carry it out : but, taking the genera of serpents as 
they stand, and bearing in view the admitted weight of certain 
characters, why, I ask, and on what grounds, are we entitled to 
relax our principles of classification, and make a particular 
genus a receptacle wherein to impound aberrant species, like 
Ablabes, as it stands in Gunther's catalogue, or the still more mis- 
cellaneous throng constituting Eumeces ? 

This is, however, a mere difference of opinion, and I fully 
acknowledge, whilst adopting a slight modification of his ar- 
rangement, the temerity of dissenting from the verdict of so pro- 
found a savant as Dr. Gunther, on a matter of classification. 

I have also separated the terrestrial herbivorous lizards as. a dis- 
tinct Family, (UromasticidaB,) from the Agamida3. Their habits, 
food, and aspect warrant this arrangement, and I cannot help 
thinking that Dr. Gunther has been misled as regards the 
arboreal habits of Leiolepis, which is, I believe, eminently and 
solely a terrestrial and burrowing lizard. Cantor appears to be 
the authority on which their reputed arboreal habits rest, but his 
words do not seem to convey necessarily that he was an eye-wit- 
ness of their powers of flight, beyond evolutions performed under 
unnatural conditions and under confinement in a cage. Doubtless 
the mechansim of the expansile ribs suggested the idea of their 


using them as Draco is known to do : at the same time, he ap- 
pears to have been ignorant of their burrowing habits and to 
have only noted them in captivity. His words are, « Twelve were 
at one time obtained from a spice plantation in province A\ el- 
lesley •" and again, " the Malay who brought the lizards asserted 
they were frugivorous, and might be fed with soft fruit and boiled 
rice which was perfectly true." These are not the words of an 
observer of the animal in a state of nature, and no allusion is 
made to their gregarious cuniculine mode of life. 

It would be very interesting to determine, if, as I suspect may 
be the case, Moloch horridus from Australia belongs to the same 
family and exhibits the same traits ; but I did not like to injure the 
Society's specimen by opening it, when a query will probably 
elicit fuller information from those able to obtain it from fresh 


The family Geoemydida3, 1 have established for those Emydmaa 
whose males have a concave sternum; a sexual adaptation to 

their terrestrial habits. 

The following have been the most important contributors 
to the reptile collection, though its neglected state is an 
un-rateful return for the liberality of the donors. Contra spem 
meliora speramus ! Dr. Kelaart. Ceylon; Major Berdmore, 
Pegu • Major W. S. Sherwill, Darjeeling ; Rev. F. Fitzgerald, 
North Carolina; Dr. Jerdon, South India; W. Theobald, Esq., 
Jnr., Punjab and Pegu ; E. Eobinson, Esq., Assam ; Lieut.-Cols. 
Phayre and Tytler, and others noted in the proper place. 

I must not omit to record my obligation to H. H. Locke, Esq. 
for the great care he has bestowed on the Plates, which, it mus 
be allowed, reflect considerable credit on his pupils to whom theii 

execution was entrusted. 

W. THEOBALD, Junior. 

Calcutta, Sept. 1865. 



18 6 6. 





TESTUDO, Oppel. 

1. T. Indica, G-mel. 

a. stuffed female. Galapagos Islands. 

2. T. badiata, Shaw. Madagascar. 

a. stuffed male. 

h stuffed female. (Some plates gone.) 

c. stuffed female. (Non adult.) 

3. T. STELLATA, ScllW. 

T. elegans, Schoepff. 

T. megalopus, Blyth. 

a large stuffed female. 

b shell of smaller female. Vizagapatam. Capt Rolo. 

c. similar stuffed. Ditto. Ditto. 

d. small female stuffed. 
Nuchal plate invariably absent. 


a. stuffed female. (Some South Africa. Major Shenvill. 

plates gone.) 
h. ditto ditto Ditto. Ditto. 

c. shell of very young male. Ditto. i^itto. 

Verv like the Indian T. stellata. 
Specimens a and 6 have no nuchal plate, c has it large. and 


Catalogue of Reptiles, 9 

5. T. platynotus, Blyth. J. A. S., 

XXXII. p. 83. 

a. 1. c. upper shells of adults, Burma E. Blyth Esq 

purchased in the Rangoon above the 

Bazar, where they are used frontier, 
to bale oil. 

6. T. elongata, Blyth. J. A. S 

XXII p. 639. 

a. stuffed male. Arakan. Major Phayre. 

b. stuffed female. Tenasserim. 

c. half grown female, shell only. 

d. half grown male, ditto. Tenasserim. 
(a few plates gone.) 

e. upper shell only. 

/. g. very young in spirit. 
h. very young, (shell dried.) 

This is the common species of land tortoise in British Burma. 
Blyth very causticly remarks J. A. S. XXXII, page 84. " Of course 

Proc. Z00L Soc. 1861, page 139. As well, however, may Dr. J. E. Gray, 
W„i° H ? mo ° a P im /> Gra 7' « Earn* Caballus, Gray! I claim the 
honour such as it is of having named the three fine Indo-Chinese species 
of lestudo, as yet discovered. Palmam qui meruit ferat Dr. Gray, is, 
however, a well known offender in this respect ; more's the pity." 


7. H. Horsfieldii, Gray. 

H. Burnesiij Blyth. 

a. stuffed female. Afghanistan. Sir A. Burnes. 

b. young, in spirits (in poor condition.) Ditto. 


8. C. angulata, Dnm et Bib. 

a. b adult males, South Africa. Major Sherwill. 
shells only. 

c. half grown, ditto ditto. Ditto. 

d. e. young females, ditto. Ditto.' 


M. Emys, Gray. 

a. adult, (much injured). Moulmein. Major Phayre. 

Formerly there was a stuffed specimen ; but now only a few fragments 
remain 01 this rare species. 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 


9. G. grandis, Gray. 

Cyclemys platynota, Gray apud Blyth. 
a. upper shell of adult. Tenassenm. 

10. G. TRICARINATA, Blyth. 

Emys tricarinata, Blyth. 

a. stuffed male. Chaibassa. 

CUORA, Gray. 

11. C. Amboinensis, Daud. 

a. stuffed male. Malacca. 

b. ditto female. Uitto. 

c. ditto ditto half grown. Tenassenm. 


12. C. ORBICTJLATA, Bell. 

Emys dentata, Gray. 

C. Oldhami, Gunther. 

a. adult shell, (female ?) Arakan hills, 

b. ditto ditto. 

c. stuffed young. 

d. dry, young, stuffed. 


Sitang river. 
Sitang river. 

W. Theobald, 
Junr., Esq. 

Major Tickell. 

Rev. J.Lindstedt. 

Dr. Heifer. 

"W. T. Blanford, 

W. Theobald, 

.Junr., Esq. 
Major Phayre. 
Major Berdmore. 

The specimen figured by Gunther as G. OUhami was obtained alive by 

crosf joint, such as occurs in Cuora, but ^^J^^^t 
verse suture remains permanently unanchylosed, causing ^e^o 
simulating the true cartilaginous joint of Cuora. In a spe cimen m y 
poTessiof the motion is pretty free, though the ^*™ " c ^^ 
L> ends of the abdominal plates. In very young ?^^"^3 
joint is imperceptible; in half grown i individuals it is well ^|^^ 
able, and in adults itisnot ^^^^^ ^^^TX^^^^o 
lv bv a sort of carious fossa across the abdominal plates, resulting, n 
doubt, from the mobility of the bony suture beneath. 


EMYS, Brongniart. 
13. E. nuchalts, Blyth. 

a. stuffed adult. Java. 

b. c. smaller, stuffed 

Batavian Society. 
Ditto ditto. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 


14. E. Hamiltonii, Gray. 

a. stuffed adult. 
h. c. younger -ditto. 
d. upper shell only. 

15. E. trijuga, Scliweigg. 

E. Seha, Gray. 

a. adult shell only. 

b. ditto stuffed. 


Arakan hills. 

This individual has no 
nuchal plate. 
c. d. shells of young. Ceylon. 

E. Blyth, Esq. 


W. T. Blanford, 


Capt. Mitchell, 
Madras Musuem. 

Dr. Kelaart. 

I quite agree with Dr. Gunther in referring E. Scba, Gray, to this 
species, winch attains a greater size than is supposed. Mr. Blanford's 
specimen is evidently a very aged individual with the keels dearly 
obliterated, but with the anterior margins strongly rcvolute. Colour 
uniform blackish throughout, and pale yellowish brown where abraded. 

16. E. ntgra, Blyth. J. A. S., 
XXIV., p. 713. 

E. GrassicolUs, Bell apud Blyth. 

a. shell of adult. Tenasserim river. W. Theobald, 

Junr., Esq. 

b. ditto young. Ditto. Ditto. 

This species was, I think, correctly separated as a distinct species 
in the first instance, by Blyth, though subsequently referred by him 
to E. crassicollis. The vertebral plates are very differently shaped 
from those of crassicollis, being mushroom-shaped, and so attenuated 
behind as almost to admit the approximation of the costals. This 
peculiarity of form is less seen in the young than in the adult, and from 
not being particularly dwelt on by so minute a describer'as Dr. Gunther, 
I am the more inclined to regard E. nigra as distinct from E. crasslcollis'. 
It may, however, be the nearly allied species alluded to as inhabiting 
Camboja. In the adult shell, the last vertebral is hardly broader than 
the caudals. (Vide Plate.) 

17 E. guttata, Schweigg. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 



T. Lessonii, Dum. et Bib. 

a. stuffed adult, 23 inches. Calcutta. 

b. shell ditto. Salween R. 

c. d. half grown, stuffed. Calcutta. 
e -f- 9- y°ung ditto Ditto. 

h. i. very young ditto. Ditto. 

E. Blyth, Esq. 
W. Theobald, 

Junr., Esq. 
E. Blyth, Esq. 



22 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

This species is very common at Calcutta, and also about Rangoon. 
It is herbivorous in a great measure, and is much used m Calcutta m 
the manufacture of soup, which purpose no doubt it answers admira- 
bly • and I hope the admirers of Calcutta turtle soup will lose none ot 
their relish for the article, by knowing how largely river turtle are 
substituted for the true Ghelonia virgata, which, however, is occasionally 
brought to Calcutta from the Straits. 



B. lineattts, Gray. 

a. stuffed adult, 24 inches. 

No locality or donor is given for the sole specimen in the museum s 
but Gunther records the species from Moulmem, Nepal, and Saharun- 
pur, whence it had been procured by Dr. Falconer* 

20. B. Thtjrgii, Gray. 

Emys Thurgii, Gray. 

a. stuffed adult, 21 inches. Calcutta. 

b. c. smaller, stuffed. Ditto. 
d. e. half grown, ditto. Ditto. 
/. g. h. i. j. young ditto. Ditto. 

A very common species at Calcutta, though adults are not easily 
got. It appears to me more nearly affined to Batagur than to kmys. 

E. Blyth, Esq. 


B. dhongoka, Gray. 

E. Duvaucellii, Dum. et Bib 

a. stuffed young. 

b. ditto smaller. 

Narbudda R. 
Sagur, Central 



This species grows to a large size, but there are no adult specimens 
in the museum. It is common at Monghyr. 

22. B. Berdmoreii, Blyth, J. A. S., XXXII., p. 84. 
E. ocellata, D. et B. apud Gunther. 

E. ocellata, D. et B. apud Blyth, J. A. S., XXII., p. b45. 
a. b. stuffed adults. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 

c. d. e. /. young, stuffed. Ditto. Ditto. 

This species is very abundant in Pegu and Tenasserim. Its habits 
are strictly aquatic, not terrestrial as Gunther surmises, but it is often 
left dry by the drying up in the hot weather of the inundated plains, m 
which situations incredible numbers are captured by the Burmese, 
who fire the grass for the purpose. It is never found m the dry forests. 
Dr Gunther remarks that Dumeril and Bibron's figure, Plate 15 1 lg. 
1, is " not good," but it refers to an entirely different species, which may 
account for its but indifferently representing the present ! 

* No maps which Dr. Gunther had consulted giving him any ligbt on the 
subject, he amusingly enquires touching Saharunpur, "Is it another name fc 
Serampur on the Hooghly ?" 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 13 

23. B. ocellata, Dum. et Bib. 

not B. ocellata apud Gunther. 

B. Berdmoreii, Blyth apud Gunther. 

a. stuffed adult. Calcutta. E. Blyth Esq 

h. c. smaller, stuffed. Ditto. Ditto. 

This species occurs in Calcutta, but not in Pegu, where B. Berdmoreii, 
Blyth, replaces it. It is a much smaller and more elongate species than 
±f. Berdmoreii, Blyth, which is very convex. 

24.* B. trivittata, Dum. et Bib. 

A specimen of this remarkably handsome species presented b y my- 
self from Moulmem, is no longer in the museum. It abounds in Pegu 
and is remarkable for the disparity of coloration and size in the sexes/ 
" Male 18.50 x 13.10. 

Shell pale olive green, with three conspicuous black streaks down 
the back, as though of black paint. Beneath, pale orange yellow 
feort parts of body and limbs pale yellow, dusky above. Neck and 
head smooth, during life of a bright carnation red, instantly fading on 
death to a waxy white. An intensely black lozenge-shaped plate be- 
hind the nostrils, on the forehead. 

Female, 23.50 x 12.50. 
Colour of the shell is dark brown above and below. Head, neck and 
limbs are uniform pale greenish olive, with the black lozenge behind the 
nostrils on the forehead, as in the male. Abundant in the Delta of 
Pegu. Oviposits about Zalon in. December and January. Eo-o- s 25 in 
number 2.6 long." Weight 965 grains. (MSS. Cat. Reptiles°Pegu.) 


(Fourth Vertebral decanter-shaped.) 

25. P. tectum, Bell. 
E. tecta, Gray. 

a. stuffed adult, 7 inches. Calcutta. E. Blyth, Esq. 

b. c. d. young, stuffed. Ditto. Ditto.' 
e. — m. young in spirits. Ditto. Ditto. 

It is not a little singular that Dr. Gunther, in his last admirable work 

on the Eeptiles of India, should have so superciliously, one might 

almost say perversely, ignored the labours of his predecessors An 

; excellent figure is given by Bell, and the species is also figured b Y 

; Hardwicke. I do not agree with Prof. Bell that Hardwicke's figure 

is too brightly coloured, as the animal is often of a bright red below 

mottled with black, and with a bright red vertebral stripe. The more 

modest coloration, however, of Bell's figure should have prevented 

1 Dr. Gunther from describing the colour as yellow, in opposition to 

# Species with an asterisk are wanting in the Museum. 

14 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

those who had observed fa. ,1* , A = M -» **- - 

adopting Gray's name fe to &? »dl ^toc turn ^ tojud 

26. P. tentori, Gray. 
«. stuffed adult. Indus K. Sir A Bumes. 

i. adult shell only, 8.25 Ditto. Ditto. 


(sternum injured.) 

saying it can be confounded with the Batagur. 

It ?emains to determine what was the species ^e d to ^ fr. 
■Rit+V, A. the specimen is lost (in common with so many otneis .), 
ill not easy to say wTth certainty what the species was, the only thing 
qn te ctSn y being y that it was not the Batagur, as Bugged ^r Gun- 
+w T am inclined to think it may have been a young F. flavivenici, 
Gunther, wMch I believe occurs near Calcutta, though no example is 
in the museum. 

* P. plaviventer, Gunther. Lower Bengal. 

* P. Smith, Gunther. 


27. P. megacephalum, Gray. 

a. stuffed young Martaban. Major Berdmore 

(bad state.) 

CHELYDRA, Schweigger. 

28. C. Serpentina, L. 

a. shell only. North Carolina. Rev. J. Fitzgerald. 


29. K. odoratum, Daud. 

a. b. c. young, in spirits North Carolina. Kev. J. Fitzgerald, 
(bad state.) 

Catalogue of Bcjitiles. 15 


EMYDA, Gray. 

30. E. granosa, Schoepff. 

a. b. stuffed adults. Calcutta. E Blyth Esq 

c. young stuffed. Ditto. Ditto.' 

d. young in spirits. Ditto. Ditto. 

31. E. Ceylonensis, Gray. 

a. head in spirits. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

TRIONYX, Geoffroy. 

32. T. Gangeticus, Cuv. 

a. shell of adult. Bhagulpur. W. Theobald. 

™- i , Junior, Esq. 

Imely granular, length 17 inches. 

b. stuffed adult. Calcutta. E. Blyth Esc. 

c. ditto, semi adult. ' 

d. e. young stuffed. 

/. g. very young ditto. 
h. five young, in spirit. 
32a. T. Guntherii, Gray. Arakan. 


33. C. Indica, Gray. 

a. young stuffed. Hooghly. 

bony shield 7 inches. 


SPHARGIS, Merrem. 

34. S. CORIACEA, L. 

a. stuffed female, 75 inches. Tenasserim coast. Lt Col Tichell 
For account of capture vide J. A. S., XXXL, page 307. 

CARETTA, Merrem. 

35. C. imbricata, Schweigg. Bay of Bengal. 

Affords the tortoise shell of commerce. 
a. b. c. d. stuffed. 
e. young ditto. 


(Costal plates ten.) 

36. C. olivacea, Eschs. Bay of Bengal 

" The logger head." 
a. stuffed, 26.5 inches. 

This specimen has three additional costals, or thirteen in all. 

IQ Catalogue of Reptiles. 

b. shell of adult. Has one additional costal. 

c. young stuffed, strongly keeled. 

This is the common turtle along the east coast of the Bay. Few 
Europeans have any idea but that it is the true edible turtle, and m 
Snnocence gloJy in soup made from it. It » ""^^'far tt 
flesh so indifferent that even the Burmese do not greatly care tor it. 
The flesh of Sphargis, according to Tickell, is equally coarse. 

CHELONIA, Fleming. 

{Costal plates eight.) 
37. C. virgata, Schweigg. Bay of Bengal. 

a. stuffed, 50.5 inches. 

b. semi-adult ditto. 

c. young ditto. 

d. upper shell only. 

This is the true edible turtle. It is herbivorous, and may be dis- 
tinguished from the logger-head by having only thirteen plates on the 
back whilst the logger-head has fifteen, or one pair more of costals. 
Calcutta specimens are mostly brought from the straits. 



(a, Nuchal shields , small.) 

1. C. porosus, Schneid. 

C. biporcatus, Cuv. 

a. stuffed adult. Head, 16.5. Body, 43.8 

Tail 63.0 = 123.3 inches. Forehead, 4.4 broad. 
Cervical scutes, 5.7 across. Two small nuchal shields. 

b. smaller stuffed. 

b b smaller ditto. Four small nuchal shields. 
' Head, 7.5. Body, 16.6. Tail, 25.2. = 49.3. 

c. young stuffed. Malacca. Mr. Foster. 

d. young in spirit. Penang. 

e. ditto ditto. 

/. skull of adult, 23 inches. 
g. ditto young, 14 inches, (injured.) 
Dorsal scutes in eight rows. 

Cata logue of Reptiles. 1 7 

< This species which abounds in Burmah, appears to be less common 
in Bengal than C. palustris. 

(b, Nuchal shields, large.) 
2. C. trigonops, Gray. 

C. palustris, Less, apud Gunther. 
C. bombifrons, Gray apud Bhjth. 

a. half grown animal, stuffed. 

Head, 10.0. Body, 28.4. Tail 38.4 = 76.8. 
: Central nuchal shields smaller than the others, and a little 
Forehead, 3 inches. Cervical scutes 5 inches across. 
Dorsal scutes in six rows. 

b. skull of half grown Western India, 
animal, 12.5 inches. 

c. skull smaller, 9.5 inches 

3. A. C. vulgaris, Cuv. 

stuffed - Nile. D. C. Money, Esq. 

.Head, 17.40. Body, 45.00. Tail, 55.60 = 118.00 


Forehead, 3.50. Across cervical scutes, 7.25. 

Outer cervical scutes smaller than the others, and placed a little 
forward. This species differs from the closely allied C. palustris in the 
narrower shape of the head, and in having eight rows of dorsal scutes 
towards the lumbar region ; at least this specimen has. I infer that 
this is the^specimen shot and presented by D. C. Money, Esq. (J. A. S., 
XVI., p. 385,) but except the small specimens in the cases, and an 
erroneous label on the skull of C. trigonops (labelled C. bombifrons by 
Mr. Blyth), not a stuffed skin or skull in the museum has so much as 
a trace of any note of its history, locality or donor, which information 
former Curators must have supposed visitors and students capable of 
supplying from the depths of their own moral consciousness ! In fact 
disorder, dilapidation and neglect have for years struggled for mastery 
over the Society's collections, with what result may be well imagined. 

3. C. palustris, Less. 
C. bombifrons, Gray. 

Not C. bombifrons, Gray apud Blyth, see ante No. 2. 
C. bombifrons, Gray apud Huxley, Proc. Lin. Soc, 1859. 
C. bombifrons, Gray apud Gunther. 
C. trigonops, Gray apud Gunther, vide No. 2. 

a. stuffed adult. 

Dorsal scutes, in six rows strongly keeled. Head, 16.50. 
Body, 45.50. Tail, 61.20 = 123.20. Forehead, 4.4, 
cervical scutes, 8 inches across. 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 

ifiSfSS* ** Batavian Society. 

/". p. ditto, in spirit. 

& skeleton of adult female. 

Head, 26 ; Body, 72 ; Mutlal, A. Sturmer and 

Tail 90 = 195 inches H. B. Farr, i-sq. 

,^i very young ^ ^ ^ 

4 inches, premaxillary 
suture very direct, may 
belong to trigonops (?). 

1. very large skull, 29 inches 

m. n. o. oo. skulls of adults 

on. no . skulls of half grown 

animals, (imperfect.) 

The synonymy of our Indian crocodiles is very confused but the 

spedmeT mTrfe Museum of the Asiatic Soceity clearly illustrate the 

^^'Z^^^^^e are 4 stuffed specimens 2 i n 

spfrTt and two skulls. From this poverty of specimens, I should argue 

^^^f^nlchS^ be well confounded with either of the 

^^rondlv of Crococlilns trigonous, the Society possesses one stuffed 
Z„ L I believe it to be) and two skulls, one skull from Western 

srt^ rec ° rf - of tMs s P ecies i a \ so r sse \ s 

I skull of aS shot by myself in the Nerbudda, of which most 

^rutjll% G de° S crftion of its triagonal shape I refer these 
sVull, tc his ILnops, as they are very nearly two-thirds as broad 
across the condyles, (measured straight) as long : my specimen measur- 
W from back of head to insertion of 1st tooth 19.10, across condyles 
^ 8 25 Besides its trigonal shape, a distinctive mark of this species is 
tl ^ premammary suture which runs straight across the palate from 
notch tonotcb The region of the external nares is very tumid with 
a deep ? sunken interspace behind it, giving a very pugnpse physio- 
In S to the animal, very much more so than in G. palustns. In fi out 
gnomy to trie ^^M_- ooo WftTllrffl .* S11 tnre of the facial bones, 

Contrasting by its smoothness with the pitted surface >**«££ ,™j 
otvlp of pittin<* differs moreover from skull of C. palastnsm oem 
Sore ilJular the pits more circular than elongate, and not given to 
rnastomosing so much as in 0. palustris. It is an extremely well 
markeTspecfes but is not alluded lo by Prof. Huxley in his > xustrmd 
five paper on these saurians in Proc. to. Soc, February, 1859 faora 
the S as I presume, of the British Museum containing only twd 
voung stuffed specimens, which would not afford proper data for 
remark. It would seem to be a small species : my specimen, which 
seW nearly adult, was not more than eight feet, if I -recollect 
Sly It was shot too under peculiar circumstances Dropping 
down the Nerbudda in a canoe, I saw what I took for a stone lymg J 
a hole in the steep bank of the river. The hole not being more than 2 

Catalogue of Reptiles 91 

feet across, I never believed it contained a crocodile, as my boatmen 
assured me was the case. However I fired and a lashing of water Was 
heard m tin- hole- What I aimed at was still visible, so I fired again, 
seemingly without effect, but on going op, I hauled out a dead crocodile 
with two balls through the brain. This was G. trigonops, and lam 
not aware that animals of the larger species excavate holes for them- 
selves, as this one does. It may very likely be the "smaller c Mle" 
said to inhabit; streams on the table land of Rhbtas Ghur. 

Thirdly, of Grocodihis pahx on, the Museum possesses a splen- 

did smte of specimens; 3 stuffed specimens, 4 in spirit, a tine skeleton 
and 8 skulls, h is emphatically "the crocodile" of Lower Bengal. 1 have 
procured one specimen at Thaiet-mio, but ii is raiv in Lower Pegu. I 
tio reason for doubting the conclusion of Prof. Huxley that C. 
owntofronsj Gray, is a synonym of this species, one of the types hi 
been from the Asiatic Society^ Museum, which is rich in P. 
falMstria, and the trivial name bombifrone Is very applicable, especially 
to the adult animal. Some few heads are rather narrower than others, 

probably 1. 'males, but cannot, well be confounded with G. porosus even 
were no other parts than the skulls preserved. If 1 am correct in 
referring the above specim trigonops, it is utterly past my 

comprehension how Gfunther has referred 6. trigonops as asynonym 
of G. palustris. C. porosis is nearer C. pahtstris than G. trigonops to 
either. I am not quite clear, however, if the stuffed specimen 2a belongs 
to the species. The praamaxillary suture appears to be straight, but 
still I am not certain of my reference. 

I subjoin some measurement of a series of skulls. 

A. C. porosus (1/of Catalogue,) of same breadth nearly across the 
condyles as B. 

B. C. trigonops from Nerhudda, R. Central India. 

C. C. palustris of the same breadth, across condyles as B 

D. C. palustris, Irawadi. Thaiet-mio, 12feet. (in my possession). 

E. Ditto ditto, (3A.) Bengal, 18 H 

F. Ditto, largest skull, (3/.) Bengal. 

„ C. palustris. 

C. porosus. C. trigonops., -* 

A. B. C. D. E. F. 

Nape to opposite 2nd notch, 11.50 11.00 11.75 12.40 14.10 14.75 

Nape to fore margin of nasal 

XT hole > 20.75 16.30 20 00 2100 22.50 25 75 

ISape to alveolusof 1st tooth, 23.25 19.10 22.50 24.60 26 20 26 00 

Breadth across condyles, ...12.75 12.25 12.25 13.25 16.30 18 00 
from 1st notch to 1st notch 

along the alveoli, 11.75 9.95 11.50 11.75 13.50 16 00 

Breadth at 3rd tooth, round 

the curvature, 8.25 7.10 8.50 9.10 11.25 12 30 

Ditto 9 tooth, 10.50 10 30 10.75 11.60 14.30 16 25 

Ditto 36 tooth, ,., 12.50 13.25 13.75 14.25 16.25 17.60 

20 Catalogue of Reptiles. 


GHARIALIS, Geoferoy. 
4. G. Gangetica, Geoffr. 

a. adult stuffed. •••••• 

b. c. young ditto. 

d. skin of adult in a bad state 

e. f. very young, in spirit. 

g. h. young stuffed. 

i. skull of adult, 29.75 inches 

/ skull of adult, 29.50 ditto. _ 

h. I. skulls of young animals, in 

bad state. 

I concur with Col. Cautley's remarks in As. Res. XIX page 32 on 
the fX of perpetuating a misnomer. << The present mode of writing 
this word << Gaviar appears to have originated m a mis-reading of the 
manuscript of some naturalist, the r and v being very similar in form 
Ss^Swkr'is the correct native name, there seems no reason for 
perpetuating the misnomer." 




5. P. scincus, Merr. 

a. adult stuffed, Nubia. Br. Ruppel. 

body 14 tail 18 = 32 in. 
I. young, in spirit. Salt Range. W. Theobald, Junr, 

VARANUS, Merrem. 

6. V. flavescens, Gray. 

a. b. adults stuffed. Lower Bengal. 

Body 16.00, tail 19 = 35. 

c. half grown ditto. , 

d. ditto ditto. A. C. Carlyle, Esq. 

e. ditto yellow spotted. * 

f. ditto, in spirit. .....•• 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 


7. V. DRAC^INA, L. 

a. adult stuffed. Lower Bengal. 

Body 10, tail 13 = 23 in. 

h. ditto. Mirzapur. Major Wroughton. 

c. d. young stuffed. Allahabad and Agra. Dr. Stewart. 

/. adult in spirit. Major Wioughton. 

g. half grown ditto. 

h . many half grown and 


8. V. nebulosus, Dura, et Bib. 

a. adult stuffed. 

Body 23, tail 31 = 54 in. 
h. c. two-thirds grown. 
d. adult, in spirit. 


9. H. salvator, Laur. 

H. gigantcus, Gray ? 

a. adult stuffed. 

Body 32.5, tail 48.5 = 81 inches. 

Very large specimen from probably Lower Bengal. 

1). adult. Andamans 
Body 24, tail 35 = 59 inches. 
Forwarded as a new species 

c. d. half grown stuffed. 

e. young stuffed. Malacca. 

/. young in spirit. Rungpur. 

g. half grown in spirit. 

h. adult, ditto. ..... 

Lieut.-Col. Tytler. 

Rev. W. E. Linstedt. 

10 H. varitjs, Shaw. 

a. adult stuffed. Australia. 

Body 23, tail 35 = 58 in. 

Melbourne Institute. 

11. H. ocellarius, Blyth. 

a. stuffed specimen. Australia. 

Body 14.5, tail 19.5 == 34 inches. 
In bad state, 

Dr. J. MacClellancl 

22 Catalogue of Reptiles. 



12. T. sexlineatus, Daud. 

a. b. two specimens in 

spirit. Pegu. A. Grote, Esq. 

Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

The specimen, formerly presented by myself from Mergui, is no 
longer in the Museum, (J. A. S. XXIV., 715.) 


13. T. Jerdoni, Blytb. 

Ophiops Jerdoni, Blyth, (J. A. S., XXII., p. 653.) 
a. type specimen in spirit. Mhow. Dr. Jerdon. 

Mr. Blyth's description is so meagre and inaccurate that I here give 
my own. It will be seen that this interesting lizard is not an Ophiops, 
but belongs rather to Tropidosaura of which one species is known from 
Java. Nostrils in the ridge of the face, lateral or subsupenor, perfora- 
ted in a moderate nasal, followed by two small postnasals, one above 
the other, both together hardly equalling the nasal. Loreals two, the 
second very large, and separated by some small scales from the eye. 
Seven upper labials, four first large; fifth largest, under the orbit, 
sixth and seventh small. Lower labials seven, small band-like. Lower 
rostral large, and four pairs of very large chin shields. Scales of 
back lanceolate, acutely keeled ; in twenty-four rows ; (keeled m 22.) 
Scales of belly smooth, broadly hexagonal, in six rows. The supra 
abdominal row of scales smooth, larger than those above them. Toes 
5—5 long, slender, curved, unequal, serrated above and below. Sides 
roughened with keeled scales. Scales in front of limbs large, behind 
smaller, all sharply keeled. Tympanum distinct, eyelids none. Eye- 
brows keeled. Superciliaries large, divided in two. Vertical and 
occipitals normal. Post occipitals squarely truncate behind. Nasals 
contiguous. Supemasal and frontals about equal to each other. All 
the head shields longitudinally plicated. Ear surrounded with granular 
scales. Femoral pores twenty, interrupted on the pubes, 10 m each 
thigh in a gently curved line. Pores pierced in the posterior angle of 
the scales. One very large quadrangular prteanal. Tail surrounded 
by equal verticiliate keeled scales. 

The present colour of the specimen is brownish (bronze, Blyth) with 
four ill-defined rows of dark spots down the back. A well defined pale 
streak separating the outer rows. A pale median streak also indicated. 


14. P. gracilis, Gray. 

Ophiseps tessaJatus, Blyth, 

J. A. S., XXII. , p. 655. Rangoon. Purchased. 
a. b. Type specimens, in spirit. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 23 


15. A. Pannonicus, Licht. 

a. in spirit. Eastern Europe. Hungarian 


a. scales keeled. 

TROPIDOPHORUS, Dumb 'ml et Bibron. 
1G. T. Berdmoreii, Blyth. 

Aspris Berdmoreii^ Blyih^ 
J. A. B., XXIL, p. 650. 
a. 1). c. specimens in spirit. Mcrgui. Major Berdmore. 

CYCLODUS, Waoler. 

17. C. Gigas, Bodd. 

a. b. c. stuffed adults. Van Dieman's Purchased. 

d. half grown ditto. Ditto. Ditto. 


18. T. rugosa, Gray. 

a. h. stuffed adults. Western Australia. Purchased, 

Labelled, Egenia. 


19. T. rufescens, Shaw. 

Scincus mtiUffasciatus, Kuhl apud Ganilicr. 
T. trivittata, apud Guntlicr. 

a. very large specimen Andamans. Lieut. -Colonel 
in spirit, 18 inches. Keels very faint. Tytler. 

Scincus Tytleriij Tytler 3ISS. 

b. many specimens in spirit 

c. nearly adult ditto. India. Dr. Jerdon. 

The coloration of this very common lizard is somewhat variable. During 
life, the colour of the back is some shade of rich olive brown or bronze with 
the sides darker, and a pale stripe running from over the eye down each side 
of the back, which is more or less black dotted. Beneath greyish orj'ellow- 
ish. Sides seasonally deeply suffused with red. Unfortunately the specimens 
in the Museum, which should possess an unrivalled series of this species, are 
nearly all jumbled into one bottle with no record of either donors or localities^ 
so that it is impossible to discriminate local varieties. 

The red spotted variety, which Gunther records as found on the east side of 
the Bay of Bengal is, I imagine, a merely seasonal garb. Cantor describes 

24 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

thk secies as lavmo- 6 to 12 eggs- This I believe to be a mistake, as I 
^"K^Stly fonned embryos from it, and believe it to£ therefore 
viviparous. Cantor, however, unites as a synonym of this species 1 multi 
carlata, Kuhl, which species is oviparous It is a smaller species and 
evidently " the young with 5 to 7 keels" of Cantor's description in J. A. S., 
XVI. p. 652. 

20. T. monticola, G-unth. 

a. three specimens in spirit 

The scales are four keeled, but, though Gunther only describes two keels, 
I thinkifc must be this species. No label is attached, and the specimens ex- 
hibit no markings, being a uniform plumbous brown above, pale below 
%l™coul ^'from-Sikkim, and probably replaces T. rufescens of the 


21. T. trivittata, G-ray. 

T. rufescens, Shaw apud Gunther. 
a. mutilated specimen. Jalnat. Dr. Jerdon. 

A handsome species, with three broad white bands down the back j scales 
five keeled. 


a. in bad state. Egypt. C. J. Evans, Esq. 


Euprepes macularius, Blyth. 

T. rufescens, Shaw apud Gunther. 

a. four specimens. Rungpore (?) 

These specimens have no label, but are, I think the same as a species I 
have always considered as T. multicarinata Kuhl, from Birma. My Bu- 
nrese species are a little larger than the Museum ones and in b b tei 
state also. A female contained 3 eggs and measured, body d.J, f"*-'— ' •*• 
Co oui (o ive) pale bronze above, black spotted, spots long and streaky. A 
broad back lateral band, white margined above. Underneath white. Scales 
distinctlv 7 carinate. Jerdon (J. I S., XXII., 479) mentions a small speci- 
men in tL museum, of T. multicarinata, Kuhl, but whether or no he refers 
To one of th^above 'specimens I know not Like so ™Vj$"*^™£ 
it has probably evaporated long ago. T. multicarinata differs from T. rufes 
cens most essentially in being oviparous, (vide T. rufescens). 

*T. olivaceus, Gray. Malayan Peninsula. 

EUPREPIS, Wagler. 
*E. trilineata, Gray. Carnatic. 

MABOUIA, Eitzinger. 

24. M. qtjadrilineata, Blyth, J. A. S., XXII., 652. 

f (Labelled, Plestiodon quinquelineatum, L. 

North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald.) 
a. fine specimen. Hong Kong. J. C. Bowring, Esq. 

t The labels of specimens are all in Mr. Blyth' s handwriting. 

Catalogue of Reptiles, 25 

The two dorsal white lines pass through the second row of scales and are 
nearly half a scale broad and very conspicuous. The lateral pale lines are 
almost obsolete. The scales are smooth, but five or more fine hair-like lines 
are visible on them ending in dark punctate dots on the hinder margin 
1 he sub-caudals are broad, one-rowed, and have twelve white fine lines' 
lliese lines are not probably visible in the living animal. 

25. M. Chinensis, Gray. 

Plestiodon quiwpielineatum, L. apud Blytlis MSS. label 

a. two young specimens. China. J. C. Bowring Esq 

o. scales smooth. 


26. H. maculata, Blyth. 

Lissonota maculata, Blyth, J. A. S., XXII.. 653. 
Lissonota Harriettce, Tytler MSS. 
Lissonota Tytlerii, Tytler MSS. 

Eh T eu e fugrce?! eCimen * **' ****** Ascription » ™ longer in the museum. 

a. many specimens. Martaban. Major Berdmore 

6. two specimens. Andamans. Lieut.-Col. Tytler. 

Limbs rather small Thumb short; fourth finger very W. Nostrils 
lateral in the centre of a somewhat oblique rhomboidal nasal sliield Su- 
pranasals none. Frontonasal large, broader than long, forming a suture in 
front with the rostral, which is truncated behind, but reaches well back on 
the surface of the head. forms a suture with the vertical and 
the two frontoparietals. Supercilianes four, sub-equal, very convex, tumid 
nearly approximating on the crown. J ' ' 

The Martaban specimens do not quite correspond with the type as to 
coloration. Above, rich pale bronze brown, irregularly dark spotted. Sides 
blackish white dotted. The dark colour commencing as a narrow band 
across the upper rostral gradually widening on the sides and continued to 
the extremity of the tail. On the tail, however, though distinct, it is rather 
pale, and bounded above and below with a waved or scalloped margin verv 
characteristic. Beneath, uniform white or greenish white. It°abonnds 
throughout Pegu and is an extremely active species inhabiting the forests. 

*H. Taprobanensjs, Kelaart. Ceylon. 

*H. Dussumieri, Gray. Malabar. 

PLESTIODON, Dume'ril et Bibron. 
27. P. scutatus, n. s. 

3 f f; nga T te ' St0U > subc y lin, J rical - T ^l elongate, cylindrical. Limbs 
small, stout. Toes moderate regular, scarcely subequal, with long nails 
Head conical and rather shelving. Nostrils large, central, in a singl nail 

vlr Ll l K Pe ?K aSa S ^f V T> f ° i ; mi V g a . SUklre - frontal separated from 
ZtTl y fS^^^wofal^gishpairoffrontals. Vertical large, 5 
sided, truncated before, pointed behind- Loreals 3, third largest. Super, 
cilianes 7. Rostral large. Upper labials, regular 8 ; 6th under orbit : 6th, 7th, 

26 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

8th largish. Lower eyelid scaled, with a transverse row of large plates. Ears 
largislCpatulous, rhombic, with two projecting scales in front. Tympanum 
sunken Lower rostral followed by two transverse gular scales and 3 pairs 
of chin shields. Scales of body moderate, subequal ,, .moo h B ack coveied 
TYith a single row of transverse scales, from a little behind the shouldei to 
The loins. At base of tail two rows, soon followed by a single row of sub- 
caudal scales. Prseanal scales two, large. Two central rows of ventral 
scales appreciablv larger. Scales in 23 rows round the body. 

Cobufpale JownV spirits), A dark band from snout ***«-*££ 
the centre of the back and along either side Lateral stripes white dotted 
the central one narrower than the row of vertebral scales. Tail mottled, 
dark markings somewhat annularly disposed. 

Body 4.0, tail 5,75 = 9.75. 

Elbow to toe 0.50. Knee to toe 0.70. 

a. two adults in spirits. 

No record of habitat or donor. 

28. P. laticeps, D. et B. 

a. adult in spirit. North Carolina. Kev. J. Fitzgerald. 

MOCOA, Gray. 

29. M. Formosa, Blyth, J. A. S., XXII., 651. 

M.pulcher, Blyth, museum label. 

a. one large specimen,type Mirzapore. Major Wrough- 

ofBlyth's description. ton. 

5. c. smaller. Wuzeerabad. L.C.Stewart,Esq. 

Dr Gunther is quite correct in surmising that this species has a trans- 
parent lower eyelid and no supranasal, and it is, therefore, correctly referred 
to Mocoa. 
30. M. Sikimensis, Blyth. 

Eumeces Indicus, Gray, apud Gunther in part. 

a five specimens. Sikim. Major Sherwill, 

W. Theobald, 
Junior, Esq. 

Br Gunther appears to have confounded two species under this name, as 
of manv authentic Himalayan specimens none exceed four and a half inches, 
?Wo-h Dr. Gunther gives the length as 8 to 10 inches, probably from his 
fW specimens erroneously identified. The limbs of the species are much 
•mailer than E. Indicus, Gray, apud Gunther. The fore limbs barely reach 
Wmd the gape, the hind a little more than halfway to the axilla. Nothing 
W Dr Gunther's perverse determination to depreciate or ignore the labours 
«f naturalists in India, could have led him into uniting such dissimilar 
soecies as this and JE. Indicus. The size of this species, and the transparent 
lower eyelid of Mocoa were adequate warnings against such an error. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 27 

31. M. bilineata, Gray. 

a. b. adults. Nilgliiris. Dr. Jerdon, W 

Theobald, Ju- 
nior, Esq. 

The vent is shielded by two pairs of large preanals, and not as described by 
Gunther," — a pair." The two centre shields are peculiarly claw-shaped, 
pointed and incurved at the apex, towards each other. 

* M. Himalayana, Gthr. Kashmir, Simla. 

* M. Schlegelii, Gthr. Sikim. 

* R. Rurki, Gray. North India. 

This species is not mentioned by Gunther, but is included in Brit. Mus. 
Cat., Lizards, p. 85. 

PODOPHIS, Weigmann. 
*P. Chalcides, L. Pinang. 

HIOPA, Gray. 

32. R. Albopunctata, Gray. 

a. many specimens. Lower Bengal. E. Blyth, Esq. 

_ This bottle, though labelled " Lower Bengal," no doubt contains the spe- 
cimens forwarded from all parts of India by various donors. 

33. R. Hardwickii, Gray. 

a. two adults in spirit. South India Dr. Jerdon 

Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

b. young (?) Subathoo. Rev. J. CaveBrown. 

* R. punctata, Gray. Malabar, Madras. 


HAGRIA, Gray. 
* H. Vosmaerii, Gray. Bengal. 

2g Catalogue of Beptiles. 


* C. lineata, Gray. India. 


ACONTIAS, Cuvier. 

* A. Layardii, Kelaart. Colombo. 

Light olive longitudinally, spotted with brown. 

NESSIA, Gray. 

* N. Burtonii, Gray. Ambegammoa, 

Kaduganava, Ceylon. 
Tympanum bidden, limbs 4, toes 3 — 3. 

*N. Monodactyla, Bell. India. 

Opening of ear minute but distinct, limbs 4, toes none. 



34. S. tridactylus, Blyth. 

a. 7 specimens in spirit. Afghanistan. Dr. A. Webb. 


GECKO, Gray. 

35. G. verus, Merr. 

a. 3 adults and 4 young in spirit. 

b. adult and half grown. Andamans. Lieut. -Col. Tytler 

c. two fine adults ditto. Dacca. Mr. Frith. 

This is about the most westerly limit of the species, which abounds all 
along the east coast of the Bay of Bengal. It has been captured near Cal- 
cutta, but, probably, the specimens were introduced from ships from the east 
coast or were the descendants of parents so introduced, as so noisy a reptile 
could not be indigenous to Lower Bengal without being well known. 

d. several specimens. Assam, India House 

Tenasserim, Museum. 

e. stuffed specimen, (bad state.) 

Catalogue of Rept iles. 29 

36. G. stentor, Cantor. 
G. Verreauxi, Tytler. 

a. 2 adult specimens Andamans. Lieut -Col TvtW 
in spirit. ' J-ytiei. 

ifj distinguished from G. verus by its double row of subcaudals and 

tid»te o!S 6 T 86 ;, ?°V m interesti "g <^ount of the habits oTtheOeZ. 
tidae see Col. iytler's observations, J. A. S XYYIII K«K 41,™, i KjecK °- 
not adopt my friend's views in dassificaUon o SJLS "^ * Caii " 

*G. monarch™, Dum. et Bib. Malayan Peninsula. (Ceylon ?) 


T , a Pc & u - Major Berdmore. 

J2Z%*£Z^*~»" - OU "-f aChryspelea ornata, which 


38. H. CocTiEi, D. et B. 

Boltalia subltevis, Gray, apud Gunther. 

a many specimens. Calcutta. 

Very large female. Body 2.75, tail 1.75 = 4.50. 

In males five (six) femoral pores in each thigh widelv senar^ K„ «. 
pubic region. Tad more or less verticillate, FeehhZLd^lt i J th ? 
specimen, which was a female th* tail n™* l i K inne y a ' ln t]l « largest 

the base.' Back uniformly gri "la, wi I V few ^H^ 7 T **&** at 
tubercles along the sides. The U umb it fl . sca f tter ? d ^ger flattened 
nor Gunther give the number of femotl pores s"n^e off"^ 
The arge8t m specimen from Calcntta is o ^50 Lies jHE 

Museum no specimens are recorded from any other locality ^ 

39. H. Kelaartii, Theobald. 

H. Coctczi, D. et B. on label. 
a. three specimens. Ceylon. D r Kelaart 

Adult male. Body 2.50, tail 2.25 = 4 75 
2» to 34 femoral pores, interrupted in the pubic region 

tnli b^zt: 1S the *• CoM of Kelaart most p robab] y »«■ 

30 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

40 H. Leschenaultii, D. et B. 

a. four specimens. Nilghiri Hills. W. Theobald, *£ ^ 

Adult male. Body 2.25, tail 2.50 = 4.75. 
Femoral pores 20 to 25 in two lines separated m the pubic 
Back uniformly granular, with numerous scattered flat tubercles. Tail 
verticillate, six spined. 

41. H. maculatus, D. ct B. 

H. Pieresii, Kelaart. 
a. four specimens. Ceylon. Br. Kelaart. 

Femoral pores 32 to 36, in a nearly continued line. The 12 central pores 
somewhat better defined than the rest. 

42. Many small specimens (?) 

43. H. subl^evis, Gray. 

Boltalia sublcevis, Gray. 

E. Coctcei, D. et B., apud Gunther. 

a. many specimens. Mergui, Capt. Berdmore, Dr. 

Ceylon. Kelaart. 

b. large tail-less specimen. 

I am not quite sure if a claw is always present on the thumb, but a small 
almost setiform claw is sometimes noticeable. Thumb small. 

Femoral pores 30 or 33, in a continuous line not interrupted. Pores 
obliquely pierced in the scales. Back minutely granular, with two lines ot 
somewhat larger tubercles down the sides. 

44. H. fasciatus, Gray (?) 

a. a bleacbed specimen, tail injured. 
Twenty rows of small ovate tubercles down the back. Tail slender, 
rounded, faintly ringed, but tubercular. 


45. P. Cantoris, D. et B. 

HemidactylusPeroniiandPlatydactylus lugubris, Cantor apud 

Gecko Harrietts, Tytler MSS. 
a. young, in spirit. Andamans. Lieut. -Col Tytler, 

Back uniformly granular. Tail rounded above, fiat below, granular above, 
small scales below, with no large plates. Edges sharp, minutely denticulated. 
Chin shields none, but about 12 or 15 scales longer than the very minute 
scales of the throat. Olive brown with some scattered velvet black spots. 
Beneath white minutely brown dotted. Body 1.50, tail 1.25 = 2.75. 
* P. Peronii, Dum. et Bib. Birma. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. . %\ 

* N. platyurus, Schneid. 


46. D. Berdmorei, Blyth. 

Leiurus Berclmorei, Blyth. 

a. several specimens. Mergui. Capt. Berdmore. 


47. P. Cepedianum, Peron. 

a. two specimens. Mauritius. W. Earl, Esq. 

48. P. Andamanense, Blyth. 

a. one specimen. Andamans. Capt. Hodge. 


49. G. Jerdonii, Theobald. 

a. b. two specimens. 

a. Male Back uniformly granular. Tail with a single row of We 
subcaudal pates or scuta with a fe W arge scales along "their ed! A 
strong double fold on the throat. Scales of the belly small rhombic 
Along the sides two rows of distant erect spines, becoming obsolete on the 
tail. Sides keeled. Pubic region covered with same sclles as the bell v 
No large prteanals Femoral pores eight on each thigh ; large cuo-shS 
placed along the hinder edge of limb, bordered in°fro'nt bfkt^VlS 
scales and behind by the granular scales of the back. Length head and 
body 1.50, tail 1.50 = 3.0,. Colour (in spirits) above, greenlgray mottled 
with brown, beneath greenish white. Nine upper and seven lower Tabials 
Nostrils close behind the rostral. Lower rostral large, just sepa rates a n i> 
of small tr angular chin plates. Allied to G. M^nJsTilT^Z 
but not to be identified with any species described by Jerdon. 

50. G. Geckoides, Spix. Punjab Salt Range. W. Theobald Esq 

m^^^^^^^^^^ 9lit§,lim ^ Straight Series an <* in a 

51. G. 

a. small species in a "bad state. 

* G . triedrus, Gunther. Ceylon. 

* G. pulchellus, Gray. Penang, Singapore. 

* G. frasnatus, Gunth. Ceylon. 

* G. Kandianus, Kelaart. Ceylon. 

* G. Mysoriensis, Jerdon. Bangalore. 

* G. Indicus, Gray. Nilghiris. 

* G. Malabaricus, Jerdon. Malabar. 

* G. littoralis, Jerdon. Malabar. 

* G. Deccanensis, Sykes. Dakhan, 

32 • Catalogue of Reptiles. 


52. N. variegattts, Blyth. J. A. S. XXVIII., p. 279. 

Gymnodactylus variegatus, 

Blyth amid Gunther. 

a. type specimen. Tenasserim (?) W. Atkinson, Esq. 

Fine male. Femoral pores thirty in an uninterrupted line. The > six cen- 
tral or prseanal pores are strongly marked and conspicuous. On either side 
of them" the femoral pores are well denned, at the extremity of the line, but 
become fainter, though present, towards the group of anal pores, which con- 
sequently looks isolated, though really standing in one continuous line. 

53. N. FASciOLATUs, Blyth, XXIX., p. 114. 

a. b. two young specimens. 

in spirit. Subathoo. 

These two species are, as Mr. Blyth says, closely allied, and I am far from 
confident that they are not the same species, the difference between them 
beino- sexual. N. variegatus is founded on a fine male. N. fascwlatus on 
probably young females. We are not yet in a position to state, from these 
three specimens, the extent to which the colour marking may vary in indivi- 
duals ; and the banded ornamentation of N. fasciolatus is the most prominent 
distinction between the two species. m 

Naultinus is I think a well founded genus, connecting Gymnodactylus and 
Eublepharis. The toes are long and unequal, slender and spreading as m 
Gymnodactylus, differing therein from Eublepharis which has the toes subequal 
and stouter, whilst the ornamentation of the back, being a granular sur- 
face regularly shagreened with larger tubercles, and the ornate style oi colo- 
ration approximates to Eublepharis. 


54. P. rubida, Blyth. 

a. several specimens. Andamans. Capt. Hodge. 


55. E. Hardwickii. 

a. h. young specimens. Chaibassa. . Capt. Haughton. 

56. E. macularius, Blyth. 

Cyrtodactylus macularius, Blyth. 

a. type specimen. Salt Range. W. Theobald. 


57. H. pasciata, Blyth. 

a. in spirit, (very- 
bad state.) Central India (?) Dr. Jerdon.. 

Catalogue of Reptiles, 33 

Limbs very slender. Toes 5-5 subequal, slightly dilated, with cleft 
plates beneath Terminal joints clawed. Head shaped as in Hemidactvlu 
and covered with small smooth polygonal scales. Body covered witTeWate' 
rhomboidal scales, very faintly keeled. Belly covered with sTmUar sSls 
EvpoTo f *T lhT and , s -°? th '. Upper and lower labials T W k ' 
Eje close to the gape. Eyelids with a series of largish scales, and marked 
above the eyebrow with a double line oi most minute sea les West 
scales in the semicircular space between the eyebrow, and with a ma ked 
but not prominent, orbital ridge. mailed, 

Scales of limbs small, on inner side of fore arm, granular. Ear an oblique 
gran ; ufr PanUm ^^ ***. ^^ 3 ' feIes of «««* smaU, eqll, 
bad^ate!^ tranSVei ' Se white bands > beneath, pale blueish ashen. Very 


DRACO, Linnaeus. 

58. D. FIMBRIATUS, Klllll. 

a. b. male and female. Sumatra, Penang(?) Messrs. Edwards 

and Foster. 
I cannot verify this species with certainty, so I give a few notes of it 

the side lappets. Wing* ornamented below with broad, rather maculate or 
broken „ p , dark brown hands. Above, this band-like a range ne o tclu 
WW T' bU ?" ly f Sp ° tf , ed "dentation. Scales oT head unequal 
keeled Some tubercular scales about the nape, but no orbital spinel or 

St tlfe tie. SPOt bet "' eeQ °' e °' bitS "* ' SeC °" d oa th * *£ .'"Nap" 

59. D. t2eniopterus, Gunther. 

Z>. lineatics, D. et B. apud 

Dorsal scales small, subequal, faintly keeled. An irregular line of keeled 

pr%SBL iti. ^ ^ -« >4?vaa 

a. 2 males, 3 females. Tenasserim. Major Berdmore. 

60. D.VOLANS, L. 

a - female - Singapore. C. T. Watkins. 


it fn mir IpS ^ "t ,° f * e b ^ *» " sli S h % k ^led," but I can detect 

diffL f o n rfTn wo n f- Ch re Tf * W oaches ^ <"™^ Ghinther, but 
amers Horn it in wanting a nuchal crest. 

34 Catalogue of Eeptiles, 

61. D. maculatus, Gray. 

„ 2 „,„„„„! .,„..,. M,, = „<. M,,. Vd T ; :r 

,,- « as s sastssffSStfsJSA'Jss 

coloration of the wings readily distinguish this species. 

62. D. Dussumieki, D. et B. 

„. 6. males stuffed. Madras Museum. 

c. female ditto, tail injured. _ 

It is to be regretted these •$-*■»»«» £* CXsCnkt and 

SITANA, Cuvier. 


a. two males, three Lavard 

females, and yonng. Ceylon. H. ^L. Layard, 

5. c. adults stuffed. Coromandel Coast. 

* S. minor, Gunth. Madras, Ceylon (?) 


64. L. Scutatus. 

a. three adults. Ceylon. Dr Kelaart. 

b. one ditto. D^to. Ditto 

c. stuffed ditto. Ditto. EL. Layard, Esq. 

d. ditto young, bad state. Ditto: Ditto. 

COPHOTIS, Peters. 

* C. Ceylonica, Pal. Ceylon. 


* C Stoddartii, Gray. Ceylon. 

* C. Tennentii, Gunth. Ditto. 

* C. Aspera, Gunth. Ditto. 


* 0. bivittata, Wieg. Ceylon. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 35 


* D. grandis, Gray. Rangoon. 


* B. jubata. Pondicherry ? 


65. T. subcristata, Blyth. 

a. many specimens. Andamans. Capt. Hodge. 

b. small individual. Ditto. Lt.-Col Tytler. 
Sent as Calotes Harrietts, Tytler MSS. 

c. many specimens. Ditto. Ditto. 

ORIOTIARIS, Guntiier. 

* 0. Elliotti, Gunth. Sikim. 


66. A. armata, Gray. Birma. Major Berdmore. 

SALEA, Gray. 

67. S. Jerdonii, Gray. 

Calotes viridis, Gray, apud Blyth. (Mus. Label.) 

a. four specimens. ' Nilgliiris. Dr. Jerdon. 

Labelled from " South India," but, according to Jerdon, found on the 
.Nilghins only. 

Readily distinguished from Calotes by the nasal plate being pentagonal, 
resting on the first or first and second upper labials, with a row of laro-e'putes 
behind it above the labials. In Calotes the nasal plate is oval and separated 
iroin the labials by two rows of very narrow scales. 

CALOTES, Cuvier. 

68. C. versicolor, Daud. 

a. many specimens. Ceylon. G. L. Layard, 

Esq. and Dr. 

b. many specimens. Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

c. adult stuffed. Scind. Sir A. Burnes. 

d. ditto ditto. 

This species, as remarked by Gunther, seems to attain a larger size in 
Ceylon than elsewhere. I cannot help, however, suspecting that specimens 
jrom aH parts of India have been huddled into the two bottles labelled 
''Ceylon" and " Martaban," else, how comes it, there are no specimens in the 
Museum of our commonest lizard from other parts ? 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 

Dr Gunther states that, both " Jerdon and Blyth agree that these bright 
changeable colors are peculiar to the male, during the breeding season which 
falls in the month of May and June," but does not express himself as though 
fully prepared to admit the opinion of such competent observers His words 
are obscure,-" the ground colour is generally a light brownish olive, but the 
lizard can change it to bright red, to black and to a mixture of both- These 
words imply a voluntary effort on the part of the animal which I doubt, but 
from observations I am inclined to believe rather that the cobra vary during 
the breeding season, (that is the bright seasonal red and black) under the 
involuntary stimulus of fear, anger or passion Gunther makes no mention 
of the two black occipital specks, rarely absent m this species, or ol the 
white band running from the ear down each side which so commonly 
marks the females. In Bengal or Pegu, I have myself never remarked the 
brilliant seasonal red of the male extending even to the loins In Pegu 1 
have noticed this vivid coloration in early spring. My largest Burmese male 
measured 3.75 + 11.00 = 1475. Gunther gives 16 inches as the length 
of Ceylon specimens, but such dimensions are rare on the continent. 

69. C. MYSTACETJS, D. et B. 

a. two adults. Ceylon. E. L. Layard, Esq. 

o. one adult. Mergui. W. Theobald, Esq., Jnr. 

I can by no means understand Dr. Gunther's description of G.mystaceus, 
unless on the supposition that he has confounded two species, as his measure- 
ments far exceed anything I ever saw and are very -disproportionate, 19 
inches of tail to 5 inches of body in an old male. My largest male (and the 
«mppies is common in Pegu where it is called " the Chameleon by 
aS^)^S™. bod/425, tail 6.00 = 1025. My largest femae 
3 90 X 7 90 = 11.80. Specimens occur a little longer, but these are iully 
up to the average of adults. I will add a description of the color from life, 
the tints being very variable. Color dark brown, often ruddy vinous with a 
conspicuous white band from the nostrils to behind the shoulder ; and some- 
times to the base of the tail. Sometimes only a few dead white spots on 
body or white or yellow blotches on the shoulders. Seasonably, (spring and 
rains) the male assumes a gorgeous hue, the gofer sack and even the entire 
fore part of body, becoming a bright deep blue In spirit the blue fades to 
green in a few hours, and eventually all the colours, save the rusty shoulder 
blotches and white side streak, which is generally well defined, disappear. 

70. C. Emma, Gray. 

a. four adults and 2 



W. Theobald, 
Esq., Junr. 

I. several fine adults and 

' young. Martaban. Major Berdmore, 

71. C. Oprtomachus, Men*. 

a. many specimens. Ceylon. E. L. Layard, 

Esq. and Dr. 
Nicobars. Capt. Lewis. 

S. India or 
Ceylon (?) 

o. adult. 
c. adult var. 

Catalogue, of Reptiles. 37 

The specimen c. is remarkable for wanting the vertical bands of this species, 
but in place of these it has a strongly defined white line down each side of 
the spine, from the shoulder, to a short distance along the tail. The tail is 
very long, as is the case with this species. 

Body 2.6, tail 10.00 = 12.60. " 

72. C nemoricola, Jerdon, J. A. S., XXII, p. 471. 

a. type specimen. (?) Koonoor Glnit ; 

Nilghiris. Dr. Jerdon. 

Closely allied to C. Gigas, also found at the same locality. Differs in its 
green color, larger smooth scales, less developed crest, and small scales about 
the shoulder fold. These characters united are more than mere sexual va- 
riations, but the two species are nearly allied. 

73. C. Gigas, Blyth, J. A. S. XXII., p. 648. 

C. ophiomachus, 31err } J. A. S., XI., 870. 
a. adult, in spirit. Mirzapore. Major Wroughton. 

&• ^tto. Nilghiri hills. W. Theobald, Jnr., 

The original specimen mentioned in J. A. S., XI. is no longer extant. 

74. C. tricarinatus, Blyth, J. 

A. S., XXII., p. 650. Darjeeling. Major Sherwill r 

W. Theobald, 
C. maria, Gray apud Gunther. Junr., Esq. 

There is no just ground for uniting these species. 

C. platyceps, with which Mr. Blyth contrasts it, is no longer in the 
Museum, having somehow disappeared, so that I cannot suggest^if it may 
be the young of this species or no. 

* C. platyceps, Blyth, Khasi hills. 

J. A. S., XXI., p. 354. 

* C. maria, Gray. Ditto. 

* C. Rouxii, D. et B. India (?) 

75. C. nigrilabris, Peters. 

C. Rouxii, Du. et Bib. apud Blyth. J. A. S. XXII n 647 
33 X H.7 = 15.0. ' *' 

Head trigonal, shelving ; nostrils lateral, sub-apical, in after part of a small 
rather turned ovate scale. Rostral broad, flattened, with 5 scales above it in 
a row, the two outer rather larger, and in front of the nasal. Upper 
labials. Eyelids covered with rows of granular scales. From over nasal to 
behind orbit, a row of seven elongate overlapping scales. Nuchal and dorsal 
crest moderate from nape to tail, highest on the nape. Above andalittle behind 
the tympanum a group of 3 reverted spines. A fold on either side of throat. 
Scales slightly keeled, rhombic, with minutely denticulate ends in slightly 
descending order, subequal : belly scales rather large and s-trongly keeled 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 

and spined. Scales of head small, smooth, polygonal ; those of limbs moderate. 
Scales in the lumbar region very small, smoothish; at the base of tail very large ; 
few lines as large as lumbar scales, very strongly keeled. Colour green, a black 
band along the upper jaws involving the tympanum. A pale streak from 
the tympanum to shoulder. Scales of throat large, keeled : no gular pouch. 
Tail bulging at base, round, long, and tapering. 

B. ornata, B. J. A. S. 1856, p. 448. Type no larger in Museum. 


a. 3 specimens. 


Nilghiris, Koonoor. W 

Theobald, Junr, 


77. L. tuberculata, Gray. 
L. melainira, Blyth. 
Stellio Indicus, B. apud Gunth. 
a. young female in spirit. Simla. 

W. Theobald, Junr., 



78. S. Indicus, Blyth. 

S Cyanogaster, Rupp. f 

a. adult. Mirzapore. 

b. halt* grown (bifid tail.) Agra. 

Major Wroughton, 
F. L. Stewart, Esq. 
c. ditto. Kashmir. W. Theobald, Junr., 


The two species (L. tuberculata and 8. Indicus) are very closely allied. Un- 
fortunately the specimens are not sufficiently numerous for a full comparison. 
The most obvious distinction seems to be in the scales of the back, which in 
L. tuberculata, are larger, with the keels forming distinct longitudinal lines. 
The sole specimen is a female, and the character is probably more decided 
in males : in the museum specimen, it is more conspicuous than in larger 
specimens of Stellio. In S. Indicus too the sides are armed with spiny 
scales, and the coloring seems more varied. 


79. A. agilis, Oliv. 

80. A. RUDERATA, Oliv. 

a. young specimen. 

Punjab W. Theobald, Junr., 

Salt Range. Esq. 

Somali land. Lieutenant Speke. 

Catalogue of Beptiles. 39 

MOLOCH, Gray. 
81. M. horridus, Gray. 

a. b. adult and young 

in spirits. W. Australia. Dr. J. McClelland. 

This species may pertain to the next family. 


The genera Uromastix, Liolepis and Thrynoeeplialus, form a very natural 
Family quite distinct from theAgamidae amongst which Gunther and other sys- 
tematise* have classed them. They are all -round lizards, burrowing in Bandy 
soils, of very gentle and placid disposition and herbivorous. The larger 
species are esteemed for food, and for their presumed invigorating propertTes. 
They are of social habits, usually associating in small communities; their 
burrows being often congregated together, like those of rabbits. Phrynocep Ita- 
lics is strictly monogamous. 

Uromastix Hard icirkii, as noted by myself in the Punjab, never goes from 
its burrow till the sun is well up, and grazing near the mouth for some hours, 
retreats again during the excessive heat. In the evening they re-appear, 
and finally retire as the dusk comes on, or earlier, if it is chilly. They seem 
sensitive to climatic changes and carefully close their burrows with sand, so 
that they escape notice unless searched for. Phn/noeephalus and Liolepis 
both do the same, and an open burrow will generally be found untenanted. 
Uromastix shows no wish to bite when taken in the hand, and for all its 
claws and spines is a very Quaker among lizards. ThrynocephaUs is equally 
gentle, and Liolepis also, I believe. 

UROMASTIX, Dumeril et Bibron. 

82. U. Hardwickii, Gray. 

a. Superb specimen 

in spirit. 

b. two specimens. 

c. stuffed species. 

Upper Provinces. Major TVroughton. 

Agra. C. L. Stewart, Esq. 

Sind. Sir A. Burnes. 

LIOLEPIS, Cuvier. 

83. L. Reevesii, Gray. 

a. large specimen. Arakan. Col. Phayre. 

b. three half grown specimen. Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

c. six smaller. Ditto. Ditto, 

40 Catalogue of Reptiles. 



P. Tichelii, Gunther not Gray. 

P. Theobaldi, Blyih. 

a. 2 males, a female and a 

foetus. Shores of Lake 

Chomoriri. W. Theobald, Jnr., 

I should not describe the tail as depressed, except at its base, but there is 
no doubt it is the P. caudivolvulus of Pallas. The black belly and tail tip 
are characteristic of the male. The female is smaller and dull coloured, and 
produces two or three young. They are of monogamous habits, and the 
pair occupy a burrow, a few inches deep in the sandy soil, the opening of 
which is often concealed by a stone or tuft. 



85. C. Zeylanicus, Laur. 

a. female in spirit with eggs. 

a fine specimen. Midnapore. Major Wroughton. 

Without removing this specimen from the bottle, it is clear 
that it contains not less than 30 to 35 eggs, though Gun- 
ther asserts that they lay only 10 or 12. 

o. bad state. 

86. C. verrucosus, Blyth, (not Cuv.,) J. A. S., XXII., 640. 

a. fine specimen in spirit. Old collection. 

Closely allied to C. dilepis, Leach. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 41 


First Sub-order. 


TYPHLINA, Wagler. 
T. lineata, Dum. et Bib. Pinang. 


T. nigro-albus. Dum. et Bib. Pinanff. 

Back blackish, belly yellow. Colors well defined. 
T. horsfieldii, Gray, 

Argyrophis bicolor, Gray. 
a. b. Typhlops nigro-albus, Dum. et Bib. 

c. Argyrophis Diardii, Dum. et Bib. 

> apud Blyth. 

These specimens appear to me to belong rather to T. Horsfieldii 
than to T. nigro-albus, as I cannot satisfactorily distinguish, with a 
lens, any suture above the nostril, and the coloration too of the back 
and belly is much blended. It is, however, difficult to distinguish 
the sutures of specimens long preserved in spirit, a has a conspicuous 
pit below the nostril, as in T. bothriorhynchus, but no trace of the small 
anterior pit described by Giinther. 

T. bothriorhynchus, Giinther. Pinang. 

A groove below the nostril in the suture between the nasal and 
ironto-nasal, and a smaller one between the rostral and nasal. 
T. striolatus, Peters. Bengal. 

T. braminus, Daud. 

a. many specimens. Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, 

T. tenuis, Giinther. 

Argyrophis Braminus Daud, apud Blyth. 
a. b. c. three specimens. Bengal. 

These would seem to belong to T. tenuis, Giinther, but are much 
more slender than his figure in the Cat. Brit. Ind. Keptiles pi. XVL 
fig. C. which was from probably a very old specimen. The largest 
specimens measure 7.5, circumference 0.30, 




T. ? 

a. very slender specimen 

Body, 13.00 

Tail, 0.50 

No record. 

13.50 Circumference, 0.60. 

Body uniform throughout, leaden grey, rather paler beneath, under 
tail yellowish. 

T. mirus, Jan. Ceylon. 

Like T. Braminus. with yellow snout. 
ONYCHOCEPHALUS, Dumeril et Bibron. 
O. acutus, Duni. et Bib. 

a. five specimens. Chaibassa. Major Haughton. 


BHINOPHIS, Hemprich. 
B. oxyrhynchus, Schneid. Ceylon, (Kandy.) 

B. punctatus, Muller. Ceylon. 

B. planiceps, Pet (Philippinus.) Ceylon. 
B. trevelyanus, Kelaart. Ceylon, (Kandy.) 

B. sanguineus, Beddome. Cherambady in the Wynaud. 
B. blythii, Kelaart. 

a. nearly full grown. Kandy. Dr. Kelaart. 

B. pulneyensis, Beddome. 

a. Three specimens 

(one injured). Kandy. Dr. Kelaart. 

I have little doubt of the identification or locality; so these specimens 
prove the occurrence of a Ceylonese species on the mainland, as might 
have been predicated. 


U. granuis, Kelaart. Ceylon, Adam's Peak, Matura. 

SILYBUBA, Peters. 


S. beddomii, Giinth. Anamullay hills. 

S. ocellata, Beddome, Walaghat, Nilghiris. 
S. elliotti, Gray. Madras. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 43 

S. bicatenata, GrUiith. Dakhan. 

8. snoRTTir, Beddome, Shevaray hills. 

S. bbevis, Giinth. Anamullay and Nilghiri hills. 

PLECTRURUS, Dumeril et Bibron. 

P. perrotetii, Dum. et Bib. 

a. five specimens. Ootakamnnd. W. Theobald, 

Very common under stones at " Ooty." Junior, Esq. 

P. guntiieri, Beddome. Walaghat. 

M. WYNAUDBN8B, Beddome. Wynaud. (not Wynand, as spelt 

by Giinther ) 




«. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 


a. an adult. 


C. catenata, Blyth, Assam. W. Robinson, Esq. 
J. A. S. XXIII. 287. 

The type specimen is no longer in the Museum. 


The species of this genus are mostly from the Indian Archipelago, 
though I have noted one species in Pegu. The species described °by 
Mr Blyth, except perhaps G. catenata, all belong to other genera, but 
will be noticed elsewhere. 

GEOPHIS, Wagler. 
G. microcephalia Giinth. Nilghiris. 

G. (Platyi»teryx perboteti, Dum. et Bib. Nilghiris.) 

4 4 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

ASPIDURA, Wagler. 

A. brayorrhos, Boie. 

a Kadriganam. Dr. Kelaart. 

A. copii, Gunth. 



H. ceylonensis, Giintb. 

FALCONERIA, gen. nov. 
Scales faintly keeled in seventeen rows. One anterior transverse 
frontal rather small. Two posterior frontals which enter the orbit. 
Upper labials five. Pupil round. 


Head not very distinct from body, rather ovate and elongate rather 
narrowed in front. Nostril almost dividing a small nasal (perhaps 
two small nasals). Loreal one, small, squarish Ante-ocular very 
eTongaTe Upper labials five. The first very small, second and third 
Inte? the orbit, fourth and fifth large, increasing m size regularly from 
the first backwards. Anal bifid. Three undivided sub- caudals, the others 

a Type specimen. Parisnath. A. Grote, Esq. 

This species approaches the Ceylonese genus ^^'^^ 
too materially to be considered a second species and I have theielore 
for^danew genus for its reception, bearing the name of the late 
eminent Palaaontologist whose loss is still so fresh amongst us. 

BLYTHIA, gen. nov. 
Scales smooth in thirteen rows. Loreal none. Ante-ocular none, 
both replaced by a very large posterior frontal. Pupil round, sub- 
caudals bifid. 

B. reticulata, Blyth* 

Calamaria reticulata, Blyth, J. A. S., XXIII. 

Nostril in a small oblong shield. Frontals two pairs, anterior small ; 
posterior very large. Vertical and superciliary moderate or smallish. 
Posterior frontal forms a suture with the nasal, second and third upper 
labials, the superciliary and vertical which has an obtuse angle m 
front Upper labials six. First very small ; third and fourth enter the 

"otk&l flower labials five; 1st moderate 2nd and 3rd WJ 
4th large, 5th band-like, narrow. The first lower labials form a sutuie 
and are 8 followed by a pair of very large chin shields which are again 
followed by a pair of small ones, the suture falling in the centre oi 
the 4th lower labial.. Anal bifid. Tail round, short. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 45 

a. b. type specimens. Assam. W. Robinson, Esq. 

Color "sinning dull black, brilliant and iridescent with white 
specks on side." 

This species was originally described most imperfectly by Mr. Blyth 
(I. c.) but it differs so from Galamaria, that I am forced to refer it to a 
new genus, bearing the name of my eminent friend. 

GROTEA, gen. nov. 
Scales smooth in seventeen rows. Loreal one, small. Frontals two, 
transverse, one anterior, one posterior. Pupil round. 
G. bicolor, Blyth. 

Calamaria bicolor, Bhjth, J. A. S. XXIII. 289. 

C. hypoleuca, Blyth. 

Ahlabcs bicolor, Blyth, apud Giinther? 

Nostril pierced in the centre of a large nasal. Loreal small. Ros- 
tral broad. Anterior frontal transverse, two-thirds as broad as ros- 
tral. Posterior frontal transverse, broader than rostral. Ante-ocular 
one, small. Postoculars two, small. Superciliaries small. Vertical five- 
sided, broader than long, base in front, sides next to base only as long 
as superciliaries. Occipitals large. Upper labials five. Third higher 
than the rest, enters the orbit ; fifth largest. Anal bifid. Eye small. 

Colour " dusky plumbeous above, buffy white below, * gradually 

It is quite impossible to retain this species as a Galamaria, and 
I have accordingly separated it as a new genus, named after the 
present indefatigable President of our Society. Giinther refers this 
species to his Ablabes bicolor, but he describes the nostrils as between 
" two small shields" which is not the case in our type. Giinther seems 
to make " Ablabes" the receptacle of forlorn species of OakmcMda. 


Scales smooth, in thirteen rows. Posterior frontals, united. Pupil 

T. fuscum, Blyth. 

Calamaria fusca, Blyth, J. A. S XXIII. 288. 
Trachischium fuscum, Blyth, (Museum label.) 
Galamaria {and trachischium) obscuro-striata, Blyth. 

Anterior frontals minute. Posterior frontal single, very large, larger 
than vertical ; vertical rather small, pointed behind, truncate in front. 
Superciliary large, one-third as large as vertical. Loreal small, elongate: 
ante-ocular one, post-ocular one, rather larger: upper labials six. 1st 
very small, 3rd and 4th enter the orbit, 6th largest. Anal bifid. " Iri- 
descent brown-black, under parts particularly lustrous." Obscurely 
streaked also with pale lines, but these are now faded and obsolete. 

46 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

a. Two adults and one young. Darjiling. W.T.Blanford, Esq. 
h. Two specimens (one injured.) Rangoon. (?) Purchased. 

I think the peculiarity of the single posterior frontal a good generic 
mark of separation from both Ablabes and Calamama, and adopt conse- 
quently Giinther's genus. (Brit. Mus. Cal. Colubrine Snakes, page, dU.) 



0. subpunctatus, Dum. et Bib. 

a. one adult, many young. Bengal, Assam, Malabar, Piuang. 

0. subgriseus, Dum. et Bib. Anamallies. 

0. spilonotus, Gunth. Madras. 

0. elliotti, Gunth. Ditto. 

0. spinipttnctatus, Jan. Calcutta. 

O. easciatus, Giinth. Dakhan. 
0. sublineatus, Dum. et Bib. Ceylon. 

0. aefinis, Giinth. Anamallies. 

0. templetonii, Gunth. Ceylon. 

0. modestus, Giinth. Ceylon (?) 
0. dorsalis, Gray. Afghanistan. (?) 

0. brevicauda, Giinth. Anamallies. 


S. bicatenatus, Giinth. 

a. five adults. 

b. two ditto. 

c. two ditto. Pegu. W. Theobald, 

Junior, Esq. 

d. one ditto. Ditto. Ditto. 

These specimens have the lower ante-ocular very small, thereby dif- 
fering from 8. punctulatus. - As, however, the coloration is much like 
var. y of 8. punctulatus, I think they may belong to the allied species 
G anther names, without fully describing, 8. Labuanensis, Gunth., which 
has a small lower ante-ocular. 

e. two young. Jessore, Mergui. 

One specimen has a minute lower ante-ocular, and is doubtless, 
8. bicatenatus from Mergui. The other probably belongs to a variety, 
perhaps to 8. aMwvmter. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 47 

/ four young. (?) Ceylon. E. L. Layard, Esq. 

</. two young. (?) Ditto. Ditto. 

These specimens /. and g. agree in having only one anteoeular and 
two postoculars all sub-equal. Unless all young, they may possibly 
belong to Giinther's 8. albiventer, though they have a loreal, which in 
his type was wanting, possibly a mere individual peculiarity. 

S. alboctnctus, Cantor. 

JCenodon purpuras cens, black -zoned var. 
Ditto ditto, white-banded var, 

a. two adults. Assam. Mr. Robinson, 

b. two adults, one young. 

These differ from the type in having the ante- oculars only two in 
number and sub-equal. 

S. Russellii, Daud. 

a. one large and one small specimen. 

b. two adults, one young. 0. and S.India, Ceylon, OnaerkantaK 

I do not quite understand how these snakes can come from four local- 
ities as these are stated to do. This vagueness in labelling is much to 
be deprecated. 

S. ? 

a. five adults. Goalpara. Dr. Thoinburu. 

* S. venustus, Jerdon. West coast. 
S. binotatus, Dum. et Bib. Nilghiris. 

* S. ALBIVENTER, Giinth. 

* S. punctulatus, Giinth. Nepal, Khasi hills. 

I am much inclined to question the soundness of Giinther's splitting 
S. pur pur ascens into so many shreds as he has done, that is, of giving 
specific rank to its different varieties. The varieties are perhaps local, 
but I am far from sure that the number of scales and the size of the 
oculars relatively and positively is sufficiently fixed to form the basis 
of specific separation. The pattern, I admit, is wonderfully inconstant, 
but the head-markings and aspect of what have hitherto been ranked 
as varieties of S. purpurascens, have so strongly marked and uniform a 
character, that I incline to the old arrangement rather than to the 
new. A better series than we possess in this Museum is much wanted, 
and an authentic one as far as locality, to aid in solving this point. 

S. cruentatus, Th. n. s. 

j Scales in seventeen rows. Nasals large, loreal small, anteocular one, 
postoculars two, anal bifid. Upper labials seven, fourth and fifth enter 
orbit. Eye moderate, pupil large, black. Habit more slender than 
8. bicatenatus. Colour above uniform umber-brown, without markings, 
the colour extending over the edges of the ventral plates, beneath 
yellowish white, with numerous square black blotches. Tail beneath 

48 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

Rangoon and Pegu. 

Pan <rnon W. Theobald, 

a. type specimen. ftangoon. 

JF r Junr., Esq. 

S. obsctjrus, Th. n. s. 

Form stout, scales ^*»™™^^^JS£& 
well produced baoto^. Anterior froutoto^w^>«^. poste _ 

points almost reactog the vertical K^ffi^ery broad. Loreal 
rior frontals rhomboidal. Vertical an d ^°°W ay ^.^ 

darker beneath. 

a. two specimens. 
A somewhat aberrant Simotes (?) without any record of donot 

or locality. 

S. crassus, Th. n. s. 
Scales smooth, in nineteen rows. Pr-culars two ; the «^smalh 
and looks like M^^^^Z, smaller than poste- 

f^SteSSMXSSSS with faint markings on the head, 

yellowish beneath. , . labelled " Cerberus boceformis, 

This specimen was, by a clerical . err °^hottle that I do not like to 

feet long, and is stout in proportion. No recoid ot donor. 


ABLABES, Dumeril et Bibron. 
A. tenuiceps, Blyth. 

Calamaria tenuiceps, Blyth, J. A. S., XXIII., p. 288. 
«. type in bad state. Darjiling. Major Sherwill. 

This species, by to^w^^jfa M^SS 
towards the CalamaruU, but with the >&te*™ ^ of the plates of 

color and Trachischiumfuscum&nd both mcluaea among 

Catalogue nf Reptiles. 49 

* A. RAPrn, Gimth. Sikini. 

* A. Olivaceus, Beddome. Nilghiris. 

* A. Sagittarius, Cantor. Pinang, Tirlioot, Kangra. 

* A. Humberti, Jerdoii. Madras, Ceylon. 

* A. collaris, Gray. Nepal, Khasi hills. 
A. scriptus, Blyth. 

Coronella seripta, Blyth. 

Closely allied to A. baKodvrus, but seems to differ too much to be 
safely united. 

Scales in thirteen rows. Anteocular one. Postoculars two, small. 
Loreal very small, much smaller than postocular. Posterior front als 
broader than long, Upper labials, eight. The 3rd, 4th and 5tib enter 
the orbit. A long narrow temporal, forming a suture with both 
postoculars and Oth and 7th labials; 7th labial largest, more than 
twice as broad as temporal. Two pairs of chin shields, the hinder 
rather larger than the other. First in contact, with four labials. The 
second pair in contact with the 5th labial and part of 4th. 

Lower labials, seven. 5th largest. 

Colour above brown. A few black dots on either side of spine on 
the front part of trunk. A black mark under the eye, followed by a 
white upright border involving the postoculars. A black bordered 
white patch on the last upper labial, and a white collar on nape. 

Beneath white. 

a. Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

CYCLOPHIS, Guntiier. 
C. FRiENATUS, Gimth. Afghanistan. 

C. calamaria, G until. Ceylon, S. India. 

C. montigola, Cantor. 

This specimen agrees tolerably with the description of the type, 
making allowance for individual variation. 

Scales smooth, in fifteen rows, no enlarged vertebrals. Nostril in a 
large oblong shield. Loreal small, half as large as anteocular. Anteo- 
cular one, large. Postoculars two, subequal. Frontals broader than 
long. Anterior ones half as large as posterior. Vertical rather small. 
Occipitals large. Superciliaries large, two-third as large as vertical. 
Upper labials seven, 3rd and 4th enter the orbit, anal bifid. E} r e rather 
large, pupil round. 

Colour dark olive brown. A broad blackish streak from eye to nape; 
thinning off into an almost invisible line down the back. Beneath it 
three filiform dark lines, formed by the dark edges of the scales along 
the sides. 

C. catenatus, Th. n. s. 

Anteocular one. Postoculars two, the lower very minute. Loreal 
small. Anal entire. Upp^ labials six. The 3rd and 4th entering the 
orbit. Lower labials six. First deep, forming a suture with the oppo- 
site one. 2nd small, 4th and 5th very large. 

50 Catalogue of Beptiles. 

Colour yellowish brown, many scales, black spotted, forming obscure 
lines down the body. Belly yellowish white. Each ventral with a 
terminal black dot, forming a conspicuous chain of spots down eacn 
side of abdomen. 

a. Simla. Purchased. 


a. two specimens. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 
CHLOROPHIS, Theobald, Gen. Nov. 
Aspect much as in CyclopUs. Head rather distinct from neck 
Eye moderate, round pupil > scales smooth, in fifteen rows. Nostiil 
between two nasals. 

C. Oldhami, Th.n. s. 
Anteocular one. Postoculars two. Loreal longish. Other head 
shields normal, proportionate. ... -™ ^ *-j .fim> 

Upper labials eight, regularly increasing in size Fourth and fifth 
enter the orbit, chin shields two pair m contact with six labials. Lhe 
hinder chin shields a trifle longer than the front one. *ir to t lower 
labials form a suture, 2nd very small, 6th the largest. 

Body, 11.0 

Tail, 5.5 = 16.5. 

Colour above uniform bronze brown, beneath cuticle in spirit, blue. 
a. young. Simla. Purchased. 

I have named this interesting ally of Cyclophis after Dr. Oldham, 
Director of the Geological Survey of India, whose advice and encour- 
agement, in the preparation of the present Catalogue, I should not pass, 
by unacknowledged. 

ODONTOMUS, Dumeril et Bibron.. 

* 0. nympha, Daud. 

* O. semieasciattjs, Giinth.. 

* 0. gracilis, Giinth. Anamallies. 


* N. maculatum, Giinth. India. 

ELACHISTODON, Reinhardt.. 

* E. westermanni, Reihh.. 

COBONELLA, Laurenti. (sp.) 

* C. orientalis, Giinth. Dakhan. 
C. sayi, Holbr. 

a. adult and young. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald, 
(labelled Homalopsis buccata^} 

Caf-alogae of Reptiles. 51 

I am doubtful of this determination, but have no means of comparing 

Scales smooth, in 21 rows. Anteocular one. Postoculars two. 
Loreal small. Upper labial eight, 3rd and 4th enter the orbit. Nostril 
between two nasals, anal bifid. 

Colour deep brown (black?) Back broadly barred with yellow. 
Belly brown with many scuta, partly yellow- coloured. All the head 
shields symmetricall)/ yellow spotted. 


ELADISTODA, Reinhardt. 
E. Westermanni, Rein. Rungpore. 


PIIAYREA, Theobald, Gen. Nov. 

Allied to Oohiber and Oilontomus. Habit moderate or stoutisli; 
scales smooth, sub-equal, hexagonal. Nasal oblong, reaching to the 
top of the head, pierced somewhat posteriorly by a moderate nostril 
with an oblique slit to the first labial, eye full, pupil round, anal bifid. 
P. Isabellina, n. s. Th. 

Loreal one, anteocular one. Postoculars two. Upper labials eight. 
Fourth and fifth enter the orbit. Sixth largest. Scales in seventeen 

Color buff or yellowish Isabclline brown, with a narrow dark stripe 
down each side of back, and a broader one on either side of the belly. 
Belly yellowish, colors strongly contrasted. 

Named in compliment to Lt.-Col. Phayre, the highly esteemed, able, 
and popular Governor of British Birma. 

a. Type specimen. Bassein. 

COLUBER Linn^us, (sp.) 
C. porpiiyraceus, Cantor. Assam and Khasi hills. 
C. quadrivittatus, Holbr. (?) North America. 

a. adult, (rather bleached.) 

I refer this snake to this species with doubt, having no proper means 
of determining it. 

Scales in twenty-seven rows. Keeled on the back. Nostrils laro-e 
between two large nasals. Loreal small, squarish. Anteocular one, 
large, not quite reaching the vertical. Postoculars two, small, equal. 
Other shields regular, normal. Anal bifid. The hinder frontals are large 
curving over to supplement the small loreal. Upper labials eight, 
regular, subequal, 3rd and 4th enter the orbit. Colour buff, darker on 
back, and a chain of darker oval spots along the side. Length 
42 inches. Belly uniform, spotless. 

C. Nuthalli, Th. 

C. pictus, Garlyle, (mss.) 

_ Scales smooth, in twenty-three rows. Upper labials nine, fifth and 
sixth enter the orbit. Anteocular one, very large, touching the ver- 
tical. Postoculars two, small. Loreal small ; longer than broad. On 

52 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

one side, a small piece is detached from the f^^^SS^^ 
the orbit. Vertical large, with sub-parallel ode* fig*™^^ 

large, almost equalling the vertical rostral, a^ 1 ?^^^ 
Noitril rather small, between two large nasals Lowe ^^74i^' 
two subequal pairs of chin shields forming a suture with se^en labials. 
Seventh lower labial much the largest ^n-mboidal intensely 

Colour reddish grey, with four rows oi elongate, rhomboidai, ^tenseiy 
blal spots each g enciosmg a pale ocellus These spots fade , Rewards 
the hinder part of trunk and on the tail are ^placed b y four deep 
brown bands, two broad dorsal ones and ^o narrow lat ™£°»* 
separated by narrow white bands. An oval black spot Horn eye 
to gape. 

a. young. Birma. Col. Nuthall. 

C. colubrinus, Blyth. 

a. in a bad state for , „ 

description. Darjiling. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

C. (Platyceps) semi-fasciatus, Blyth. 

Scales smooth, in nineteen rows. Anteoculars two, the lower very 
J^££&B* touching the vertical. *«»^££$^ 
Upper labials nine, fifth and sixth enter the orbit Ooamtag i ver| 
la?ge, nearly twice the size of the vertical, ^^^^^^XS 
Vertical with very concave sides. Supercilianes large, pointed in 

f To^urS^ *?*■*■ ^ 

bar of 11 neck brSSng up into Jpots on the body and becoming 
obsolete behind A horse shoe mark with the end directed backw ai els 
on the occip'tals. A pale elongate lateral ocellus on each occipital. 
Belly white. 

a. young specimen. Subathoo. Rev. Cave Brown. 

COMPSOSOMA, Dumeril et Bibron. (sp.) 
C. radiatum, Reinw. 

a. adult and 2 young. Ramri. Capt. Abbott. 

b. adult. 


C. reticulare, Cantor. 
C. Hodgsoni, Grunth. 

C. malabaricus, Jerdon. 

a. adult. South India. P. Jerdon. 

b. young. 

C. Helena. Daud. Ceylon, Madras. 


! of Reptile** 





a. adult. 


b. ditto. 

Port Blair. 

Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

c. young. 


Rev. Cave Brown. 

d. ditto. 


Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

e. adult. 


Mr, Swarries. 


P. Korros, Reinw. 

a. half grown, Ceylon. 

b. Darjiling. 

c. young, (white barred.) Rangoon. 

Dr. Kelaart. 
Oapt. Sherwill. 
Dr. Payrer. 

Labelled "pictus" by .Mi-. Carlyle, but has only 15 rows of scales; tho 
type of "pictus" having 23, (vide page 51.) 

d. two young 
c. adult. 
P. constrictor. 


Dr. Thornhurn. 

South Carolina. Rev. T. Fitzgerald. 


a. half grown. 

ZAMENIS, Wachler. 
Z. ventrimaculatus, Gray. 
Coluber diadema, Blyth, 

? ? 

Sind, Bombay. 
Sind, Dakhan. 

a. adult. 

* Z. diadem a, Schl. 

* Z. gracilis, G-i'mth. 


a. adult. 

b. ditto. 

c. young. 


P. Jerdon. 

South India. 

This specimen was labelled, " Goryphodon pictus," but it is cer- 
tainly Z. fasciolatus. The 5th upper labial has its ascending ramus 
detached to form a supernumerary postocnlar, three in all, but the 
large frontals, very broad, vertical anteriorly, and 21 rows of smooth 
scales sufficiently indicate the species. 

d. adult. 

64 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

In our adult specimens a. and I., the 3rd upper labial is undivided, 
and therefore just enters the orbit with its posterior angle. In the 
young, the anteocular touches the vertical as described by Giinther, 
but does not quite reach it in either of the adult specimens a. b. and d. 

ZAOCYS, Cope. 
Z. carinatus, Giinth. 

a. skin and tail of adult, Darjiling. Major Sherwill. 

b. several ditto. S. E. Himalaya. 


H. Sieboldi, Griinth. Sikim. 

Scales in nineteen rows, feebly keeled on the back. Anal and sub- 
caudals bifid. Eostral broader than high, convex just reaches the 
surface of head. Anterior frontals sub-pentagonal, broadest behind, 
rather more than half as large as the posterior frontals, which are bent 
down at the side. Yertical, superciliaries and occipitals normal, pro- 
portionate. Nostril between two largish nasals. Loreal small, smaller 
than nasal. Anteoculars two, the upper large, but does not touch ver- 
tical. The lower small, wedged in between the third and fourth labials ; 
looks like a detached piece of the third labial. Postoculars two, small, 
the lowest in contact with two temporals. Upper labials eight, the 
fourth and fifth enter the orbit. m 

Chin shields two pair, contiguous, touching six lower labials. First 
lower labials form a suture, second very small, sixth largest. 

Eye large, pupil round, ventrals strongly upturned at the sides, the 
upturned ends being dark coloured. Colour above olive brown. A black 
band down each side of spine from neck to tail, with an interspace of 
five scales between. A second narrower band two scales below the last. 
Belly dusky, throat yellow. 

A' black streak from eye to gape. 

This description is taken from a specimen in the possession of 
Mr. Grote. 

One specimen exists in the museum, as far as I can judge, without 
extracting it from the bottle. It differs from the above and agrees 
with the type in having only one anteocular ; but as in the above speci- 
men the eye is on the 4th and 5th upper labials, whereas the type has 
three upper labials entering the orbit, this is probably an individual 

a. adult. No record. 



T. umbratus, Schl. 

a. three specimens. Bengal, Pinang, Rangoon. 

b. adult & 2 young. Bengal. 

c. Upper Pegu. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 


d ' Upper Pegu. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

€ - Andamans. Col. Tytler. 

/ Sunderbuns. A. C. L. Carlyle, Esq. 

(j. ? style of marking of this species, but can't be removed 
from the bottle, neither is any note attached. 
T. stiuolatus, Blyth. Andamans. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

Scales in nineteen rows. 

Anteocular one, postoculars three or four. Upper labials eight 
llnrd and fourth enter orbit, when four postoculars are present only 
the third enters the orbit; ana! divided. Colour pale olive brown Adark 
patch below the eye, a conspicuous dark leaden stripe from behind 
tne eye over the angle of the mouth all down the side, with a second 
narrower one below it. The lower stripe passes through the upper 
edges of the second row of scales. Beneath white. No ventral dots 
J. lie ventral row of scales white with brown tins 

Body 22.5, tail 12 = 34.5. 

T. subminiatus, Reinw. 
a. several specimens. 

h. several specimens. 
c. (?) large specimen, 
no markings. 
T. stolatus, L. 

a. three specimens. 
h. two ditto. 





No record. 

Mr. Bonncau. 
Capt. Abbot. 
Capt. Berdmore. 
T. Robinson, Esq. 

Calcutta (?) (?) 

Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

c - Calcutta. T. Moseley, Esq. 

d - Near Calcutta. A. C. L. Carlyle, Esq. 


a. many specimens. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 

T. platyceps, Blyth. J. A. S. XXIII. p. 297. 

a. two specimens. Darjiling. Capt. W. T. Sherwill. 

The Assam and Khasia specimens (L c.) are no longer in the 
museum. This is a very aberrant species, with rounded frontals and 
almost smooth scales. It might advantageously in my opinion be 
separated, but I follow Dr. Gunther in retaining it in the genus, as I 
have no good specimens to diagnose. 

T. angusticeps, Blyth. J. A. S. XXIII. p. 295. 

a. adult and young. Ramri. Capt. Abbot. 

T. macrops, Blyth. J. A. S. XXIII. p. 296. 

a. two specimens. Darjiling. Capt. Sherwill. 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 

T. plumbicolor, Cantor. 

Xenodon viridis, Bum. et. Bib 

a. young. 



T. olivaceus, Blyth. 

a. two specimens. 
T. dipsas, Blyth. 

a. specimen in very 
poor state. 

Bundelkand. Dr. Spilsbury. 

N. Carolina. Rev. J. Fitzgerald. 




R. Hancock, Esq. 
E. Blyth, Esq. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

The type specimen of Blyth's description is no longer m the 

T. ? 

a specimen in too poor a state for description. 

Darjiling. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

T. macrophthalmtjs, Giinth. Khasi hills. 
T. Himalayanus, Giinth. Nipal, Sikim. 

Nilghiri hills. 

T. monticola, Jerdon, 
T. Ceylonensis, Giinth 
T. Beddomii, Giinth. 
T. zebrinus, Blyth. 

J. A. S. XXIII. p 

Type specimen presented by Major Berdmorc, no longer in 
the museum. 

T. hydrus, Pall.. 

? ? 


T have no doubt of this identification. . 

ScalIsl9iowg. Eight upper labials, only tbe fourth entering the 
nrhft Superciliary very large. Anteoculars three, postoculars five. 
?^; n rt?fflv^inayiig that the label of this specimen is torn off, 
It ^0^ ViT/ouSas from India by Gunther in his Brit. Mus 
ratSo^ue page 63, but excluded from his Catalogue of Indian reptiles 
?he fra^ent'of a label remaining, seems to show i ^was presented by 
^ler^an « Rev." remaining ; probably the Rev, Cave Brown or the 
Z ^ Lindstedt in which case it is probably an Asiatic specimen. As 
^I\mt an American species, it is unlikely to be our American contn- 
butor Rev. E. Fitzgerald. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 57 

T. Mortoni, Theobald. 

Scales strongly keeled, in nineteen rows. 

,-\£ n t e T U } arS }? ' the J owesfc most minu *e, looks like a fragment 
detached from the second labial. Postoculars three small equfl on 
one side all united into a narrow band, half as broad bnt almoTt equal 
m length to the superciliary. Anterior frontals squarish, trunca^Tn 
front .posterior frontals broader than long. Loreal sma II, Anal bifid 
Upper labials seven, third and fourth enter the orbit Two mir 
arge chin shields. The hinder ones rather larger and longer Colour 
(bleached) pale brown with a darker vertebral .tripe. On the side 

ui^R ° bS ? let ? r ° WS ? f White ( F ell0W ) splash-like or linlniform 
spots those bordering the vertebral stripe being conspicuous an™ 
cateniform, and occupying the upper basal portion Sf the cale A few 
dark spots subordinately intermingled, but which form a sort ot 
the e helT m C Slde ° f the Spine> Belly yell0wish ' No mark * on 

a. type. 

Labelled " Homolopsis" by Mr. Carlyle, but no note of 
donor or locality. 

This species seems to approach nearest to T. tigvlnus, but the 
coloration is entirely different. 

I have much pleasure in naming it after Dr. Morton, Civil Surgeon 
of Port Blair, who has most obligingly forwarded me, on more than 
buS 1011 ' lnterestm S collections from Port Blair and the neigh- 


A. Schistosum, Daud. 

a. many specimens. Lower Bengal. 

h - ^tto. A. C. L. Carlyle, Esq. 

X. cerasog aster, Cantor. 

a ' Lower Bengal. ? 

FOWLEA, Theobald. 

A. Tropidonotus, with smooth scales and the aspect of Hypsirhina. 
F. Peguensis, Theobald. 

Head as in Tropidonotus. Upper labials nine. The fourth and fifth 
enter the orbit. Anteocular one, Postoculars three, Loreal one 
squarish, Nasals two, Frontals two pair, anterior ones small and pointed 
Vertical moderate, Supercilianes and Occipitals large. Anal bifid' 

Kg Catalogue of Reptiles. 

Scales smooth, lozenge-shaped, on neck in seventeen, on body in fifteen 
^Colour of male dark nmber brown, beneath white ; colonrs distinctly 
"^^^^t^^mottW largely with yellow, which colonr 
sometimes predominates. 

a. adult male, (type.) Rangoon. W. Theobald, 

Junr., Esq. 
Captured by E. Fowle, Esq., who is one of the very few 
who have liberally aided me in the study of our Indian 

CADMUS, Theobald. 

TToorl fMr* cuneiform. Form stout, but otherwise much like Tro- 
P S^1 ScZt smooth, in 27 rows. Anal bifid, eye moderate, 
pnpil round. 

C. CTJNBiioRMis, Theobald. 

•Rn^tral laree running well back on the top of the head and encroach- 
ing bttwVen^ne auterior frontals. Nostril between two nasals, 
interior frontals very small. Posterior frontals large. Lorea small, 
trianSrlar with apex between anteocular and posterior frontal An- 
teocufar oAe large P postocular three, upper labial seven, only the fourth 

"SCSng in front, pointed, stout and cuneiform A large 
paSof chfn-shieldsii contact with 5 labials and followed by a small 

^Colour yellowish olive brown. An obsolete band of spots, down the 
back cm each side of spine, and lower on the side a strongly defined 
i^A nf black snots many of them like a hollow horseshoe four sea es 
1 £ d P usky wbL, with an elongate streaky spot at the side 
between each 4th and 5th ventral. 

a. type. Simla. Purchased. 

This very curious snake partakes of the characters of Tropidonotus 
and Hypsirhina even more than Pegua does. 

TOMODON, Dumeril et Bibron. 

T. STRiaATUS, Dura, et Bib. 

a. specimen injured. Calcutta. Mr. C. Swaries. 

Tbiq specimen is so crushed that I cannot make out its head shields, 
b J it awe^s to be identical with a single specimen obtained by 
Jlf Sma It is not included in Gunther's Indian Eeptiles, but 
^ecordeeffrmn India in the Brit. Mus. Cat. Colubrine Snakes, p. 52. 

Perhaps Hypsirhina plumbea, 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 




Somali country. Lt. Speke. 

P. condanarus, Merrcm. 



Dipsas ferruginea, Cantor. 

a. five adults. 

b. two adults. Assam. 

c. many specimens. Birma. 

Robinson, Esq. 




Herpetodryas prasinus, Blyth. 

a. five adults. 


Capt. Hodge. 

b. ditto. 


W. Theobald, Jr., Esq 

c. ditto. 


Major Berdmore. 

d. smaller. 


Robinson, Esq. 

e. young. 


Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

G. gramineum,Gunth.,Khasi bills. 

G. fraenatum, Gray. Ditto. 

D. pictus, Gmel. 


a. adult. 

b. two ditto. 

c. two ditto. 

d. two ditto. 

e. three ditto. 
/. two ditto. 
g. large adult. 








Capt. Abbot. 
Capt. Hodge. 
Major Berdmore. 
Major Jenkins. 
Rev. E. Lindstedt. 
Col. Tytler. 
E. Blyth, Esq. 

60 Catalogue of Reptiles. 


C. ornata, Shaw. 

a. four specimens. 

b. two ditto. Malacca Rev. E. Lindstedt. 

c. three ditto. 

d. Fine adult. Shuegheen. Major Berdmore. 
This specimen was captured devouring a Ptychozoon. 

e. young, black banded. 



T. Perroteti, Dum. et Bib. 

Leptophis Canariensis, Jerdon. J. As. Soc. Bengal, XXII. 

p. 550. 
a. adult. Ootakamund. W. Theobald, Jr., Esq. 

TRAGOPS, Waoler 




a. adult. 




b. ditto. 




c. ditto. 


F. Skipwith, Esq. 

T. dispar, Gunth. Anamallies. 

T. fronticinctus, Gunth. Pegu. (Captured there by me.) 



a. adult. Lower Bengal. 

b. ditto, bad state ; Calcutta, 
has swallowed 

a Calotes versicolor. 

c. ditto. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 



a. adult. 

b. ditto. 

c. ditto. 



DIPSAS, (Auct.) 

Tliaiel tmio. 


E. Lindstedtj Esq. 
W. Theobald, Jr., Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

Rev. Cave Brown. 
Frith, Esq. 

D. Forsteni, Dum. et Bib. 

a. Huge adult. Bengal. 

Labelled, " D. trigonata, Lower Bengal'' but no other re- 
cord of this scarce species. Beddom has got it on the 

b. adult (bleached), no record. 


D. bubalina, Klein f 

I am not convinced of the identity of these two species, which Giin- 

frZiT *' a \i? ai ? SGe i *° " a P ical g roo ^s" to the scales in our 
specimen and the loreal is not higher than long as on D. bubalina, 
The coloration of the under parts too is different. 


a. adult. Hongkong. a. Bowring, Esq. 

b. two ditto. 

,P^Iif Peci < ? ienSOf t] ?% Snak , e from Bima > where itis common, 
seem to have disappeared from the museum. 


a. young. Subathoo. 

Perhaps a young, D. trigonata. 
D. hexagonotus, Blyth. 

a. many young. Andamans. 

Rev. Cave Brown. 

Capt. Hodge and Col. 

The type specimen is no longer in the museum, and these voun ff 
specimens are unsatisfactory data for specific identification. 

g2 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

D. boops, Giinth. Bengal, Borneo. 

D. dendrophila, Beinw. Pinang. 
D. bubalina, Klein. 

D. Gokool, Gray. Bengal, Pinang. 

D. Ceylonensis, Giinth. Ceylon. 
The island representative of D. trigonata. 




a. four specimens. Calcutta. 
6. three ditto young. Andamans. 

c. five ditto. 

d. adult. 
6. two. 
/. young. 
g. ditto. 


South India, 

h. adult, from the Andamans. 
i. white barred var. 

L. striatus, Shaw. Anamallies. 

L. Anamallensis,Gunth. Anamallies. 

T. eitrene, Cantor. Pinang. 


L. jara, Shaw. 

a. many specimens. " India generally." 

OPHITES, Wagler. 
0. subcinctxjs, Boie. Pinang. 

No anteocular. 
0. albofuscus, Bum. et Bib. Malabar? Sumatra. 

One anteocular. 

E. Blyth, Esq. 
Capt. Hodge and Col. 

Major Berdmore. 
Bev. F. Mason. 

Dr. Jerdon. 
Br. Kelaart. 
Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 63 

C. carinata, Kulil. Ceylon. 


AMBLYCEPHALUS, Kuiil. (sp.) 
A. Boa, Kuhl ? Pinang. 

P AREAS, Wagler. 

P. Bcrdmorei, Theobald. 

Aplopeltura boa. Schl, apud Bhjtli. The adult. 
Pareas macidarius, BJtjlh. The young. 

This is a very singular snake. The young is totally unlike the 
adult, and has been described by Blyth, and referred to another genus, 
and the adult erroneously referred to ApX&peltwra (Ambtycephahtsj 
The snake, however, is not Ambtycephahis, as it has divided sub-caudals, 
but one loreal, and 15 rows of scales, and as it clearly tends to unite 
the two genera ; is a distinct species, which, to prevent confusion of 
synonyms, I have given a fresh name to. It approaches Ambtyce- 
phalus in the eye being separated from the upper labials, and in the form 
of the head which, however, is only characteristic of the adult. 

Adult. Body strongly compressed, scales smooth, in fifteen rows or 
faintly keeled on the back. Head high quadrate, blunt, pug-nosed, 
Eye large, Pupil vertical. Rostral high, not reaching the surface of 
head, deeply excavated below. Nasal large single, high, with nostril 
pierced behind, upper labials 6 or 7, anterior ones high narrow. Eye 
surrounded beneath with 5, 6, or 7 small shields, excluding the labials 
from orbit. Loreal one, rather small. Frontals subequal, anterior 
smallest. Superciliaries large, as large as posterior frontal fully. Vertical 
and Occipitals normal, nearly equal in size. Lower Labials 8, very 
narrow, 3 pair large transverse gular shields. The 1st forms a suture 
with the 4 front labials. Anal entire, Sub-caudals divided. 

In the young. (Pareas macular! us, Blyth.) The shields of the head 
are rather irregular. The anterior frontals are very small. In one 
the vertical is an equilateral rhomboid from the straightening of the 
sides. The posterior Frontal enters the orbit in some. The Super- 
ciliary is large and enters a notch between the Vertical and Occipitals. 
Occipitals extremely large. Seventh upper labial very long. The 
labials and additional oculars and peculiar gular shields as in the adult. 
Anal entire ; sub-caudals divided. 

a. two adults. Tenasserim. Major Berdmore. 

Color uniform ochraceous, with obsolete traces of vertical bands 
down the body. Two converging dark lines on the nape, and traces of 
a white collar in one specimen. Belly white. 

Body 195, tail 4.5 = 24.0 inches, 

64 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

b. three young. Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

Body rich reddish brown, with somewhat reticulate bars formed by 
some of the scales being parti-colored, white in front, and deep claret 
color behind, giving a half banded, half spotted appearance to the 
snake. A conspicuous white collar on the nape, mottled with claret red. 
Belly brown, spotted and mottled. 

P. modestus, Theobald. 
Head rather thick. Anterior frontals small, broader than long. 
Posterior frontals large, bent over the side and entering the orbit. 
Superciliaries small. Loreal moderate. Anteoculars two, very small. 
Postocular one, very small, with a band like sub-ocular, which excludes 
the labials from the orbit. Scales smooth, iu fifteen rows. The verte- 
bral series not enlarged, but the four vertebral rows faintly keeled. 
Anal entire ; sub-caudals bifid. Upper Labials seven, 4th and 5th high, 
under the orbit, but separated by a sub-ocular, 6th low, 7th very long 
with two elongate temporals above it. Three pair of large transverse 
gular shields. Above, uniform brown, below pale yellowish. 

a. type specimen. Rangoon. Col. Nuthall. 


XENOPELTIS, Reinwardt. 
X. unicolor, Rein. 

a. three specimens. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 

b. two ditto. India House. 

c. one ditto. Trichinopoli. H. F. Blanford, Esq. 

d. two ditto. Andamans. Col. Tytler. 

A powerful and ferocious snake ; when alive, its color above is a deep 
blue, with metallic iridescence. 


PYTHON, Daudin. 


a. young. Nicobars. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

b. ditto. 

c. ditto. Mergui. Major Berdmore. 

d. ditto. 

e . ditto. Malacca. Rev. W. E. Lindstedt. 
/. stuffed specimen. 

g. h. i. three do. poor state. 


a. young. 

( \dalogue >-,/ Reptiles. (35 

b. ditto smaller. 
c (?) stuffed. 

BOA, Gray. 


a - E. Blyth, Esq. 

*' E. Blyth, Esq. 

G. contcus, Schneid. 

a. four specimens. Upper India. 
BRYX, Daudin. 

E. JoiINII, Russell. 

a. three specimens. Pind Dddun Khan! W. Theobald, Jr. 
h. yonng, pale co- gs | 

Lored with dark 

bands over the 


A. Javanicus, Ilornst. Pinang, &c. 


C. GRANULATUS, Selllieid. 

«• adult. Hidgilli. H. L. Haughton, Esq. 


CERBERUS, Cuvier. 
C. riiynciiops, Schneid. 

ct adult. Andaman*. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

h. two smaller. Ditto. Capt. Hodge and 

Col. Tytler. 

c. two ditto. Lower Bengal. 

d. three ditto. Ditto. 

e. large adult. Ditto. 
/. smaller. Ditto. 

g. ditto. Moulmein. Dr. F. Mason. 

($ Catalogue of Reptiles. 



Pythonella semizonata, Blyih. 
a. type of Pythonella. Martaban. Major Berdmore. 

Labelled in Mr. Blyth's writing Pythonella, not Pytlwnia as printed, 
and qnoted by Giinther. 

HERPETON, Lacepede. 
H. tentaculatum, Lacep. 

TYTLEBIA, Theobald. 

Aspect of HypsirUna scales, smooth, in seventeen rows. Nostral 
lateral, almost dividing a smallish oblong nasal ;fr^ 8 W = S 
upper labials enter the orbit. Loreal elongate : anal and sub-caudais 
bifid : eye small ; pupil vertical. 

T. hypsirhinoides, Theobald. 

Habit moderate, aspect of the Enhydrinse. Head shield normal. An- 
terior frontals slightly pentagonal, half as large as Pf^'rJJ;™ 1 
a trifle less than loreal. Ante-ocular one, reaching to the vertical. 
Postoculars two, small. Vertical straight in front, sides rapidly con- 
verging behind. Supercilianes moderate broad behind. Occiprtals 
moderate. Upper labials nine, 3rd, 4th and 5th enter the orbit. Two 
pairs of chin shields touching one another. Sixth lower labial largest, 
touches the middle of second chin shield. . 

Color uniform reddish brown above. Belly yellowish white, length 
21.00, tail injured 1.00 = 22.00 inches. 

a. type specimen. Andamans. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

H. enhydrts, Schneid. 
a. Adult and young. 
h. Young. Calcutta. Mr. C. Swaries. 

A variable species as to form and coloration, and consequently much 
burdened with synonyms, being indebted to Dr. Gray for three of them, 
Ulineata, trilineata ak&jwrcata, according to Giinther. It is a common 
species, with scales in twenty rows. 

H. pltjmbea, Boie. 
a. many specimens. 

Nearly related to the last, but with a stouter head, and scales in only 
nineteen rows. 

H. chinensis, Gray. 
a. small specimen. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 67 



a. fine adult. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 


Homalopsis parsieips, Blytli. 
a. line adult. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 

F. unicolor, Gray. Pinang. 

CANTORIA, Girard. 

C. ELONGATA, Guard. 


F. SlEBOLDII, Sclll. 

a. adult. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 


II. iiydrinus, Cantor. 

ct. Rangoon. Dr. Fayrer 

GERARD A, Gray. 
G. ihuolor, Gray, Basse in river. 



E. bengalensis, Gray. 
Valakadyen, Gray. 
Hydras schistosus y Cantor. 

a. adult, foetal young. Sandheads. 

b. adult, black spotted. Hidgelli. II. L. Hangliton, Esq. 

c. 4 adult, 1 young, 2 foeti. 

flg Catalogue of ReptiUs. 

HYDROPHIS, Datjdin. (sp.) 

H. Gracilis, Shaw. 

a. adult. Sandheads. W. Earl, Esq. 

b. younger. Sandheads. 

c. very young. 

upright bars of the yellow ground color between them. 

H. Jerdonii, Gray. 

Hydras Cantorii, Jerdon, Mus. label. 
Hydrus nigroeinctus, Cantor. 

a. fine specimen. Mergui. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 

H. nigrocincta, Daud. 
a. young. 
The black bands are more symmetrical than on the type, isolating 
the mle ground color into ellipsoid bands, which arc wider than m the 
typrcovcring eight scales in the middle or broadest part. On one 
Jde of our Bp & ecim & en, there are two, on the other only one postocular. 

H. curt a. Shaw. 

a. small specimen. 
This does not quite agree with the description, as there are four 
cross bands, but the dedded yellow temporal streak is a sufhcient 
character to recognize the species by. 

H. cyanocincta, Daud. 
Hydrus striatus, Cantor. 

a. adult. China. C. J. Bo wring, Esq. 

l' m young. Hidgilli. H. L. Haughton, Esq. 

c. very young. 
a. has the tail very round and thick, as Giinther says is the case with 

^The^small specimen c. is remarkable for the narrowness of the bands 
which are narrower than the pale interspaces. It exhibits also the trans- 
verse frontal streak which becomes obsolete with age. 

H. robusta, Fischer. 

a. fine adult. Hidgilli. H. L. Haughton, Esq. 

I think this must be a variety of H. robusta, though the scales 
are small and I can find no central tubercle. Scales on neck in 27 rows. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. (><) 

Eye very email over 3rd and 4th labials. Snpcrciliaries very lar-c 
Six upper labials, 1st small, the rest large, subequal, reguS & 

Color greemsh-olivc above, yellow, below with narrow distant black 
toss bars, formed on the belly of only single black scales ; chin shields 
two pairs, approximate : 4th and 5th lower labials large. 

H. coronata, Giinther. 

H. obscwra, Dumeril, Mus. label. 

a - atlult - HidgiUi. II. L. Hanghton, Esq. 

This specimen was labelled IT. ob8<mra,but accords minutely with 

bruntner s description ol 11. coronata. 


//. ohscura, Da ad. Mut. label. Hidgilli. II. L. Hanghton, Esq. 

A Tariety probably of (his species, though not quite corresponding 
with (» anther a description. ° 

Scales i,i, Deck in 36 rows; on body in t5, with an indistinct central 
tubercular kee : one anteocular, one postocular : 3rd upper labial does not 
to.. eh uasal; 3rd and tth enter the orbit; one large anterior temporal 
two small posterior ones, alongside of the occipital. Ventrals entire 
broader than adjoining scales, very obsenrely three-keeled. No enlarged 
praaanals. Above blackish olive, below yellowish, feintly dark handed- 
markings blended and obscure. 

H. ciiloris, Daud. 

ff. gracilis, Shaw apud Blyth. 
H. Lindsay!) Gray (/) 

a - Akyab. — Dunn, Esq. 

&. Sandheads. 

These specimens accord very well with H. chloris as described by 
Gun her, saye that the rostral is quite as high as broad. StS 
single character, they resemble H. Llnds,,,,!, Gray? which must, therefore 
be held to be very doubtfully distinct from the present spec! the 
£& ^i*^ seemrng to be insufficient for specific separation! 
such as coloration and the number of ventral shields, which perse when 
weighed against the strict agreement of all the other characters, are 
comparatively unimportant. 

H. Guntiieri, Theobald. 

Scales on neck in 43 rows, on middle of body in 51, strongly keeled, 
subequal. Ventrals undivided, bi- tubercular : one ante-ocular, one 
postocular. Upper labials six; 2nd very large, 3rd and 4th enter the orbit; 
oth low, wedged between two temporals. A large upper temporal in 

ijq Catalogue of Reptiles. 

contact with the postocular, the occipital two lower temporals and 
three small temporal scales behind. Shields of head as a Hydrophis 
pustular. Each labial smooth in front, pustular behind. A small pair of 
rounded chin shields separated by a groove. . , 

Color yellow, with dark lozenge bars on the back, becoming obsolete 
onthesiL. Belly uniformly yellow. Tail dark with yellow stripes. 

The specimen was jumbled among a lot of E.ihydrmce, probably 
from the Sandheads. -. T , 

Its nearest ally is H. Stolcesn, but it seems a new species and I have, 
therefore, separated it under the name ^ the distinguished Herpetolo- 
gist to whom Indian Naturalists are so deeply indebted for his labors, 
more especially in this confused Family. 

H. trachyceps, Theobald. 

Head conical, pointed or subtriangular, hardly longer than broad. 
Body moderate, throat not slender. One ante-ocular, one PO^ocular : 
occipitals not broken up, entire. Six upper labials, the two last having 
twosmall plates belowthem; 1st upper labial very «™f'>?£*™$£tiiL 
3rd enters the orbit with its posterior angle; 4th under the orbit with a 
lower ^ supernumerary plate wedged in behind it, and above it and he 
5th! 5th touches postocular ; 6th just touches postocular and joins the 
temporal. Two pairs of chin-plates approximate irregularly ^omboidal 
Five P lower labials, with a row above of marginal scales. Yentrals small 
but distinct, smooth. Scales smooth on neck, m 32 rows Color greenish 
yellow. Back barred with 63 dark lozenges combined mfamt bars 
across the belly, on the anterior two-thirds of the body. Length 
35 inches. 

a. Female and foetus. Mergui. W. Theobald, Jr. 

This specimen was labelled II. nicjvocinda, Daud. with which it has 
no affinity. Its thick neck, remarkably conic head and ventral plates 
distin o-uish it from any snake described by Gimther. 

"Bay of Bengal" is the only note attached to it, but I think I recog- 
nize it as one of many (and almost the only one remaining) Presented 
by me from Mergui, where great numbers are daily captured in tlie 
fishing stakes. 

H. viperina, Schmidt. 

a. young. Eangoon. Col. Nuthall. 

This specimen is in a bad shrivelled state, and is but doubtfully 
referred to this species. The broad nasals posteriorly, broad anterior 
ventral and coloration seem to agree with the type. 

PELAMIS, Daudin (sp.) 

P. bicolor, Schneid. 

a. fine adult. Nicobars. M. Busch. 

(var y sinuata.) 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 71 

PLATUBUS, Latreille. 
P. scutatus, Laur. 

* adult - Ramri. Capt. Abbott. 

b. young. Pinang. Capt. Lewis. 

P. Fischeri, Jan. Bay of Bengal. 


H. elaps, Schl. 

H. vittatus, Elliott. 

H. ophiophaguSj Cantor. 

a. fine adult, J. A.S. XXVIII. 411. Port Blair Lt.-Col- 

h - y°""g. Andamans. Capt. Eales. 

c. head of adult 
(same bottle as h). 

NAJA, Laurenti. 


N. lutescens, Laur. 
N. atrctj Cantor. 
N. Jcaouthia, Less. 
N. sputatrix, Rein. 
N. larva ta, Cantor. 

a. adult no spec- Probably from Pegu. 


b. adult. Probably from Pegu. 

Head pale. Body above brown and black mottled. Belly black 
Inroat yellow (?) then a scale of 5 black scuta, followed by a band of 
5 yellow ones. Two black gular spots just in front of head. No spec- 
tacles but an oval black spot in the centre of a pale oval area. Fore 
part ol body dark and pale banded. This fine specimen has suffered by 
being mercilessly rammed into too small a bottle. 

c. adult (bleached.) 

Neck finely displayed with large spectacles. 

d. half grown from Pegu, I believe, from its oval mark. 

72 Catalogue of Reptiles, 

e ] ia |f # Bengal probably. Spectacles distinct. 

f. ditto two specimens, ditto. 

g. ditto. 

h. ditto 3 specimens, from Pegu probably. 

A large central and two small lateral dark spots in a pale 
oval area. 
i. ditto two specimens (bleached), from Pegu probably. 

No spectacles, oval mark only with dark centre. 
j. ditto swallowing a Bufo melanostictus. 
h. ditto, 3 specimens from Pegu probably. 
L ditt0 Mergui. Major Berdmore. 

m . d i t to ditto. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr 

n. young. Bengal (?) 

Spectacles displayed, 
o. ditto ditto, 
p. ditto, 4 specimens, all from Pegu probably. 

q. ditto two-headed monster Nawab of Dacca. 

r. head of cobra distended ; no spectacles or other mark. 

Most of the specimens in the collection belong to the variety which 
occurs on the east side of the Bay, without spectacles but with merely 
a pale black central oval mark on the neck. The ordinary spectacled 
varietv I have never ousted in Pegu or Tenassenm. 

The commonest color of the cobra is a uniform brown rather ^dark 
but I have seen many living ones in Bengal, almost pale yellow or 
yellowish stone color. From this pale tint, the color passes through the 
£ur varieties to uniform black The pale varieties are gkd ^W 
« Gorhmon " and the black is known by the name of Kaoutkia, witii 
the epithet black often affixed. It is the largest and most dreaded 
varietv but I don't think its color is the result of age, as I have seen 
folly Idult cobras of a pale yellowish color, though rarely. The Pegu 
variety is dark, with the oval mark very constant, and never exhibits 

^^^^^^SS^gdl^. ^ has never been observed by 
Mi Hod-son in the valley of Nepal." This is very easily accounted 
for' since few could venture to kill a cobra, even for scientific ends, m 
the ri-oronsly Hindu Kote of Nepal. In British India, decent Hindoos 
will n & ot kill I cobra ; and if one has taken up his abode m a house he 
Z either permitted to remain, or else carefully inveigled into an earthen 
pot which is then closed and carried off for miles, before it is opened 
Lfd the sacred reptile within respectfully allowed to regain his ktorig 
I have myself witnessed this deferential deportation oi the cobra m 
Bengal- but of course none but the orthodox Hindoo is so careful to 
abs4n from injuring the animal, and their reverential feeling is now 
perhaps rXer tie exception than the rule, though probably as strong 
as ever in Nepal. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 73 

BUNGARUS, Daudin. 
B. ceruleus, Schneid. 

«• adult. Calcutta. Prince Jellalooddeen. 

b. ditto. Pegu. 

c ditto. Darjeeling. Capt. Sherwill. 

d. smaller. Lt. R. C. Beavan. 

e. ditto (finely marked). Rangoon. Col. Nuthall. 
/ two young (discolored). 

g. three specimens. 

h. young. Cape of Good Col. Tytler. 

Hope ! ! 
This habitat must, I think, be erroneously given. 
B. fasciatus, Schneid. 
a. adult. 
h. ditto smaller. 

c. ditto ditto. 

d. ditto. 

e. small specimen swallowing another snake. (Tropidonotus). 

Not a single donor or locality is assigned to any of these specimens 
of B. fasciatus, whilst, oddly enough, nearly every specimen of B. cceru- 
leus is carefully labelled. 

B. Ceylonicus, Gunth. Ceylon. 

X. bungaroides, Cantor. Cherrapunji. 

M. FLAViCErs, Reinh. 

a. adult injured. Mergui. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 

ELAPS, Schneider. 
E. MacLellandii, Rein. 
E. personahes, Blyth. 

a. adult. Assam ? W. Robinson, Esq. 

b. 3 younger. Pegu (?) Major Berd more. 

I cannot distinguish the Pegu and Assam specimens, as all are 
rammed into one bottle. 

74 Catalogue of Reptiles. 

E. melanurus, Cantor. 
E. maculiceps, Gunth. 
a. 3 specimens. Rangoon. Dr. Fayrer. 

Moulmein. E. Blytli, Esq. 

h. young (bleached.) Amherst. E. 0. Keiey, Esq. 


a. adult with young 

(bleached). Singapore. * Brigadr. Frith. 

E. hygi^;, Schl. 

South Africa. Dr. Withecombe. 



TMMERESURUS, Lacepede (sp.). 

T. carinatus, G-ray. 

T. porphyraceus, Bhjth. 
T. bicolor, Gray. 
T. purpureus, Gray. 
T. purpureo-maculatus, Gray. 
T. puniceus, Gray. 
T. Cantori, Blytli. 

a. adult. Lower Bengal. 

Ordinary type one azygos shield between the supranasals. Green 
with pale side stripe ; 23 rows of scale. 

I. adult. Andamans. 

IHne and large. Scales of head not very strongly keeled. One azygos 
shield between the supranasals ; scales in 23 rows ; color brownish green, 
no side stripe or mottling. 

c. smaller. Andamans. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

Like the last, but the brown color predominating, belly greenish 
white brown, blotched. (In bad state.) 

d. adult like b. in bad state. Fang, 0.70 long. 

e. two specimens. Lower Bengal. 
The larger has 25 -rows of scales. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 75 

/. 2 specimens like c. 

only smaller. Andamans. Lt.-Col. Tytler. 

(j. small, adult. Nicobars. 

This is the type of T. Canton, Blyth. 

It is in a very bad state but would seem to be like b. in coloration: 
throat is scarcely mottled greenish brown; belly unmottled. Scales 
in 27 rows. 

It is no doubt also the T. puniceus, purpmeua and purpureo-maca- 
latus (!) of Dr. Gray. 

i All the above species and varieties seem connected by certain per- 
mt characters. Supranasals separated by an azygos shield. .Second 
upper labial margining the praBorbital pit in front. Scales well keeled 
mi 23 to 27 rows. Coloration in the genus is not of mnch value, as it is 
a variable character, especially after lone immersion in spirits, yei it 
seems to have been mnch relied on, to judge by the epithets fastened 
on to the species by very eminent Naturalists* 

T. gramixeus, Shaw. 

a. many specimens. Sylhet, Birma, Malacca. 

_ On the authority of these assigned localities, I retain this as a dis- 
tinct species, otherwise, were it confined to Bengal, I should hardly 
venture to do so. The sweond labial touches the prajorbital pit in front, 
One azygos shield (sometimes divided) separates the supranasals. Scales 
ol the body not stronglv k< eled, in from 19 to 21 rows. Form slender 
and tail tongish, compared with T. wrmatus, and scales much less keeled. 
Were the species more local, the feeble carination of the scales and 
slender form would only, I think, weigh sufficiently to constitute a 
race, but as the distribution seems almost co-extensive with the stouter 
J. ccmnatm, the above characters have greater weight and constitute a 
specific distinction. I myself have never remarked it in Pegu, where 
T. can mi /ns would seem to replace it to a great extent. 


a. fine adult. Colombo. Dr. Kelaart. 

T. erythrurus, Cantor. (?) 

Supranasals contiguous. Second upper labial forms front margin 
of praaorbital pit. Scales keeled, in twenty-three rows. Supranasals 

a. small adult. No record. 

This seems to be uniform brownish green without markings. It 
differs from the type in having 23 and not 21 rows of scales. It is 
very possibly a variety of T. carmatus with the azygos shield on the 
snout suppressed. Perhaps T. anamallensis, Gunth. 

T. Andersoni, Theobald. 

Second upper labial forms, the anterior margin of praBorbital pit: 
supranasals separated by an azygos shield. Scales keeled, in 25 rows. 

Color above and below uniform rich brown. Belly and sides con- 
spicuously white spotted. 

75 ' Catalogue of Reptiles, 

a. Type. No record. 

I have designated this beautiful species after Dr. Anderson, our pre- 
sent hard w orking and zealous officiating Curator. 

T. monticola, Giinth. 

Parias maculata, Gray. 

Farias neligrensis, Jerdon apud Blyth. 

a. adult and young. Darjeeling. W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

Second upper labial forms part of praeorbital pit A very minute 
azygos scale P between the supraiiasals. Scales faintly keeled m 23 rows. 
Superciliaries very large. Pale brown with a vertebral row of laige, 
sq~rk brown blotches. Along the sides a row of small, dark 
spots. Belly dark, mottled. A pale temple streak. 

a. young, (var ?) Back barred, alternate dark and light brown : 
scales in 25 rows. No record. 
T. strigoltjs, Gray. 

T. Neelgherriensis, Jerdon J. A. S. XXII. 524. 

Parias maculata, Gray apud Blyth, Mus. label. 

a. young. Nilghirris. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 

The shield before the praorbital pit is divided from the second upper 
labial. Two scale-like supranasals in contact. On each side a smaller 
scale, and behind two large scales, separated by an azygos scale, the 
same size as a supernasal. Scales well keeled in 21 rows. 

Color biown with a line of darker vertebral spots, with smaller ones 
below. Many scuta dark tipped. 

This is a common species about Ootakamund. 

T. Wagleri, Schl. 

Tr. maculatus, Gray. 

Tr. formosus, Gray, not Mull, and Schl. 

Trig Sumatranus, Cantor. 

Tr. subannulatus, Gray. 

Tropidolcemus, Schlegeli, Bleeher. 

a. fine adult. Singapore. Brigadr. Frith. 

Scale before prgeorbital pit separated from second upper labial Scales 
strongly keeled in 23 to 25 rows. Scales of head very strongly keeled, 
very Imbricate. Supranasals contiguous, ridged, over-impending. 
Coloration and pattern handsome, vivid, variable, black, yellow and 
green banded and spotted. 

T. obscurus, Theobald. 

a. young. No record. 

Shield in front of the pra3orbital pit separated from the second upper 
labial. An azygos shield separates the supernasals. Scales keeled m 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 77 

25 rows. Back uniform brown, sides green, spotted and mottled. 
-Belly greenish white, brown barred and spotted ; superciliaries well 

T. Anamallensis, Giinth. Anamallies. 
T. mucrosquamatus, Cantor. Assam. 

PELTOPELOR, Guntiier. 
P. macrolepis, Beddome. Anamallies. 

C. riiodostoma, Reinw. Siam. 

HALYS, Gray. 
H. Himalayanus, Giinth. Garhwul. 
H. Elliotti, Jerdon. NilgMrrie. 

HYPNALE, Fitzinger. 
H. nepa, Laur. Ceylon. Anamallies. 

CENCHRIS, Daudin. 


a. fine specimen. North Carolina. Rev. F. P. Fitzgerald. 

1 T iH S s P T e , ci P en » felled " contortrUr but the scales of the head are 
keeled. It is pale brown with large squarish, dark brown blotches 
down each side, but not united along the vertebral line. Perhaps 
V. piscLVuras. ? 

b. fine adult. Do. (?) Do. (?) 

This specimen, which is a large one, has the scales of the head keeled 
but not strongly, and those behind the eye large and smooth. 

c. young. 

b. and c. are both probably the variety named C. atrofuscm, Troost. 


DABOIA, Gray. 
D. Russellii, Shaw. 

a. adult. 

b. do. 

c. do. (bleached). 

d. do. (fine). Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

78 Catalogue of Beptiles. 

e. half grown. 

/. do. 

g. do. 

h. young. 

i. adult and young. 

ECHIS, Merrem. (sp.) 

E. carinata, Schneid. 

a. large adult and two young. Salt Range. W. Theobald 

Junior, Esq, 

fc, young. Upper India. India House. 


V. ammodytes, Latr. 

a. adult and young. Europe. Hungarian Museum. 

Nose armed with a horn covered with scales. 



a. fine adult. 

b. smaller. Chesshire. E. Blyth, Esq, 

c. several specimens. England. Messrs. Hancock and 


d. adult. Norway. 

e. three specimens. Europe. Hungarian Museum. 



A. aglossa. I. Haplosiphona. 

II. Diplosiphona. 
(No Indian members.) 

B. Opisthoglossa. I. Oxydactyla. 


0. Lima, Tsch. Bengal. Siam, 


Catalogue of Reptiles. 

RANA, Auctorum. 
R. tigrina, Baud. 
R. brama, Less. 
R. vittigera, Weigm. 
R. rugulosa, Weigm. 

a. adult male. South India. 

b. adult female and young. Calcutta. 
c adult stuffed. 

d. young (?). Ceylon< 

crassa, Jerdon. 

a. adult and young. 

b. ditto. 


South India. 

Dr. Jerdon. 

Dr. Kelaart. 

Dr. Kelaart. 
Dr. Kelaart. 
Dr. Jerdon. 

tigrina. It differs, however, in 

spec,mens are in a poor state, and those "f ? the S^eS 

afcx^Sof their botties tL ™ ZT ™ 

R. fusca, Blyth. 

a. fine adult. p egu . Major Berdmore. 

b. adult. Pe gll . Major Berdmore. 

c several specimens. Tenasserim W. Theobald, Esq., Jnr. 
d. tadpoles. Pegu. Major Berdmore. ' 

This species attains to nearly the size of R tiarma W tu ™i 

B. bengalensis, Gray (Blyth.) 

a. many specimens. India generally. 

b. ditto. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

c. one ditto. Peg a . Major Berdmore. 

Above greyish brown, motfleiX™ WathwW' Xfn ^T^' 
lately^arhed. N o eanthus rostralis , nos^w^hl^te^or pap^ 

B. esctjlenta, L. France . j. Malherbe, Esq. 


b. large adult. Europe. Hungarian Museum. 

gQ Catalogue of Reptiles, 

R. temporaria, L. England. Hancock, Esq. 

R. cutipora, Dum. et Bib (Blyth.) 
B. hexadactyla, Less. 

a. adult, Soutli India. Dr. Jerdon. 

b. ditto and young. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 
R. vittigera, Weigm. 

B. assimilis, Blyth. Kelaart Prod. Faun. Zeyl. 

B. agricola, Jerdon. J. A. S. XXII. 532 

B. altilabris, Blyth. Ditto. XXIV. 220 

a. many specimens. India. Birma. 

b. ditto. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 

c. young. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

d. tadpoles. 

R. kuhlii, Schl. Ceylon. 

B. cyanophlyctis, Schneid. Ceylon. 

B. Liebigi, Griinth. Sikim. 

B. gracilis, Weigm. Himalayas, Madras. 

B. Malabarica, Jerdon, J. A. Malabar. S. XXII. 

B. flavescens, Jerdon, Forests of the Peninsula. 

B. curtipes, Jerdon, J. A. S. XXII. Forests of the Peninsula. 

B. Nilagirica, Jerdon. J. A. S XXII. Wynaad and Nilghiries. 

There are no reptiles in India in such a confused state as the 
Banidce, and I can add but little towards disentangling the shadowy 
species, real enough perhaps, but not as yet characterised, ihe seiies 
in the Museum is a very poor one, and the Banidcs from a 1 parts oi 
India must be assiduously collected, before sound results can be 
obtained. Let us hope that an urgent appeal for frogs trom an 
quarters of India will be liberally responded to by local naturalist* 
and collectors, without which aid the subject must long remain in its 
present unsatisfactory state. Each contributor should not sentt 
merely the most conspicuous frogs from his neighbourhood, but ail 
the species and varieties he can procure. 

R. pipiens, Harl. 

a. tadpoles (?) North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald 


H. ceylanicus, Peters. Ceylon. 

PYXICEPHALUS, Tschudi, (sp). 

P. breviceps, Schneid. 

Spluzrotheca strigata, Qunth. Bat. Sal. 20. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 81 

Tomopterna strigata, Gunth. Bat. Sal. 20. PL 2, fig. A. 
Tomnopterna Delalandii, Tacit. Gunth. Bat. Sal. 129. 
P. fodiens, Jerdon, teste Giinther sed ? 
P. pluvialis, Jerdon, Cat. Tud. Hep. 411. 

This species Las undergone many vicissitudes at the hands of Dr. 
G anther, being at one time located in India then referred to the Cape, and 
finally recalled to its proper quarters in the East. On what grounds 
\)v. Gunther so hastily ignored the testimony of Dr. Jerdon as to the 
Indian origin of the species, it is hard to say ; the more so, as Dr. Jerdon 
had furnished many specimens from the Madras Presidency, where he 
was not only resident, but engaged in scientific pursuits, and his 
testimony therefore might, it would be supposed, have been allowed 
great weight in such a question. Dr. Giinther tells us, (it is true) "that 
he found this species in the collection of Sir A. Smith," and adds, " it 
was evident that the specimens presented by Mr. Jerdon to the British 
Museum were not procured in the East Indies as indicated by bhat 
gentleman !" In other words, Dr. Jerdon, as an Indian naturalist, had 
no claims to be believed on a niaUcr-ol'-lact coming within his personal, 
cognisance. When, however, preparing his Catalogue of Indian Reptiles, 
Dr. Gunther seems to have discovered from the Brothers Schlagin- 
tweit that the Indian naturalist who collected the specimens was oddly 
enough right as to where they came from, and that the English savant, 
who merely received them and decided ex-cathedra, was wrong. The 
specimens arc therefore re-transferred not only to the habitat, but 
also to the genus in which the Indian naturalist has placed them ! ! 
I may after this perhaps be allowed to be a little sceptical as to Dr. 
Giinther's identification ofP.focUens and P. phwialis of Dr. Jerdon. 
The Museum collection, unfortunately, is of little use. There is no 
specimen of P. fodiens, Jerdon, which agrees as far as can be judged 
with that gentleman's descriptions, " greenish marked with brown," 
but it no mure resembles Dr. Giinther's figure floe. cit.J of Sphcerotl 
etrigata, than it resembles any other figure in the book. I have, how- 
ever, from Pegu, specimens closely resembling the figure, aud I doubt 
not the true P. plwviaMs of Dr. Jerdon. P. fodiens occurs too, I think, 
oi Pegu, but never associated with the other, and much more rarely. 
It is, I believe with Dr. Jerdon, a totally distinct species, having a 
merely generic resemblance to the other, and both species I have 
procured alive. 

a. adult (bad state). Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

P. fodiens, Jerdon. 

Above mottled brown, with a pale median stripe from occiput to 
» ent. Below white. 

P. rufescens, Jerdon. Malabar Coast. 

P. Frithi, Theobald. 

«• adult. Jessore. — Frith, Esq. 

Form much as in P. fodiens, tumid ; skin quite smooth. Metatarsal 
spur distinct. Uniform vinous, red and brown above ; white beneath. 
This specimen has been long preserved in spirit, but seems an unde- 
scribed species. 

g2 Catalogue of Reptiles. 


P. lividus, Blyth. 

a. no record. Old collection. 



M. Montana, Kuhl. Ceylon. 

M. gigas, Blyth. Sikim. Captain W. S. Sherwill, J. A. S. 
XXIII. p. 299. 
I cannot find the type of Mr. Blyth's description in the Museum. 
M. guttulata, Blyth. Pegu. Major Berdrnore. J. A. S. XXIV. 
p. 717. 
The type specimens are no longer discoverable in the Museum 
The types of the two Batrachians affined to Megalophrys from Sikim, 
teste Blyth, J. A. S. XXIII. p. 300, are also nndiscoyerable in the 
Museum collections. It is tolerably clear that none of them belong to 
the genus, but what they are cannot now be ascertained. 

XENOPHBYS, Gunther. 

X. monticola, Gunth* Sikim. 

Khasi Hills. 


C. systoma, Schneid. Carnatic. 

G. globulosus, Giinth. Russelconda. 




D. ornatum, Dum. et Bib. 

a. four specimens Goalpara. Dr. Thornburn. 

These specimens were labelled Engy stoma Malabaricum, but though 
bleached seem to agree with Giinther's description of D. ornatum. 

h, five adult Engystoma rubrum. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 83 

D. pulciirum, Giinth. 
Engy stoma. 

a. four bleached specimens. Arakan. Col. Phayre. 
Engy stoma. 

a. six specimens. Beerbhoom. W. Theobald 

Engy stoma Berdmorei, Blyth. 
The type specimens are no longer in the Museum. 

a ' atlult - Pegu. W. Theobald, 

[Junior, Esq. 

[Junior, Esq. 


BUFO, Auctorum. 
B. melanostictus, Schneid. 

a. adult stuffed. 

b. ditto in spirit. 

c ' ditt0 - Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

d. two adults and three young. Mergui. Major Berdmoie. 

B. Kelaarti, Giinth. Ceylon. 

B. asper, Schl. Mergui. 

SCUTIGER, Theobald. 

Aspect of Bufo. Maxillary and palatine teeth none; tympanum hid- 
den ; parotoids prominent. Fingers and toes free. In the male four 
iW^fi P S acr ^ oss , the sternum, and callous upper surfaces to the two 
E fF fi ^^andatmceofthesame on the inner front edge of the 
third, longue parted behind, Eustachian tubes obsolete. 

S. Sikkimmensis, Blyth. 

Bomlinator Sikkimmensis, Blyth, J. A. S. XXIII. 300. 

Wn?^ni ma l e Warty ' T th r -°V ° f lar S e g lan dular tubercles with an 
apical pore interspersed. Limbs above covered with smaller glandular 
tubercles ; parotoids ridge-like, running from the upper mar^hi of 
orbit and shelving down a little; snouUnunt. Nostril lateral ^below 
LtdrU . 1S i mCt ^ th ^V°l traliS - Skin beneath smooth with W 
p^hl^ ? 8 P t6S ^^f^tes of Emyda when dried. Plates 
pp2?w ?• J n T er ° US dark blwn miliai T tubercles with a per- 
ceptible linear and anastomising arrangement. P 

so T ^JZtlLT,t Gr}lGSS Warty ' -^ants the sternal callosities 
a. male and female. Sikkim. Capt. Sherwill, 

g 4 Catalogue of Beptiles. 



HYLOEANA, Tschudi. 


a. two specimens, 


Limnodytes nigrovittatus, Blyth. 
Limnodytes macularius, Blyth. 

a large female. Mergui. Major Berdmore. 

J thiee specimens. Mergui. W. Theobald, Esq., Jnr. 

bo"b tbelize and colour of this species 1S very variable. 
H. Tytleri, Theobald. 

Knuire. na Ba°cIr a edmrbi.own. No pale lateral stripes. 
«, type. Dacca. Lt.-Col. Jytle, 

• Mp fW « mav be a laro-e adult H. macrodactyla, but the head 
^"^^SS* across the occiput. More specimens 
are required to decide the point. 

H. malabarica, Dum. et Bib. Malabar. 

H. temporalis, Giinth. Ceylon. 

POLYPEDATES, Dumeril et Bibron. 

p. leucomystax, Gravenh. 
p. quadrilineatus, Wiegm. 

a many specimens. Calcutta. 

I. adult. Jessore. - Frith, Esq. 

c three adults. Silhet. Skipwith, Esq. 

Catalogue of Reptiles. 85 

d. two ditto. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

e. many specimens. Mergui. Captain Berdmore and 

W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 

/• adult. Chaibassa. Captain Haughton. 

P. cruciger, Blyth. 
P. leucorrvystax, Gravenh. in part apud Giinther . 

a. four adults. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

This is I think a very distinct species from the last, which also ac- 
companies it in Ceylon, though Gunther unites them. Putting aside 
the peculiar pattern of the back, the head is conspicuously broader and 
blunter in this species thau in P. lewcorwystax. 

P. lividus, Blyth. 

a. many specimens. Tenasserim. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 


a. adults young and 

tadpoles. Pegu. Major Berdmore. 

A well marked species with completely webbed toes; very rugous 
pustular back; sternum smooth, belly pustular— Disks large. 

P. MICROTYMPANUM, Giinth. Ceylon. 

P. pleurostictus, Gunth. Madras Presidency. 

P. variabilis, Jerdon. Nilgherries. 

The two arc probably the same species. 

P. reticulatus, Gunth. Ceylon. 

P. eques, Griinth. Ceylon. 

P. afgiiana, Gunth. Afghanistan. 

The habitat is remarkably doubtful. 

P. smaragdinus, Kelaart. Ceylon. 

" Eye bones armed with spines. Limbs studded with tubercular 
sharp pointed spines." 
A very peculiar species and probably a distinct generic form. 


I. variabilis, Gunth. Ceylon. 
I. temporalis, Giinth. Ceylon. 
I. femoralis, Giinth. Ceylon. 
I. leucorhinus, Martens. Ceylon. 
I. glandulosa, Jerdon. South India. 
No specimens of this Indian genus are in the museum. 

86 Catalogue of Reptiles. 


R. maximus, Giinth. 

R. Reimvardtii, Dum. et Bib. 

a. adult and young. Naga hills. — Owen, Esq. 

The locality " Afghanistan" recorded by Giinther is very doubtful. The 
young differs much from the adult. In spirit the adult is grey, the 
young deep blue, and the arms and sides of hind limbs are fringed with 
a fold of skin which disappears in the adult. In the young too the 
tympanum is very indistinct. 



H. carolinensis, Penn. 

a. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 

H. ? North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 



H. BiviTTATUs, Cantor, J. A. S. XYI. 1064. 
Callula pulchra, Gray (sp.) 

a. adult. Pegu. W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. 



SALAMANDRA, Laurenti. 

S. maculosa, Laur. 

a. adult. France. — Malherbe, Esq. 

TRITON, Tsohudi. 

T. VERRUCOSUS, (!) sic. 

a, many specimens. England. H. Strickland, Esq. 


N. viridescens, Baird. 

Triton millepunctata, Dekay. 
a. North Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald, 

Catalogue of Reptiles. §7 

LOPHINUS, Rafinesque. 
L. punctatus, Merr. 

Lissotriton, Bell, (sp.) 

a. many specimens. England. A. Hancock, Esq 

b. two ditto. Europe. Hungarian Museum. 


D. nigeh, Green. 

G ' Nortl1 Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 

SPELERPES, Rafinesque. 
S. salmonea, Storer (?) 

a ' Nortl i Carolina. Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 


PROTEUS, Sciireiber. 
P. anguinus, Laur. 

a ' adult * Carniola. Sir Humphry Davy. 

Be^gT^ thr ° Ugh Sir Edward R ? an ' Resident, Asiatic Society of 


CCECILIA, Wagler. 
C oxyura, Dum. et Bib. Malabar. 

EPICRIUM, Wagler. 


a. two adults. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaavt. 

Fine specimens with the pale lateral band well marked 
Tery^rce? 46 " ^ ^^ to the M S h ™ "* S%. bnt it is 
E. monochroum, Bleeker. 

. °" Pe S u - Major Berdmore. 

A rare species without the lateral stripe. 

gg Catalogue of Reptiles, 

Catalogue of mounted skeleton of Reptiles in Hie Asiatic Society's 



Testudo. Two skeletons, in poor state, probably T. radiata. 

Matjsuria, Emys. 

The debris of the specimen formerly exhibited as a stuffed animal 
but now only in fragments. Head, legs, &c. &c. missing. 
Batagur Thurgi, 24 inches. 
Pangohura tectura, adult and young. 


Crana, chelonia, caretta. Many heads imperfect. 
Many heads of Crana and Chelonia. 


Crocodilus palustris. Fine skeleton of catalogue (ante). 
Youno-8.60x20.90, 28.20=5770 Dr. Pearson (?) 
C. poroses, Skeleton of young, from Barrackpore. 
7.10 15.60 26.50=49.20. Presented by T. H. Pntchard, Esq. 
SQUAMATA (Sauria). 

Hydrosaurus salvator 54.5 inches 86 candal vertebra. 
Do. do. 39.5 do. 86 do. 

Lyriocephalus SCUTATUS. 
Secolopis Reevesi. 

Uromastix Hardwickii. 
Chamohleo vulgaris. 


Naja, head and neck. 


Rana tigrina. 
bufo melanostictus. 




^ A few words will not here be out of place on the important ques- 
tion of collecting and preserving Reptiles. Two things should be 
borne in mind. Firstly, to collect every species procurable in the 
neighbourhood, how common soever some may seem ; and, secondly 
to collect systematically and not in a desultory fashion as is too fre- 
quently the case. 

Many persons may think that common species are of little value, 
but this is a great mistake, as well preserved specimens of our com- 
monest reptiles would be acceptable even in our Calcutta Museum 
and equally so in the numerous Museums in Europe and America' 
whose name is legion. It is hardly possible, therefore, to collect too 
many specimens of anything, if only they are well preserved. In- 
attention to a few points, I shall now advert to, is the cause of so 
many of our Museum specimens, being in poor condition, dissolved, 
pulpy, value-less, and a fault of an opposite character is observable in 
others, which are shrunken and look much like dried sprats. This arises 
from the specimens having been dried from the evaporation of the 
spirits, owing to faulty stoppers. 

Not 10 per cent, of the bottles in the Museum are air-tight, and 
a constant evaporation of spirit consequently goes on. The spirits 
are replenished from time to time to the great injury of the speci- 
men. If this process of refilling is delayed, and the specimen dries 
completely and enters into the dried-sprat phase of its existence, no 
subsequent cunning will avail to restore the shrunken outlines, and 
the specimen is permanently spoiled. The simple expedient of ceiling 
the stoppers with wax never seems to have suggested itself to 
the minds of either Council, Curators, or Taxidermists, hence all this 
ruin ; hence these tears. 

Any one commencing to collect systematically should provide 
himself with a number of glass or stone-ware bottles of two 
sizes. The large size should be of not less than four inches in 
diameter; currant bottles, for instance, well stoppered. In such 
jars snakes up to five feet in length may be stowed. Larger snakes, 
young crocodiles, turtles, &c, may be accommodated in large stone 
jars, specially provided for them. The second size bottles may be 
about the size of common lozenge bottles, but the great thing is 
always to proportion the bottle to the specimen and vice versa. Some 
persons seem to think that the specimens are never to come out again. 

Another thing to bear in mind is, that when once the muscles are set, 
no re-arrangement of the coil is possible. The specimen must be ar- 

ii Appendix. 

ranged in a bottle such as it is destined permanently to occupy, and 
with some attention to its comfort as it were, or, as Isaac Walton 
expresses it of the worm, " as though you loved it.' 1 The spirits 
used should be from 20 to 40 over proof (weaker spirits are not to be 
depended on in this climate,) and for scientific purposes, such 
spirits can always be procured from the distiller free of duty (say 
about Us. 2-4 a gallon). m 

First catch your snake. This is easily done by pinning him down 
with a walking stick, and then seizing the nape of the neck. The 
snake being then secured, either divide the vertebra <rf the neck with 
a pair of nail scissors, or make a slit in the cardiac region, and pluck 
out the heart with the finger and thumb. I prefer the latter plan. 
In about 20 minutes the snake will be nearly or quite dead, and 
should then be slit up, and the viscera extracted. If all muscular 
contractility has subsided, coil it, head down and belly up, in a proper 
bottle, and fill up with spirits, hoisting the bottle, so as to eliminate 
all air bubbles. If the stimulus of the spirits causes the snake to coil 
irregularly, take it out again and recoil it, as it is of importance that 
it should set in a proper shape. After 24 hours either pour 
off the spirits and add fresh, or else transfer to a fresh bottle. 
It is imperative with large or moderate specimens, if they are to keep 
well, that both the abdomen be opened and the spirits changed once. 
The first used spirits will do several times, as they merely seem to 
absorb and remove the aqueous and other impurities of the freshly 
killed specimen. Small snakes, frogs, and lizards may be simply 
opened without removing the viscera. The bottles should be packed 
in a box with compartments filled with paddy husk, and the corks or 
glass stoppers well ceiled down with several coatings of wax 
and oil in the proportion of three to one. 

Before bottling* up, a note should be made of the length, size, 
and coloration of the specimen, with such other detail as the specimen 
may suggest. The viscera should be examined for Entozoa. 

Young turtles should be preserved in spirit, previously making a 
slit in front and behind to ensure the free penetration of the spirits. 
As a matter of humanity, they should be killed before placing m 
spirits by dividing the nape with nail scissors. They will, of 
course, retract their heads at the sight of the scissors ; but if the 
scissors partly open are firmly forced down along the top of the head, 
they will enclose the neck near its junction with the upper 
shell, and severance is then easily effected. Large turtle may be 
treated in the same manner, only the strongest tin plate cutters are 
requisite. It requires care too, approaching in front a large Trionijx 
as it has a most powerful and remorseless bite. The plan that I 
adopted with a large Trionyx which I once got at Bhagulpoor, was to 
make a slit behind the thigh and, thrusting in one arm, seize and tear 
out the heart. It is a ticklish job, however, to hold the animal securely, 
as he evinces great displeasure and wrath at having his privacy thus 
trespassed on ! Anything, however, is better than the plan which I 
once heard of being resorted to, of boiling the animals alive. The best 

Appendix, iii 

plan, however, is patiently to watch with a noose and catch the 
animal's head when protruded. If cleverly done, the head can be now 
pulled out, and the creature decapitated with a chopper. 

The shell should be well cleaned of flesh, anointed with arsenical 
soap and dried in a shady place. The head, feet, and viscera of a 
fair specimen should be preserved in spirit. The coloration should be 
noted during life, and an endeavour made to ascertain the limits of 
growth to which each species attains. 

Young crocodiles should be preserved in spirit after opening the ab- 
domen. The heads of larger ones may be simply dried, and the skeletons 
of large ones also. All that is requisite is to roughly clean the larger 
bonesof flesh, and then hang them up in the sun to dry, first of all 
brushing them over with arsenical soap, to preserve the ligamental 
attachments. The head and legs may be separated, and the spinal 
column divided in several places for convenience of packing. Note 
the dimension and sex of specimen, and also the arrangement of the 
scutes on the neck, which is a specific character. The skin may easily 
be preserved flat, if brushed over with arsenical soap inside. For 
stuffing, specimens 8 or 10 feet in length will be found most convenient. 
Search the viscera for Entozoa. If, as is often the case, these parasites 
are attached, they should not be pulled off, but the piece of skin cut 
out, to which the animal is affixed. 

The best work for the student is unquestionally Gunther's Catalogue 
of the Keptiles of British India,— after this, the British Museum 
Catalogues— especially that of " Lizards" and Gunther's " Colubrine 
Snakes." The Journal of the Asiatic Society may be ransacked 
with advantage, and much interesting information gained from the 
papers of Cantor, Blyth, and Jerdon. Enough has, I trust, now been 
said to induce some naturalists to enter the tempting field of Herpe- 
tology, and to convince the most sceptical or listless of the great aid 
to science that almost any one in this country might afford, by a little 
well directed energy, perseverance and zeal. 





* 1 

7 ' 


? 1 





\ Ss .3 

I ^ 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Remits of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1868. 

Latitude 22° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88°' 20' 31" East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea, level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 


e+ - 1 . 

— ^ ^ 

Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 

Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 

G „ CO 





3 rax. 



^ * 




































.0 is 















































































17 8 












































































































































































The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Ihermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made during 


Meteorological Olservations. 

Abstract of Hie Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1868. 

Baily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



-1-3 *H 

a> a> 













.. o 






> o 

u2 rt 

dditional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 

[ean degree of Humi- 
dity, complete satu-^ 
ration being unity. 







^■ 9 






T. gr. 

T. gr. 
































































































































































































































2.83 ' 
























































All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of (he llesulls of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1868. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygromefcrical elements 
dependent thereon. 

O «3 

-Range of the Barometer 


Eange of the Tempera- 

for each hour during 

'9 fc 

ture for each hour 


O H r rt 

' 2 *° 

tne month. 


£ ° 

during the month. 


cz fM CO 




OB — ' 





£ H 

































































































































































































































Twt M T ?f gM ° f th / ? aromet er, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1868. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 






ght of 
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bJDd P 


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5.05 . 

2.14 . 






























































.88 . 


































































All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Meteorological Obse nations. 


of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 1868. 
Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 

i-H <D 

■3 § 


3 (8 P 



direction of the 





























N. N. W. & N. 


N. & N. N. W. 

K. W. 

N. W. & S W. 

w. & s. w. 

K N. W. 

N. N. E. & N. 


N. K W. & JN". 








N. & N. E. 




M O 

General aspect of the Sky. 


Clear. Slightly foggy at mid- 

Clear to 7 a. m., Vi to 3 p. m., 
clear afterwards. 

Chiefly clear. Foggy from 2 
to 9 a. m. 

Stratoni to 7 a. m., clear af- 
terwards. Foggy at midnight & 
from 7 to 10 p. m. 

Vi to 8 a. m., clear to 2 p. m., 
\i to 5 p. m., v_i afterwards. 
Foggy at 1 a. m., & from 9 to 11 
p. M. 

Chiefly clear. Slightly foggy 
at midnight. 

Clear to 11 a. m., \i to 4 p.m., 
clear afterwards. Foggy from 7 
to 10 p. m. 

Clear to 6 a. m., Vi to 6 p. m., 
clear afterwards. Slightly foggy 
at 8 & 9 p. m. 

Clear to 5 a. m., Vi & M to 10 
a. m., \i & ^.i to 5 p. m., clear 

Vi to 4 a. M.,\i to 10 a. m., 
stratoni afterwards. 

i & Vi to 7 a. m., clear af- 
Clear. Slightly foggy at 2 & 

3 A. M. 

Chiefly clear. 

Clear to 11 a. m., Vi to 6 p. 
M., clear afterwards. 

Clear to 5 a. m., Vi to 9 a.m., 
clear afterwards. 



Clear to 3 p. m., Vi to 6 p.m., 
stratoni afterwards. 

W to 5 p. m., clear after- 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1868. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 






** . 

o o 

GO '-£ 

r* 53 d 





direction of the 


oo a 

Oj jr-i 

£ ° 

TO flj 









IS". & N. E. 





General aspect of the Sky. 

Clear to noon, scatd. 
p. m., clear afterwards. 


Clear to 3 a. m., W to 7 p. m., 
stratoni afterwards. 

Stratoni to 6 a. m., scatd. *i 
to 5 p. m., clear afterwards. 

Clouds of different kinds to 5 
p. m., clear afterwards. 

Clear to 5 a. m., scatd. \i & 

Vi to 9 a. m. 

to 5 



Strong wind at 6| p. m. 

Stratoni to 10 A. M., overcast 
to 5 p. m., clear afterwards. 
Slightly foggy at 8 & 9 p. m. 
Drizzled at tf£ & 11 a. m. & at 

p. M. 

/ i Cirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli,' 
^i Cirro cumuli. 

-i Cirro-strati, «^-i Cumulo strati, ^^i Nimbi 

Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 1868. 
Monthly Results. 


Mean height of the Barometer for the month... „. 30 038- 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. m. on the 15th .. 30 207 

Mm. height of the Barometer occurred at 5 p. m. on the 23rd. \„ 29 877 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month ... 330* 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... 30 120 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ',','. " # "' 29 978- 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month ... ,. 142 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month ... 68 3 

Max Temperature occurred at 2 & 3 p. m. on the 28th, 29tli,"& 30th 80 

Min. lemperature occurred at 7 a. m. on the 3rd. ... 55 4 

Extreme range of the Temperature during the month '" 24 6 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature... ... >jqq 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... .'.'.' "' 61 ' 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month... " ,,. 156 

Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 6 1 q 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 6 7 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... 56 V 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 12.1 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ... ,., 0.461 

Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month . 5 qs 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation !" 2.52 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation beino- unity 67 

Rained 1 day,— Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 05 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ." 05 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... 02 

Prevailing direction of the Wind... ... "' j^ 


Meteorological Observations. 









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Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of February 1868. 

Latitude 22° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34." East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 

o *- 

Range of the Barometer 

3 *"* 

Range of the Tempera- 

be 2 -5 


during the day. 

ture during the day. 






9 s 




M ^ «S 














































































































































































































































































The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made during 
the day. 

Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1868. 

Daily Means, &c. of tlie Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 












o .U 

P-( ci 

> o 
° 2 

Weiglit of 
squired for 

e of Humi- 
plete satu- 
ng unity. 


p . 

0) © 

3 o 





Dry Bulb a 

Mean Elasti 

in a Cubic 

Vapour n 

Mean degrc 
dity, com 
ration bei 



T. gr. 

T. gr. 



























































































































































































' 8.4 






































































All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Mefeorologica I Olservations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Olservations 

taken at (he Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 186S. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 

O e3 

JRange of the Barometer 
for each hour during 

Eange of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 


Z £ 3 

tlie month. 

A B 

during the month. 




S § 

































































































































































































































The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 

hours during the month. 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1868. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Obseryations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 








K- O 

ght of 
ed for 








o o 

b£) O 

2 &<* 

a o 

£ a 






© rl 




























































































































































































































All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants 

Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta t 
in the month of February 1868. 
Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 






-3 % 














& a o 



JS". N. W. 

N. N. E. 

1ST. E. 

N. and variable. 

N. & .N N. W. 


IN". E. & N. 
N. E. & N. 

N. W. & S. W. 


s. w. 


N. N. W. & N. 
W. & N. W. 
N. W. & W. 





General aspect of the Sky. 

Chiefly clear. Foggy from 8 
to 11 p. m. 

Chiefly clear. 

Overcast to noon, r\_i to 5 p. 
m., <m afterwards. Light rain 
at 7 & 8 a. m., & at noon. 

W to 10 a. m., ~i to 5 p. m., 
clear afterwards. Light rain at 

3 A. M. 

Clear. Foggy from 8 to 11 p.m. 

Clear. Foggy at midnight & 

a. m., & from 8 to 11 p. m. 

Clear to 10 a. m., W to 3 p. 
m., clear to 7 p. m., scatd. clouds 
afterwards. Slightly foggy from 
midnight to 5 a. m., at 7 & 8 a. 
m., & from 7 to 10 p. m. 

Chiefly scatd. W 

Nni to 8 a. m., clear to 11 a. 
m., ^i to 5 p. m., clear after- 

Clear to 3 a. m., scatd. \i to 
7 p. m., clear afterwards. 

Clear to 9 a. m., scatd. ^i to 

4 p.m., clear afterwards. Slight- 
ly foggy at 8 a. m. 

Clear to 4 a. m., overcast to 
10 a. m., scatd. ^i to 6 p. m., 
clear afterwards. Foggy from 3 
to 6 a. m., & at 8 p. m. 

Clear to 2 a. m., scatd. ^i to 

5 p. m., clear afterwards. 
Scatd. W & stratoni to 10 

A. m., ^i to 6 p. m., clear after- 
wards. Slightly foggy at 8 P.M. 

Chiefly clear. 



Chiefly clear. Slightly foggy 
at 8 a. m. 

Clear to 4 a.m., stratoni to 10 
a. m., overcast to 1 p. m., scatd. 
W to 8 p. m., clear afterwards. 

Clear to 2 a. m., stratoni to 6 

m., W to 11 a. m., ^i to 6 p. 
m., clear afterwards. Lightning 
at 7, 10 & 11 p. m. 


Meteorological Observa tions. 

Abstract of the Remits of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
the month of February 1868. 


Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 

™ 2 
o o 










General aspect of the Sky. 







25 121.6 

26 H7.0 

27 118.5 

28 121.8 

S. & W. 



0.18 Variable. 



N. & N. W. 

JN\ W. &W. 






Chiefly clear. 

Clonds of different kinds to 
7 a. m., clear to 11 A.M.,\i to 6 

m., clear afterwards. 

Stratoni to 8 a. m., scatd. 
clouds to 4 p. m., overcast with 
Thunder and Lightning after- 
wards. High wind at 6 p. M. 
Slight rain at 5, 6, 9 & 11 p. m. 

Overcast to "1 a. m., scatd. 
clouds afterwards. Thunder at 
midnight. Lightning to E. flain 
with hail at 1 a. m. 


Chiefly clear. 




Cirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli, 1 ^- i Cirro-strati, «^-i Cumulo strati, w-i Ni